Effect of planting Date, Seed Rate and Location on the ‎Incidence of Luteoviruses Affecting Chickpea under Natural ‎Infection in Syria

Nader Assad*(1) Safaa Kumari(2) Amin Haj-Kassem(3) Salah Al-Chaabi(4) and Attia Arab(4)

(1). AlGhab Research Center, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.

(2). Torbol Station, International Center for Agriculture Research in Dry Area (ICARDA), Albekaa, Lebanon.

(3). Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Aleppo University, Aleppo, Syria.

(4). General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Damascuse, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Nader Assad. E-Mail: asaad_nader@yahoo.com).

Received: 21/03/2020                               Accepted: 12/05/2020


Field experiments were carried out during 2017/2018 cropping season to study the effect of three planting dates (5 December, 25 December and 15 January) and five seed rates (80, 100, 120, 140 and 160 kg/ha) in two different sites/locations (Al Ghab Research Center and Jeb Ramleh Research Station/ Syria) on the chickpea infection with luteoviruses (aphid-born persistently transmitted viruses), which causing yellowing and stunting symptoms under natural infections. Tissue blot-immunoassay (TBIA) results showed that luteoviruses (family Luteoviridae) were the main causal of stunting and yellowing symptoms on randomly selected chickpea plants. High level of significant differences (P < 0.001) were recorded within the two experimental sites/locations. The early sowing date (5 December) reduced the percence of virus incidence by 75 and 85%, and grain yield were increased by 3.5 and 30.9% compared to other sowing dates (25 December and 15 January, respectively). Also, incidence of luteoviruses was reduced by 41% and remarkable enhancement of grain yield up to 28% was recorded on the second sowing date (25 December) compared to 3rd planting date (15 January). Disease incidence differed significantly (P< 0.001) at all levels of seeding rates, and it decreased gradually (2.7> 1.9> 1.5> 0.97> 0.63 %) in contrary to increased seeding rates (80< 100< 120< 140< 160 kg/ha, respectively). In addition, significant interactions were recorded between planting date and seed rate treatments, whereas the best treatment which was recorded when planting at the rates of 100 and 120 kg/h in early date (5 September), and the highest grain yield were 2,495 and 2,487 kg/ha, respectively, with low luteovirus incidence (0.5 and 0.45%, respectively). On the other hand, increasing of seed rates up to 140 and160 kg/ha played a positive role by decreasing the rate of virus infections by 64.3 and 76.7%, respectively, and enhancing the grain yield up to 25.7 and 30%, respectively when planting date was late on (15th January), to the contrary of early planting date where high seed rates resulted into negative effects on the grain yield. The highest parameters (except the disease severity levels) were significantly recorded (P<0.001) in Al Ghab Research Center in comparison to that of Jeb Ramleh Research Station with rates of 12, 40 and 39.5% for grain yield, infected plants per plot and disease incidence %, respectively; and in general, the performance of parameters were somehow similar in both locations with some differences.  

Keywords: TBIA, chickpea, seed rate, planting dates, Syria, Luteoviruses.

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A New Record of Parasitoid Trechnites flavipes (Mercet) ‎‎(Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) on the Pauropsylla buxtoni ‎‎(Laing, 1924) that Infests Cultivated Fig in Syria

Mahran Zeity(1)*and Majeda Mofleh(2)

(1). Agriculture Research Center in Lattakia, General Commission for Scientific and Agricultural Research, (GCSAR), Damasucus, Syria.

(2). (GCSAR), Damasucus, Syria.

(* Corresponding author: Dr.  Mahran Zeity. E-Mail: mzma2009@gmail.com).

Received: 17/03/2020                               Accepted: 10/04/2020


The study was conducted to identify the parasitoid of the fig gall psyllid, Pauropsylla buxtoni, which was collected from Damascus, Syria during 2019. The parasitoid of the psyllid was collected from the infested leaves in plastic boxes with moistened cotton and was kept at a laboratory condition for the emergence of the adult parasitoid. The parasitoid was identified as Trechnites flavipes (Mercet), which was recently reported in Palestine during 2018.This study provided a new collection data about two psyllid species that infests the cultivated fig in Syria, namely, fig gall psyllid, Pauropsylla buxtoni and the free living fig psyllid, Homotoma ficus.

Key words: Syria, Parasitoid, Cultivated fig, Homotoma ficus, Bio-control.

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Spot Diseases Survey on Barley in North Eastern of Syria and Evaluation the Response of Some Varieties Against Spot Blotch

Alan Remo*(1)

(1). Al Qamishly Research Center, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research GCSAR, Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Alan Remo. E-Mail: alanremo123@hotmail.com).

Received: 16/10/2018                                Accepted: 24/02/2019


Barley is an important crop in Syria, many fungal pathogens caused barley foliage diseases. So this study aimed to survey the main diseases in the region, identify the most frequent pathogenic fungi, and evaluate reaction of some released varieties of barley against Helminthosporium sativum at two stages, the first was at both tilling and extension, while the second was at the extension stage only, therefore, barley fields in the North Eastern Syria were  surveyed during the two growing seasons 2013 and 2014. The results showed spread some barley diseases such as Helminthosporium sativum, Alternaria alternate and Rhynchosporium secalis, in the region, and the most frequent pathogen was Helminthosporium sativum. Arabi Aswad variety was the most susceptible variety to H. sativum, while Furat 2, Furat 3 and “Furat 6” were the most resistant/tolerance at tiller stage, and Furat 7 was the most susceptible, while, Furat 2 and Furat 6 were the most resistant/tolerances cultivars in the extension stage.

Keywords: Syria, Barley, Leaf necrosis, Helminthosporium sativum.

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Evaluation The suitability of Trees Species to be grown in Streets. Case of Study: Al-Gomhouria Street in Latakia City, Syria

Bilall Alsayed*(1) and Osama Radwan(1)

(1). Department of Forestry and Ecology, Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University, Latakia, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Eng. Bilal Alsayed. E-Mail: belal_as11@hotmail.com).

Received: 27/04/2018                                Accepted: 03/10/2018


Street trees are an integral part of the street infrastructure, so choosing the right type plays a big role in determining the aesthetic and environmental value of any street. From an aesthetic perspective, street trees are important in increasing the beauty of the city and providing visual aids from an environmental perspective, street trees play an important role in reducing the effects of urbanization and population growth on the environment. The research dealt with the analysis of tree rows and studied the diversity of trees and determined their idealism in Al-Gomhouria Street in Latakia City. Results of this paper revealed prominent breaks in the arboreal rows, and that these rows contained five botanic species (Washingtonia filifera H., Melia azedarach L., Olea europaea L., Ligustrum ovalifolium and Ficusnitida L.) and the results showed that the ratios of many taxonomic units were not ideal, and it was noticed the irregular distribution of individuals between the types found in the street, which caused distortion of the beauty of the street and underestimated the importance of vegetation cover in the street. Findings showed a decrease in the value of the idealism of the four tree species where (Ligustrum ovalifolium) attained of 6.64/10 and (Olea europaea L.) 6.76/10 and (Washingtonia filifera H.) 7.13/10 and (Ficusnitida L.) 7.15/10, while the degree of (Melia azedarach L.) attained a better degree 7.72/10.

Key words: Street trees, Idealism degree, Latakia, Syria.

Full Paper in Arabic: PDF

Controlling the Population of Tetranychus urticae Koch on Tomato under the Greenhouse Conditions Using some Chemical and Biological Treatments

Ibrahem Azez Sakr(1) Majeda Mhamed Mofleh(2) and Randa Ahmed Suliman*(1)

(1). Department of Plant protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University, Lattakia, Syria.

(2). General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Rsearch GCSAR, Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Randa Ahmed Suliman. E-Mail: randasuliman65@gmail.com).

Received: 05/09/2019                                Accepted: 27/10/2019


Research was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of integration between using the pesticides Acetamiprid, Abamectin and Pyridaben and the aqueous extracts of both   Melia azedarach L. and Sytrax officinalis L. then releasing the predator Stethorus glivifrons Mulsant with to manage the population of Tetranychus urticae Koch on Tomato Lycoersicon esculantmin at the greenhouse in 2018. The Experiment was conducted using the complete randomized block design, where the results of the research showed that the extracts of both M. azedarach L. and S.officinalis L. had efficacy recorded 62.29 and 50.93 % respectively in the first week. The efficacy decreased in the first and the second week after releasing the predator, then it raised again in the third and the fourth weeks to record 62.54, 54.72 % for each of them. Thus, it could be stated that the extracts efficacy coincided with the release of the predator S. glivifrons. A decrease in the influence of the specialized insecticide Acetamiprid was recorded, while it reached its top after the release of the predator in the fourth week 33.77 % due to the negative influence of the pesticide on the predator and the population was incapable to be adequate to control the harmful population of T. Urticae. The specialized acaricide Pyridaben was superior and recorded an efficacy exceeded 84% in the first week  before the application  and decreased in the first, the second and  the third weeks after the release of the predator without a significant difference between them, then increased in the fourth week after the releasing where it reached 73.72 % with a significant difference in all the times of the readings. Mortality percentage when acaricide Abamectin was used, recorded 61.14 % after 24 hours of the treatment, then highly increased to 70.72 % in the first week after the release of the predator. The efficacy decreased in the first and the second weeks after the release which recorded 70.72 and 65.21 % respectively with a significant difference between them. Then it increased again in the third and the fourth weeks after the release to reach 79.62 and 80.70% without significant differences between them. Thus, the predator was capable to re-raise the mortality percentage after falling in the first and the second weeks after the release to get it back to where it was when the predator efficacy reached the highest influence in the first week.

Key words: Plant extracts, Chemical pesticides, Tetranychus urticae, Stethorus glivifrons, Lycoersicon esculantmin, Syria.

Full Paper in Arabic: PDF

Evaluation the Efficiency of the Predator Serangium parcesetosum Sicard (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in Controlling Bemisia tabaci Genn. (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) on Cucumber and Tomato Plants

Rafik Abboud*(1) Majedah Mofleh(2) and Ahmad Mohammad(3)

(1). Latakia Agriculture Research Center, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research GCSAR, Damascus, Syria.

(2). Plant Protection Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University, Latakia, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Rafik Abboud. E-Mail: abboud.rafeek@hotmail.com).

Received: 17/07/2019                                Accepted: 08/12/2019


The study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the predator Serangium parcesetosum Sicard (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in controlling Bemisia tabaci Genn. on tomato and cucumber plants in cages. The experiment included four treatments and 12 replications. The first and third treatments were conducted on cucumber plants and second and fourth treatments were experienced on tomato plants. Adults of B. tabaci were introduced in cages on plants that have six true leaves. Two weeks later, adults of S. parcesetosum were introduced in the first and second treatments at a rate of two adult predators/plant. The release was done three times at weekly intervals. The third and fourth treatments remained predator-free. Leaves were examined weekly, the population of immature stages were recorded (eggs, L1, L2, L3, L4\ 1 cm2 leaf) which were taken randomly from the top, middle and bottom of the plants. The predator was not recorded on tomato. The number of whitefly stages increased in treated cages until the sixth week, and then began to decrease from about 20 eggs and 39 nymphs/1 cm2 of leaf surface to 11 eggs and 3 nymphs after ten weeks. Population density of the whitefly in the control increased to 219 eggs and 145 nymphs/1 cm2 of leaf surface during the same period. Mortality rates of old nymphs were 93.3 and 4.1% after nine weeks for the predator treatment and control, respectively. Results indicated that, S. parcesetosum could be recommended for the control of B. tabaci on cucumber in protected cultivation in Syria.

Keywords: Biological control, Bemisia tabaci, Cucumber, Tomato, Protected cultivation, Syria.

Full Paper in Arabic: PDF

Characterization of Growth Curve for Local Cattle Groups at Al-Yadoda Station, South of Syria

Osama Alsheblak*(1) and Khaled Alnajjar(2)

(1). Animal Wealth Administration, General Commission for Scientific Agrcultural Research GCSAR, Damascus, Syria.

(2). ACSAD, Damascus, Syira.

(*Corresponding author: Eng. Osama Alsheblak. E-Mail: o.alsheblak@gmail.com).

Received: 03/09/2018                                Accepted: 15/10/2018


This study was carried out at AL-Yadoda Research Station, Daraa Research Center, GCSAR, to analyze weight data of local cattle (Akshi, Shami and Golani). 101 heads of calves were weighted in several ages (birth, one and half month, three months, six months, twelve months and eighteen months) during the period from 2009 to 2011. The general liner model (GLM) was used to characterize the growth curve using growth function and to study non-genetic effects on growth traits. The analysis of variance was used to study the effect of gender, birth year, breed and interaction between gender and breed on growth traits, and Duncan test was used to compare means. Results showed that the real weight of local cow sets, from birth, 1.5-month, 3-months, 6-months,12-months and 18-months were (23.0±0.46), (40.25±0.51), (64.26±1.03), (110.8±2.24), (216.43±3.91), (277.82±1.97) kg, respectively, while expected means weight according to growth function were (23.48±0.38), (39.25±0.53), (65.69±0.74), (110.07±1.09), (184.66±1.76), (310.17±3.24) kg, respectively. Growth function constants a, b were analyzed and the estimates of growth function a, b were (14.07) kg, (0.56) kg, respectively and the value of coefficient fitting model was R2=0.98. This study proved that function is fitting to growth curve of local cattle sets in southern Syria from birth to 18-months age. Results of variance analyze showed non-significant effect of gender on (a) and (b) coefficients, model fitting to weigh increase (R2), and no-significant differences found between males and females for these coefficients. Results of variance analyze showed non-significant effect of birth year on (a) and (b) coefficients, model fitting to weigh increase (R2), and no-significant differences found between study years for these treats. Results of variance analyze showed a significant effect of breed on (a) and (b) traits, model fitting to weigh was increased (R2), and significant differences found between local cow groups (Akshi, Shami and Golani). This study proved that function was fitting to describe growth curve of local cow groups in south Syria from birth up to 18-months old, although a little number of parameters (a, b) which can be explained biological and this is very important for selection besides to some non-genetic factors effect such as (gender, year birth and breed) on growth traits.

Keyword: Local cattle groups, Growth curve, Breed, Syria.

Full paper in Arabic: PDF

Prevalence of Ticks in Cows and Identification of its Genera and Species in Hama Governorate (Syria)

Abdul Naser Al-Omar*(1) and Morshid Kassouha(2)

(1). Hama Research Center, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GSCAR), Damascus, Syria.

(2). Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Hama University, Hama, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Abdul Naser Al-Omar. E-Mail: abdnaser64@gmail.com).

Received: 10/09/2018                                Accepted: 05/11/2018


This study was carried out on 386 heads of cows in Hama governorate during the period of March 2013 till February 2014. (134) samples of ticks were collected from cows chosen randomly aiming to recognize tick’s infection and determine its genus and species, the effect of season, animal age, breeding system and the places of its localization. The ticks had been determined through morphology specifications using Stereoscope according to dependent standard identification keys. Results showed sufficient difference (p<0.01) in ticks infection rates in cows according to the season of the year, and the rate of prevalence for the whole year was (34.71%), while in summer and spring the rates were (52.94%) and (36.73) respectively, but in autumn and winter the rates were (31.11%) and (16.66%) respectively. Also, it was noticed that there were sufficient differences (p<0.05) in prevalence rates according to animals ages where the highest rate was in the age group less than two years old at a rate of (47.77%), whereas the least rate was in age group more than six years old. Also, it was noticed that there was sufficient difference (p<0.05) in prevalence rate according to breeding system where the rate was higher under semi-intensified breeding system (40.32%) in comparison to intensified breeding system (29.20%). It was also noticed sufficient difference (p<0.01) in prevalence rate according to cow’s genus whereas it was higher in females (79.1%) in comparison to males (20.89%). Result also showed three types of ticks in cows which were: Rhipicephalus Spp. with prevalence rate of (50.74%), Hylomma Spp. with prevalence rate of (44.02%) and Boophilus Spp. with prevalence rate of (5.22%). Six sorts of ticks were determined where it was noticed sufficient difference in its prevalence rate, square chi amounted to 166.985 at a significance level less than (0.01), but the most prevalence specie was Rhipicephalus Turanicus (50.74%) then Anatolicum Excavatum Hyalomma (32.83%) and Hyalomma Impelatum (7.46%) and finally Boophilus Annulatus (5.22%), whereas the prevalence of Hyalomma Marginatum Marginatum and Hyalomma Detritum Detritum was in less rates amounted to (2.23%) and (1.5%) of whole ticks isolations respectively.

Key words: Ticks, Cows, Syria.

Full paper in Arabic: PDF

Analytical Study of the Most Important Factors Affecting Empowerment of Rural Women in Daraa, Syria

Fayez Jadallah Al-Mikdad*(1) Wael Zaki Habeeb(2) and Hani Soleman Al-Hassoun(1)

 (1). Socio Economic Administration, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research GCSAR, Damascus, Syria.

(2). Latakia Agricultural Research Center, GCSAR, Damascus, Syria.

(*Correspoding author: Dr. Fayez Jadallah Al-Mikdad. E-Mail: deepmokdad@yahoo.com).

Received: 20/05/2019                                Accepted: 23/06/2019


Rural women in Syria, especially those working in agriculture, have low level of access to agricultural productive resources, markets, services and finance, despite their significant contribution to agricultural work. This research aimed to identify the patterns of empowerment of rural women in Daraa Governorate in Syria and the most important factors affecting their empowerment. To achieve this objective, the research depended on data from secondary sources as well as primary data collected through a questionnaire designed to serve research objectives. The research was carried out during 2017 in Daraa Governorate (Izra’a and Al Sanamin regions). The results indicated that 76% of rural women were in the low category of the empowerment scale, with 66% of them were having poor decision-making capacity for agricultural work, 76% were having poor ownership of productive resources and 67% were suffering poor access to extension services and low level of ability to join any organization. The results indicated that 16% of the observed women were at the med level of empowerment whereas only 6% of them were at the high level of empowerment. SOWT analysis noted that women had a high level of experience in agricultural work, but were not qualified enough to manage their own enterprise. Moreover, despite considerable government interest to empower rural women, they still have little access to productive inputs.

Keywords: Empowerment, Rural Women, Social Statistics, SWOT Analysis, Daraa, Syria.

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Applying Spectral Wheat Yield Prediction Program in Al-Raqqa Governorate Under Crisis Conditions

Nasser Ibrahem*(1) Hayan Abo-Karam(1) and Ali Ismail(1)

(1). General Organization of Remote Sensing GORS, Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Nasser Ibrahem. E-Mail: nibrahem345@gmail.com).

Received: 12/11/2018                                Accepted: 19/01/2019


This study aims to applying Spectral Wheat Yield Prediction (SWYP) program (designed under Syrian agricultural conditions) on multispectral/multistage images data for estimation the area and production of wheat in Al-Raqqa governorate (as affected zone) during the crisis (2014 season) to determine the damages on the agricultural sector depending on the spatial distribution of severity effects on yield and area of wheat during the crisis in Al-Raqqa governorate. This technique evaluated the cultivated wheat area of /90774 ha/ and yield production of /210060 tons/ in that season. The accuracy of the results was tested according to two methods: the first, using the rainfall-agricultural analysis models at the overall level of the governorate; and the second method depended upon field-specific data, and the accuracy of the two methods reached 95%. Area and yield of wheat that estimated by satellite images during that season were about 55% and 42% of the recorded cultivated area and yield, the reduction went down 45% and 58%, respectively. Spatial distribution map of the affected area and wheat yield were created according to three degrees of influence: small, medium and large. The absence of planting (large effect) in some areas was found in the east and south of the governorate, while some areas were not affected in that season as before the crisis (small affect) in the north of the governorate. Thus, it was decided that the agricultural sector, according to satellite-agricultural data, was more than 58% in that governorate and in that season, where the severity of the damage varied between areas from large damage (100%, non-cultivated) then medium to small (less 10%), but no significant differences were recorded in area and yield of wheat in Al-Raqqa governorate before and during the crisis (2014) depending on agricultural statics data, where, area of wheat increased 13% and yield decreased 25% simultaneously in spite of decreasing rainfall amount of 42%. The study recommends the application of this technology effectively and continuously, especially during the crisis and disaster times, which ensures the accuracy of planning and management of the main and strategic crops to achieve food security on the country level.

 Keywords: Spectral wheat yield prediction, Crisis, Satellite images, Al-Raqqa governorate, Syria.

Full paper in Arabic: PDF