The Education Impact of the Farmer Field Schools of Almond ‎Trees At Shahbaa Region In Al-Suwayda Governorate

Jalaa Kanbar*(1)

(1). Department of Economic and Agricultural Extension, Faculty of Agriculture, Al Furat University, Der-ezzor, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Jalaa Kanbar. Email:

Received: 26/02/2020                               Accepted: 07/04/2020


The research aimed to determine the education impact of the Farmer Field School (FFS) at Shahbaa region in the Al-Suwayda governorate, by identification the contribution of FFS in education and transferring the recent agricultural recommendations for almond trees. Data of the study from 40 farmers within the FFS were collected by personal interview, using a questionnaire prepared for this purpose. This research was conducted in two villages (Park and Al-Hit) at Shahibaa agriculture directorate in Al-Suwayda governorate. The tabulated presentation of data was used, which included the frequencies, percentages, average, and standard deviation. The results of study showed that the proportionofagriculture respondents with high level of education reached 25% of the respondents. While the proportion of  respondents with  low level  was 20% , and with an average level of  55% of the respondents. The results showed that 82.5% of the respondents learned best methods for controlling diseases and insects through the participation in FFS. 72.5% of the respondents learned how to implementation of  the pruning and rootstock almond trees. The most important suggestions of the respondents to increasing the advantages of  FFS were to continue and increase the  number of FFS for the same crop in one season (85% of the respondents), provide financial and technical support for facilitators to be able to do their job more easily and all of the respondents appeared their desire to participate in another  FFS in the future. The research recommended to the need to mainstream and support farmer field schools in all governorates to work on increasing the efficiency of the deployment of agricultural innovations, to provide financial and technical support for facilitators and to stimulate farmers within FFS financially or morally.

Key Words: The education impact, Farmer field schools, Almond trees, Al –Suwayda Governorate.

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Analytical Study of Cherry Production in Latakia ‎Governorate. Case Study: Al-Haffah Region

Samah Mohammad Ahmad*(1) and Ghassan Yacoub(2)

(1). Department of Plant Production, Directorate of Agriculture, Lattakia, Ministry of Agriculture, Damascus, Syria.

 (2). Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of  Agriculture, Tishreen University, Lattakia, Syria.

(* corresponding author: Eng. Samah Mohamed Ahmed, Email:

Received: 25/08/2019                               Accepted: 10/11/2019


This search aims to calculate production costs of all service operations provided to the cherry tree during the production season and calculating some of its economic indicators. The study was carried out during 2017 in Al-Haffah area with the help of a questionnaire which distributed to 95 farmers. Prices and costs were also based on the same year. The results found that the total costs per dunum planted with cherries equal (151882 s.p). Total output value was (700000 s.p), profit from dunum was (548118 s.p), profitability ratio based on costs was (3.6), while profitability coefficient based on invested capital was (21.6), and the economic efficiency attained (4.6). The trend of the development of the area and production in Al-Haffa showed that the linear model was suitable. Significant increases were recorded at the level of 5% at a rate of (6.13 ha per year) from the average value of (302.9 ha). The quadratic model of the development of production showed a significant increase at the level of 5%, representing 36.63% of the average production value which reached about (1627.6 tons), then production began to decrease significantly to about 2.34% of the average value. The study recommends that farmers should be encouraged to grow cherry trees, whether basic or bearing, because of their economic feasibility. Try to find the way to support farmers in terms of input requirements, and establish extension courses for farmers to guide them to provide the best services for the cherry crop.

Key words: Cherry orchards, Production costs, Profitability ratio.

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Production Efficiency of Some Vegetable Crops Under the ‎Protected Agriculture System in Egypt

Diaa ElHaq Ibrahim Ibrahim(1) Moataz Eliw Mostafa Ahmed*(2)

(1). Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

(2). Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Azhar University, Assuit, Egypt.

(*Corresponding author: Moataz Eliw Mostafa Ahmed. E-mail:

Received: 03/04/2020                               Accepted: 18/05/2020


The Egyptian agricultural sector has an importance among the other sectors. In addition to being a source for foreign currency, about 30% of the total employees are working in it in 2014. The research problem has been determined in that the Egyptian agricultural sector has several challenges. It makes vertical expansion important for this sector development so this research aimed to identify the usage efficiency of the economic resources for cucumber in the large capacity, and small capacity greenhouses, and the cantaloupe. The results indicated that the study crops had an economic efficiency because of the return rate was more than 1. In addition to the total production elasticity which was 1.4, 1.02, and 1.19 for the study crops, respectively, which means that production was taking place in the non-economical stage for the production, and it still needs intensify of some production elements. With an estimate of the function cost, it was found that the production volume that  make  the return the greatest amounted to 118 tons, and the production volume that makes costs minim was 88.8 tons, and the total cost elasticity was 0.89. All that was for the cucumber in the large capacity. However, the production volume that makes the revenue the greatest in Dakahlia Governorate was 166 tons, and the production volume that makes the cost is lowest was 120 tons. For Al-Buhaira Governorate, the production volume that maximizes the revenue had reached about 345 tons, and the production volume that makes the lowest cost was 197 tons. The research found that the problems facing protected agriculture were the high costs for protected agriculture, low of standard specifications for plastics and some problems related to workers.

Keywords: Production efficiency, Protected agriculture, Vegetable crops, Egypt.

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A Survey Study on Mushroom Cultivation Knowledge of ‎Participant’s at Kapasia in Gazipur, Bangladesh ‎

Kamal Krishna Mistry*(1)and Kazi Farhad Iqubal(2)

(1). Department of Agriculture and Environmental Science, Akbar Ali Khan Technical Institute (Education Complex) under the Ministry of Education, Comilla-3517, Bangladesh.

(2). Department of Environmental Science, State University, Dhanmondi, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

(* Corresponding author: Dr. Kamal Krishna Mistry, E-Mail: ).

Received: 05/02/2020                               Accepted: 23/03/2020


The survey was carried out to determine the knowledge of mushroom cultivation by the farmers. The study was conducted at five villages of Kapasia Gazipur in Bangladesh. Data was collected randomly from 97 selected trained farmers from list of 972 farmers of the study area that was done through personal contact by interview schedule during the period from 01 to 30 June 2019. The study revealed that the highest 60.82% of the respondents had medium knowledge on mushroom cultivation, while 27.64 percent had low knowledge and the rest 16.50 percent had the highest knowledge on mushroom cultivation. The correlation analysis indicated that education, belief about the mushroom, neighborhood influence, length of training, organizational participation and adoption of mushroom cultivation of the farmers. Age, family size and extension contact had no significant relationships with their knowledge of mushroom cultivation.

Key words: Mushroom cultivation, Trained farmers, Bangladesh.

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Households Solid Wastes (HSW) Management at Azimpure ‎Colony in Dhaka City

Kamal Krishna Mistry*(1)and Kazi Farhad Iqubal(2)

(1). Department of Agriculture and Environmental Science, Akbar Ali Khan Technical Institute (Education Complex) under the Ministry of Education, Comilla-3517, Bangladesh.

(2). Department of Environmental Science, State University, Dhanmondi, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

(* Corresponding author: Dr. Kamal Krishna Mistry, E-Mail: ).

Received: 05/02/2020                               Accepted: 03/04/2020


This study was carried out with HSW and environmental pollution at Azimpur Colony in Dhaka City, Bangladesh to find out the HSW components, management, and the respondents’ view about environmental pollution. Data was collected randomly from 150 selected respondents through questionnaires by personal interviews from the study area in May, 2018 and data analyzed with the SPSS program. The study revealed that waste collection managed by ‘Tokai/Collectors’ and the waste generation recorded 0.42 Kg/Cap/Day. Vegetables and food waste (73.91%) were found dominant and the less amount was leather and rubber (0.72%). The most respondents (57%) had been preferred to place of waste in the dustbin and 40% of the respondents were agreed to waste collection by ‘rickshaw-vans’. The maximum 85% of people preferred daily waste disposal. Majority respondents were given their opinions that environmental pollution caused by HSW and awareness build up. 

Key-words: HSW, Management, Environmental pollution, Dhaka city.

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The Effect of Rain Fluctuation and the Strategies of Agricultural Accommodativeness of Millet Crop in Umm Kaddada Locality, North of Darfour, Sudan

Khalid Mansour Yousif Mansour*(1) Ahmed Abualgasim Abdulrasoul(2) and Mohammed Amer Ahmed Mohammed(3)

(1). Geography Department, Faculty of Education, Alfashir University, Sudan.

(2). Geography Department, Faculty of Arts, Alfashir University, Sudan.

(3). Geography Department, Faculty of Education, El Imam El Mahdi University, Sudan.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Khalid Mansour. E-mail:

Received: 17/11/2019                                Accepted: 31/12/2019


The study aimed to detect the fluctuation of rain and the strategies of agricultural accommodativeness for millet crop in Umm Kaddada locality. The study applied the historical, regional and quantitative methods. The data was collected by observation and personal interviews, in addition to distributing 158 questionnaires. Moreover, the study relied on annual and monthly climatic statements and annual agricultural survey. The study showed that there was great fluctuation in rain rate from 1980 to 2016, which led to the reduction of millet crops which is the main food of the population. Due to rain fluctuation and recurrent failure of agriculture, the farmers invent a number of strategies as alternative solutions to ensure production such as early farming, variation of agricultural crops, and economical and agricultural solidarity. The study recommended the importance of developing Meteorology Station; and to take the advantage of remote sensing technology in agriculture to survey and to estimate the production.

Key words: Rain fluctuation; Early farming; Millet crop; Strategies of agricultural accommodativeness.

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Analytical Economic Study of the Production of Cut Flowers in the Syrian Coast (Gypsophilla Model)

Ziad Sarhil*(1) Mahmoud Alio(1) and Abdul Hadi Rifai(2)

(1). Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University, Lattakia, Syria.

 .(2)Department of Statistics and Programming, Faculty of Economics, Tishreen University, Lattakia, Syria.

*) Corresponding author: Eng. Ziad Sarhil. E-Mail:

Received: 02/06/2019                                Accepted: 24/07/2019


The main objective of the research was to analyze the economic costs of production of gypsum crops in the Syrian coast, in addition to the study and analysis of economic indicators related to economic efficiency. The research was carried out based on a semi-intentional sample. The field data were collected during the agricultural season (2017/2018) obtained from the personal interview with 15 farmers in the coastal area. As a result of the study, the average annual net profit achieved by the plastic house planted with gypsum was 1139352 SP, while the profit factor compared to the invested capital was 58.2%, and  compared to the production costs it was 98.1%, so it was a very good indicator in agricultural investment since the profitability rate was about 98 SP per 100 SP invested annually, and the turnover rate of variable assets was 2.6. The results showed that the economic efficiency index was 1.98, which was greater than the correct one. This indicated the efficiency of the exploitation of fixed and variable capital in a good and ideal manner and the feasibility of producing gypsum crops in the coastal area. The study concluded that this modern agriculture should be adopted and integrated as a complementary agriculture to the traditional one in the Syrian coast, according to the economic savings that it achieves for the agricultural investor, diversifying sources of income and improving their standard of living.

Keywords: Gypsum, Production costs, Labor cost, Economic efficiency, Profitability factor, Capital recovery period.

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An Economic Study for the Recycling of Forest Waste in Latakia Governorate

Lina Kharma*(1) Ghassan Yaqoub(1) and Walaa Adra(2)

(1). Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University, Latakia, Syria.

(2). Department of Forestry and Environment, Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University, Latakia, Syria.

(* Corresponding author: Eng. Lina Khalil Khrma. E-mail:

Received: 16/06/2019                                Accepted: 02/08/2019


This research aimed to highlight on the forest waste and showing its economic importance. This research was carried out in Latakia governorate and the data werecollected during the period 2009-2018. The descriptive and statistical analysis were used in evaluation and monitoring according to the percentage method in addition to the statistical program SPSS. The study showed that the highest quantity of forest waste was in 2010 at a rate of 10249 tons of industrial wood, 28.6% and 208.5 tons at 22.6% and coal at a rate of 3.200 tons and 99.6% and the quantity of these wastes was in 2012 of 667 tons of industrial wood by 1.9%. The highest percentage of financial revenues outcoming from the sale of forest waste in 2017 was 31.1% at a rate of 108 million Syrian pounds. The lowest revenue in 2013 was 2.9% at a rate of 10 million Syrian pounds. The cost of producing one ton of forest waste in 2018 was 43 thousand Syrian pounds and the income rate from of forest waste per hectare in 2018 was about 20881 Syrian pounds.

Keywords: Forest waste, Charcoal, Coal, Industrial wood, Economic study.

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Evaluation of Agricultural Policies of Most Important Crops in Egypt Using Policy Analysis Matrix (PAM)

Moataz Eliw Mostafa Ahmed*(1, 2)  

(1). Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Azhar University, Assuit, Egypt.

(2). College of Economics and Management, Huazhong Agricultural University, No.1 Shizishan Street, Hongshan District, Wuhan 430070, Hubei, P.R. China.

(*Corresponding Author: Moataz Eliw Mostafa Ahmed. E-mail:

Received: 17/09/2019                                Accepted: 04/12/2019


Agricultural production, like other economic activities, is affected by the success of agricultural economic policies pursued by government from leaving the farmer free to cultivate his land with the desired crops, and to take his production and marketing decisions in light of the mechanisms of supply and demand and the movement of prices in the markets without any intervention by the government. Therefore, the government’s intervention influences the farmers’ desire to grow any of the crops through its agricultural policies by imposing taxes or subsidizing inputs. Wheat, maize, rice, and potatoes are among the most crucial strategic food and industrial crops in Egypt. The Policy Analysis Matrix (PAM) can be estimated by calculating nominal and effective protection coefficients, and then identifying the policy adopted by the government, whether it is a protectionist policy or a policy of direct or indirect taxes on the producers of those crops, as well as the calculation of the cost of domestic resources to determine the relative advantage. The results showed that the financial value of workers’ wages in the production of wheat, maize, rice and potatoes at market prices exceeded the border prices, while the values ​​of the nominal protection coefficients of outputs were about 0.81, 0.81, 0.80 and 0.83 for wheat, maize, rice and potatoes respectively. Nominal protection coefficient values ​​for production inputs were 0.83, 0.83, 0.85 and 0.84 respectively for the four crops, while the effective protection plant values ​​for wheat, maize, rice and potato crops were 0.80, 0.80, 0.80 and 0.84, respectively. The values ​​of the comparative advantage of the four crops, respectively, were 0.49, 0.52, 0.38 and 0.37.

Keywords: Policy analysis matrix, Nominal protection coefficient, Effective protection coefficient, Domestic resource costs.

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Using Exploratory Factor Analysis to Define the Most Important Problems Facing the Poultry Sector in Al – Swaida Governorate

Maya Al-Abdalla*(1) Safwan Abou Assaf(1) and Afraa Sallowm(2)

(1). Socio Economic Directorate, Swaida Research Center, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.

(2). Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Eng. Maya Al- Abdala. E-Mail:

Received: 23/06/2019                                Accepted: 03/08/2019


This research aimed to identify the most important variables (problems) in the poultry sector in the governorate of Swaida. Thus, to study the factors responsible for explaining the largest percentage of the total variance using the exploratory analysis. The research data based on a questionnaire that included problems according to the opinion of the breeders during the season 2018. This questions targeted a random sample of 104 breeders, which were equivalent to 50% of the total statistical size of the targeted community. The research sample consisted of the breeders of poultry sector in the province of Swaida. The analysis method based on the use of the exploratory analysis, using the principal components method, and the orthogonal rotation of the axes in the Varimax method. The results showed that there were four factors significantly combine the twelve study variables, where these factors had an eigenvalue greater than one each, and they accounted for 64.722% of the total variation. These factors represented feed problems, quality of the production requirements, quantity of chicks and increasing of fodder prices. Specifically, they explained about (19.385%, 18.736%, 13.374% and 13.226%) respectively of the total variance.

Key words: Exploratory factor analysis, Rotation, Varimax method, Poultry.

Full Paper in Arabic: PDF