Effect of Planting Date and Plant Density on Growth and Yield of (Daucus carota L.) plants in Hama Governorate

Ahmed Mohamed Jarjanazi*(1)

(1). Second Faculty of Agriculture, Aleppo University, Aleppo, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Ahmed Mohamed Jarjanazi. E-Mail: Jarjnazi1965@gmail.com.

Received: 24/11/2018                                Accepted: 16/01/2019


The experiment was conducted to study the effect of sowing the carrot (Daucus carota. Var. Nantes) on three dates (24/9, 8/10 and 23/10) and two densities: high (80) plants/m2 and low (40) plants/m2 under the conditions of Hama governorate, according to the split design. The early sowing showed a significant superiority over the other dates in all the studied traits (germination; maturity; length of leaves; length, diameter and weight of root; number of leaves per plant; fresh plant weight, and marketable productivity). The low density was significantly higher in the number of leaves per plant; length, diameter and weight of root, and fresh plant weight, while the opposite was noticed in terms of the length of the leaves and the marketable productivity. While the speed of germination and maturity were not affected with the plant density. In terms of the interaction between the date and the density, the plants that were sown on the first date at low density achieved the highest germination velocity; maturity; length, diameter and weight of root; number of leaves per plant and fresh plant weight (10 days, 118 days, 23.1 cm, 31.33 mm, 136 g, 15 leaves/plant, 158 g/plant, respectively), while the highest leaf length and marketable productivity (28 cm, 5.71 kg/m2 respectively) were achieved at the first date and high density.

Keyword: Carrot, Daucus carota, Sowing date, Density; Marketable productivity.

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Molecular Characterization and Genetic Diversity in Prunus ursina KY Genotypes in the Syrian Coast

Wafaa Choumane (1) Haytham Ismael(1) Safaa Sabbouh*(2) Mazen Rajab(3) and Ammar Amran(3)

(1). Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University, Lattakia, Syria.

(2). Administration of Horticulture, General Commission for Scientific Agriculture Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.

(3). Department of Biotechnology, Latakia Research Center, GCSAR, Damascus, Syria.

Received: 16/06/2019                                Accepted: 02/08/2019


The target of this research was the molecular characterization and the estimation of genetic diversity of trees belonging to P. ursina in the Syrian coastal area. This study was conducted during the period started from 2016 to 2018. 35 trees (genotypes) were collected from (6) sites (Jabla, Kasab, Drekesh, Kab, Brmant AL mshaeh and Msiaf) and were used for DNA analysis by 17 SSR primer pairs. The results showed that out of 17 primer pairs, only 6 were polymorphic and produced 14 different alleles. Number of alleles ranged from (2) to (4) with a mean of 2.3 alleles/primer pair. The genetic diversity was estimated for each locus and ranged from 0.37 (TPScp9F/ TPScp9R) to 0.51 (BPPCT038F/BPPCT038R) and (CPDCT014/AY862451). Dendrogram based on genetic distance results was established and two groups were obtained. The first group included samples from Brmant AL mshaeh, Kasab and Jabla, while the second group had samples from Msiaf, Kab and Drekesh. Samples from Drekesh were the most distant. No variation was detected between samples from the same site, but found among the different sites. Level of genetic diversity in P. ursina was low in the sites investigated, therefore there is a need to continue collecting more samples from other sites to detect the genetic diversity of p. ursina and keep them in gene bank gene bank in order to use them in future genetic improvement programs.

Key words: P. ursina, Molecular characterization, Geneticdiversity, Syrian coast.

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The Contribution of Plant Improvement to the Color Change of Flowering Ornamental Plants Throughout History

Fatema Abdrahman*(1) and Mohammed Hisham AlNasan(1)

(1). Department of Applied Science History, Institute of Arab Scientific Heritage, Aleppo University

(*Corresponding author: Fatema Abdrahman. E-Mail: fa573507@gmail.com).

Received: 13/11/2018                                Accepted: 01/01/2019


The research aimed to highlight the important aspect of agricultural science in the books of Arab agriculture in the period studied, namely, changing the color of flowers and obtaining new colors using simple, easy and inexpensive methods that can be applied. These methods were: Saffron and Nile or change the PH value of the soil by adding acid or by hybridization and obtain a new color different from the color of the parents. It was noticed that there were only five scholars of agriculture interested in this subject viz. Ibn al- Awam al- Andalusi and his book is: Alfilaha Alandalusia, Anonymous author and his book is: Miftah Alrraha Li Ahl Alfalaha, Radi Aldiyn Alghazi and his book is: Jamie Fawayid Almilaha Fi Jawamie Fawayid Alfalaha, Abdul Ghani Al Nabulsi and his book: Elim Almilaha Fi Elim Alfilaha and Alhusayni and his book: Misbah Alfalah Fi Altib Walziraea. It was found that Ibn- al- Awam was a forerunner in this field compared to the other of the agricultural scientists aforementioned, and as he was the only one who was unique in the method of hybridization, and Arab agricultural scientists had preceded the modern science in changing the color of flower, and developed the principles of the science of improvement and hybridization, and they built the foundation on which genetics was based.

Key words: Flower color, Plant improvement, Arabic farming books plant, Botanic heritage.

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Diagnosis and Detection of Infectious Bronchitis Virus Using RT-PCR Technology in Broiler Farms in Syria

Tamara Ahmad Al-Jallad*(1) Fahim Ali Abdelaziz(2) Mohamad Jamil Salhab(3) and Anouar Mohamad Dib Alomar(4)

(1). Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University, Lattakia, Syria.

(2). Department of Life Science, Faculty of Science, Tartous University, Tartous, Syria.

(3). Research Center of Latakia, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research GCSAR, Damascus, Syria

(4). Faculty of Science, Al-Baath University‎‏, Homs, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Eng. Tamara Ahmad Al-Jallad. E-Mail: tamara.aljallad@gmail.com).

Received: 26/08/2019                                Accepted: 02/10/2019


A reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique was used to detect infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) in the commercial broiler flocks in Syria. 50 tissue samples were taken from tracheal tissue, trachea and kidney of the broilers suspected of infectious bronchitis (IB) from different governorates of Syria i.e. Latakia, Tartous, Hama and Damascus countryside. RNA was extracted directly from the tissue samples and then RNA was converted to cDNA by RT-PCR technology; PCR reaction and Nested PCR interaction were carried out sequentially. The primers used in the RT-PCR reaction were selected from the S1 gene (spike), where mutations of the virus genome were concentrated in this region (the hypervariable region). Some positive samples (10) were injected at an age of 9-11 days old SPFEE-specific pathogen free embryonated eggs according to the methods adopted in virology. This research was carried out at the laboratories of Latakia Research Center, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research GCSAR, in cooperation with the PCR laboratory at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine in Hama. The results showed the existence of 37 positive case for RT-PCR (74%), and the infectious embryos showed clear and characteristic anatomical lesions of the infectious bronchitis virus after 5-6 days post injection, delayed and undeveloped fetal (dwarfism), fingertip entanglement and hemorrhage compared with the negative control. The results also showed the sensitivity and speed of the RT-PCR test in the detection of the IBV virus.

Key words: Infectious Bronchitis Virus IBV, RT-PCR, Broiler.

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Effect of Some Non-Genetic Factors on Milk Production and Length of The Lactation Period in Awassi Sheep

Rehaf Ibrahim Al-Shaar*(1) Ali Deeb(1) and Abd Al-Naser AL-Omar(2)

(1). Faculty of Agricultural, Al-Baath University, Homs, Syria.  

(2). Hama Agriculture Research Center, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GSCAR), Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Rehaf Ibrahim Al-Shaar. E-Mail: ellena.rehaf@gmail.com).

Received: 18/06/2019                                Accepted: 03/08/2019


This study was conducted at Agricultural Research Center in Hama, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research GCSAR, in Syria during the period 2016-2018 in order to find out the length of lactation and milk production in Awassi sheep and the effect of some non-genetic factors on them. The results showed that the average milk production was 187.9 kg for one ewe and the average of lactation period was 183.9 days. The effect of type of birth was significant for both milk production and lactation period. The birth of single lambs surpassed the twin birth, and the interaction between the sex and the birth type had no significant effect on lactation period and milk production. The results also showed non-significant effect of the age of the sheep and the parity of lambing, on milk production and lactation period. The lambing interval had a significant effect on lactation period, while it had no effect on milk production. The weight of the ewe at birth had a significant effect on the production of milk and did not have any significant effect on lactation period, and the month of birth had a significant effect on the length of lactation period and not significant on the production of milk.

Key words: Milk production, Lactation period, Awassi sheep.

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The Effect of Rain Fluctuation and the Strategies of Agricultural Accommodativeness of Millet Crop in Umm Kaddada Locality, North of Darfour, Sudan

Khalid Mansour Yousif Mansour*(1) Ahmed Abualgasim Abdulrasoul(2) and Mohammed Amer Ahmed Mohammed(3)

(1). Geography Department, Faculty of Education, Alfashir University, Sudan.

(2). Geography Department, Faculty of Arts, Alfashir University, Sudan.

(3). Geography Department, Faculty of Education, El Imam El Mahdi University, Sudan.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Khalid Mansour. E-mail: wadmanssour@gmail.com).

Received: 17/11/2019                                Accepted: 31/12/2019


The study aimed to detect the fluctuation of rain and the strategies of agricultural accommodativeness for millet crop in Umm Kaddada locality. The study applied the historical, regional and quantitative methods. The data was collected by observation and personal interviews, in addition to distributing 158 questionnaires. Moreover, the study relied on annual and monthly climatic statements and annual agricultural survey. The study showed that there was great fluctuation in rain rate from 1980 to 2016, which led to the reduction of millet crops which is the main food of the population. Due to rain fluctuation and recurrent failure of agriculture, the farmers invent a number of strategies as alternative solutions to ensure production such as early farming, variation of agricultural crops, and economical and agricultural solidarity. The study recommended the importance of developing Meteorology Station; and to take the advantage of remote sensing technology in agriculture to survey and to estimate the production.

Key words: Rain fluctuation; Early farming; Millet crop; Strategies of agricultural accommodativeness.

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Analytical Economic Study of the Production of Cut Flowers in the Syrian Coast (Gypsophilla Model)

Ziad Sarhil*(1) Mahmoud Alio(1) and Abdul Hadi Rifai(2)

(1). Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University, Lattakia, Syria.

 .(2)Department of Statistics and Programming, Faculty of Economics, Tishreen University, Lattakia, Syria.

*) Corresponding author: Eng. Ziad Sarhil. E-Mail: sarhilziadof@yahoo.com).

Received: 02/06/2019                                Accepted: 24/07/2019


The main objective of the research was to analyze the economic costs of production of gypsum crops in the Syrian coast, in addition to the study and analysis of economic indicators related to economic efficiency. The research was carried out based on a semi-intentional sample. The field data were collected during the agricultural season (2017/2018) obtained from the personal interview with 15 farmers in the coastal area. As a result of the study, the average annual net profit achieved by the plastic house planted with gypsum was 1139352 SP, while the profit factor compared to the invested capital was 58.2%, and  compared to the production costs it was 98.1%, so it was a very good indicator in agricultural investment since the profitability rate was about 98 SP per 100 SP invested annually, and the turnover rate of variable assets was 2.6. The results showed that the economic efficiency index was 1.98, which was greater than the correct one. This indicated the efficiency of the exploitation of fixed and variable capital in a good and ideal manner and the feasibility of producing gypsum crops in the coastal area. The study concluded that this modern agriculture should be adopted and integrated as a complementary agriculture to the traditional one in the Syrian coast, according to the economic savings that it achieves for the agricultural investor, diversifying sources of income and improving their standard of living.

Keywords: Gypsum, Production costs, Labor cost, Economic efficiency, Profitability factor, Capital recovery period.

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An Economic Study for the Recycling of Forest Waste in Latakia Governorate

Lina Kharma*(1) Ghassan Yaqoub(1) and Walaa Adra(2)

(1). Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University, Latakia, Syria.

(2). Department of Forestry and Environment, Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University, Latakia, Syria.

(* Corresponding author: Eng. Lina Khalil Khrma. E-mail: linorkh23@gmail.com).

Received: 16/06/2019                                Accepted: 02/08/2019


This research aimed to highlight on the forest waste and showing its economic importance. This research was carried out in Latakia governorate and the data werecollected during the period 2009-2018. The descriptive and statistical analysis were used in evaluation and monitoring according to the percentage method in addition to the statistical program SPSS. The study showed that the highest quantity of forest waste was in 2010 at a rate of 10249 tons of industrial wood, 28.6% and 208.5 tons at 22.6% and coal at a rate of 3.200 tons and 99.6% and the quantity of these wastes was in 2012 of 667 tons of industrial wood by 1.9%. The highest percentage of financial revenues outcoming from the sale of forest waste in 2017 was 31.1% at a rate of 108 million Syrian pounds. The lowest revenue in 2013 was 2.9% at a rate of 10 million Syrian pounds. The cost of producing one ton of forest waste in 2018 was 43 thousand Syrian pounds and the income rate from of forest waste per hectare in 2018 was about 20881 Syrian pounds.

Keywords: Forest waste, Charcoal, Coal, Industrial wood, Economic study.

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Evaluation of Agricultural Policies of Most Important Crops in Egypt Using Policy Analysis Matrix (PAM)

Moataz Eliw Mostafa Ahmed*(1, 2)  

(1). Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Azhar University, Assuit, Egypt.

(2). College of Economics and Management, Huazhong Agricultural University, No.1 Shizishan Street, Hongshan District, Wuhan 430070, Hubei, P.R. China.

(*Corresponding Author: Moataz Eliw Mostafa Ahmed. E-mail: moatazeliw@azhar.edu.eg).

Received: 17/09/2019                                Accepted: 04/12/2019


Agricultural production, like other economic activities, is affected by the success of agricultural economic policies pursued by government from leaving the farmer free to cultivate his land with the desired crops, and to take his production and marketing decisions in light of the mechanisms of supply and demand and the movement of prices in the markets without any intervention by the government. Therefore, the government’s intervention influences the farmers’ desire to grow any of the crops through its agricultural policies by imposing taxes or subsidizing inputs. Wheat, maize, rice, and potatoes are among the most crucial strategic food and industrial crops in Egypt. The Policy Analysis Matrix (PAM) can be estimated by calculating nominal and effective protection coefficients, and then identifying the policy adopted by the government, whether it is a protectionist policy or a policy of direct or indirect taxes on the producers of those crops, as well as the calculation of the cost of domestic resources to determine the relative advantage. The results showed that the financial value of workers’ wages in the production of wheat, maize, rice and potatoes at market prices exceeded the border prices, while the values ​​of the nominal protection coefficients of outputs were about 0.81, 0.81, 0.80 and 0.83 for wheat, maize, rice and potatoes respectively. Nominal protection coefficient values ​​for production inputs were 0.83, 0.83, 0.85 and 0.84 respectively for the four crops, while the effective protection plant values ​​for wheat, maize, rice and potato crops were 0.80, 0.80, 0.80 and 0.84, respectively. The values ​​of the comparative advantage of the four crops, respectively, were 0.49, 0.52, 0.38 and 0.37.

Keywords: Policy analysis matrix, Nominal protection coefficient, Effective protection coefficient, Domestic resource costs.

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Using Exploratory Factor Analysis to Define the Most Important Problems Facing the Poultry Sector in Al – Swaida Governorate

Maya Al-Abdalla*(1) Safwan Abou Assaf(1) and Afraa Sallowm(2)

(1). Socio Economic Directorate, Swaida Research Center, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.

(2). Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Eng. Maya Al- Abdala. E-Mail: mayaabdala6@gmail.com).

Received: 23/06/2019                                Accepted: 03/08/2019


This research aimed to identify the most important variables (problems) in the poultry sector in the governorate of Swaida. Thus, to study the factors responsible for explaining the largest percentage of the total variance using the exploratory analysis. The research data based on a questionnaire that included problems according to the opinion of the breeders during the season 2018. This questions targeted a random sample of 104 breeders, which were equivalent to 50% of the total statistical size of the targeted community. The research sample consisted of the breeders of poultry sector in the province of Swaida. The analysis method based on the use of the exploratory analysis, using the principal components method, and the orthogonal rotation of the axes in the Varimax method. The results showed that there were four factors significantly combine the twelve study variables, where these factors had an eigenvalue greater than one each, and they accounted for 64.722% of the total variation. These factors represented feed problems, quality of the production requirements, quantity of chicks and increasing of fodder prices. Specifically, they explained about (19.385%, 18.736%, 13.374% and 13.226%) respectively of the total variance.

Key words: Exploratory factor analysis, Rotation, Varimax method, Poultry.

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