Effect of Adding Different Levels of Nano Boron to the Diet ‎on Some Biochemical and Lipid Profile of the Broiler Ross 308‎

Nebras Kadhim Abbas(1) and Nihad Abdul-Lateef Ali*(2)                           

(1). Babel Agriculture Directorate, Ministry of Agriculture, Iraq.

(2). Department of Animal production, College of Agriculture, University of AL-Qasim Green, Iraq.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Nihad Abdul-Lateef Ali. E-Mail: aalnidawi@yahoo.com).

Received: 16/04/2020                              Accepted: 23/05/2020


This study was conducted at Poultry Farm of Animal production Dept., Faculty of Agriculture, University of AL-Qasim Green to investigate the effect of  adding different levels of nano boron to the diet on some biochemical and lipid profile of the broiler Ross 308. 180 broiler chicks of Ross 308 at the age of one day were randomly assigned to four treatments with 3 replicates for each, and 15 chicks per replicate. The treatments were as follows; the first one was the control group, which was free of  any addition, the second  one contained 40 mg nano-boron/kg diet, the third treatment contained 60 mg nano-boron/kg diet and the fourth treatment contained 80 mg nano-boron/kg diet. The studied characteristics were: total protein, albumin,  globulin, albumin to the globulin  A/G, cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein LDL, high-density lipoprotein HDL. The results showed no significant differences between all the treatments in total protein concentration, albumin concentration, globulin in serum, and the percentage of albumin to the globulin A/G. Nano-boron treatments showed a significant (P≤ 0.05) decrease in the concentration level of cholesterol and triglycerides, as well as low-density lipoprotein LDL compared to control treatment, which recorded the highest concentration, while there were no significant differences (P≤ 0.05) between the treatments of the experiment for the level of high-density lipoprotein. It could be concluded, that the addition of nano-boron to the diet led to improving some blood parameters of the broiler.

Key words : Nano-boron, Biochemical traits, Lipid profile of serum, Broiler.

Full paper in Arabic: PDF

Assessment the Effect of Aqueous Extract of Peganum ‎harmala Seeds on Fertility of Male Mice

Samira Musa ELghul*(1) Nagia Musa Sasi(2) and  Ebtesam Mohammed Ahmed(3)

(1). Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Tripoli University, Libya.

(2). Biotechnology Center, Tripoli, Libya.

 (3). Zoology Department, Collage of Science, Sirte University, Libya.

(*Corresponding author: Samira Musa ELghul. E. Mail: samira_18_3@yahoo.com).

Received: 22/03/2020                               Accepted: 18/05/2020


Peganum harmala is one of the medicinal plants, it is a widely used in a traditional medicine to treat several diseases, so the aim of this study was to evaluate of effect of aqueous extract of Peganum harmala seeds on fertility in male mice. Sixteen male mice were used in this study at age of 6 – 10 weeks, they were divided into two groups of 8 mice each, the control group was given distilled water by mouth, while another group was received aqueous extract of Peganum harmala seeds at a dose of (300 mg/kg) for three weeks. The results showed a significant decline in body and epididymis weight in the treated group comparing to the control group. There was no any effect of aqueous extract of Peganum harmala on sperm parameters and testicular tissue. Also no significant change was observed in percent of deformed embryos and dead embryos of females impregnated by males treated with the aqueous extract when compare to control.

Key words: Peganum harmala, Male mice, Testis, Fertility.

Full paper in English: PDF

Carcass Characteristics in Three Lines of Quail (Coturnix ‎coturnix spp) and Their Crosses II- The Percentages

Shekhmous H. Hussen*(1)

(1). Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, University of Duhok, KR– Iraq.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Shekhmous H. Hussen. E-Mail: sheikhmous68@gmail.com).

Received: 23/03/2020                               Accepted: 29/05/2020


A total of 54 quail birds aged 42 days from both sexes within nine genotypes (WW, LL, DD, WL, WD, LD, LW, DW and DL) – that resulted from full diallel cross of three lines (White, Light brown and Dark brown) – were used in this research. The trial was conducted at Dept. of Animal production, college of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, University of Duhok, KR-Iraq, 2016. The live birds were weighed (LBW) and then slaughtered to be dissected into four major parts after eviscerating; the giblets part, the whole slaughtered birds (carcass), both legs and finally the rest body (included breast and back of both sides). These major parts were weighed and calculated as ratio to LBW to be percentage (%). The findings showed that the effect of genotype, sex and their interaction were significant on all studied characteristics, except the effect of sex on giblets %. The WD cross recorded the highest carcass and body %, while the WW line achieved the highest giblets % and DL reciprocal cross resulted in the highest leg %. The males surpassed females in carcass, leg and body %; in spite of superiority of females in LBW than males. The crosses resulted from D dam, appeared the highest interaction with males for carcass, body and leg percentages; while the same line as sire was combined well with L line as dam, and interacted positively with males for giblets %. Carcass percent correlated significantly and negatively with LBW, and regression analysis illustrated a good dependency of carcass % on LBW.

 Key words: Quail, Crosses, Carcass dissection percentages.

Full paper in English: PDF

Relationship of the Polymorphisms Resulted from Point ‎Mutations (G2572T and G2688C) on the HSP70 Gene with ‎the Productive Traits of Holstein Cows

Bashar Adham Ahmad*(1) and Wasan Jassim Al-Khazraji(2)

(1). Department of Animal Production,  College of Agriculture, Diyala University, Iraq.

 (2). Department of Animal Production, College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, University of Baghdad, Iraq.

(*Corresponding author: Bashar Adham Ahmad. E-Mail: basharadh83@gmail.com).

Received: 27/02/2020                               Accepted: 29/03/2020


The research was conducted at Taj Al-Nahrain Cows Station, located in Al-Qadisiya Governorate, Diwaniya District, which is 180 km from the center of Baghdad, for the period (19/3/2018 to 20/3/2019) and molecular genetic analyzes were conducted at the laboratory of the College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, University of Baghdad. The samples were sent to the Korean Macrogen Corporation to read the sequence of nitrogenous bases for the HSP70 gene, and the relationship between the genetic variation caused by the two mutations was examined with the traits of milk (daily milk production, total milk production, peak production, persistence of production and length of milk season) and milk components (fat ratio, non-fat solids, density, protein ratio and lactose ratio) and the heat tolerance coefficient (summer heat tolerance coefficient, autumn heat tolerance coefficient, winter heat tolerance coefficient and general heat tolerance coefficient). The results showed the presence of the first mutation (G2572T) in three genotypes (GG=26 GT=14 TT=13) and allele frequency of (G 0.62 and T 0.38), while the second mutation (G2688C) appeared in two genotypes (GG=50 GC=3)  and allele frequency of (G 0.97 and C 0.03), and the first mutation (G2572T) did not show significant effect on milk production traits, but significantly affected the fat ratio, where the individuals which were carrying the mutant genotype TT were superior. While the wild genotype GG significantly surpassed the two genotypes GT and TT in non-fatty solids, density, protein ratio and lactose ratio and the autumn and winter heat tolerance coefficient and general heat tolerance coefficient. The second mutation (G2688C) had no significant effect in the all traits.

Key words: Cow Holstein, Heat tolerance coefficient, Gene HSP70.

Full paper in Arabic: PDF

Protection of Nephrotoxicity Caused by Anti-Cancer Agents in ‎Hamster Using Some Nutrition Compounds

Fadi Al-Mohammad*(1) and  Amad Hamdi Mokresh(2)

(1). Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Hamah University, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Fadi Al-Mohammad. E-mail: fadi71985@gmail.com).

Received: 06/09/2019                               Accepted: 17/10/2019


The experiment was conducted on (108) of adult hamsters, at the laboratory of pathology in the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine at the University of Hama, with the aim of studying the effect of honey, ginseng and vitamin E on nephrotoxicity after peritoneal injection of anti-cancer agents (doxorubicin and cisplatin) in hamsters, and to determine the extent of preventive effect for these materials on nephrotoxicity. The ages of hamster ranged from 3.5 to 4 months and their weights between 60-70 grams. The experimental animals were divided into nine groups, (12) hamsters in each group, according to the following: G1 (control), G2 (injection of anti-cancer without oral administration of any substance), G3 (anti-cancer injection + oral administration of honey), G4 (anti-cancer injection + oral administration of vitamin E), G5 (anti-cancer injection + oral administration of ginseng), G6 (anti-cancer injection + oral administration of honey and vitamin E), G7 (anti-cancer injection + oral administration of honey and ginseng), G8 (anti-cancer injection + oral administration of ginseng and vitamin E), G9 (anti-cancer injection + oral administration of honey, ginseng and vitamin E). The experiment continued for 6 weeks, after peritoneal injection of anticancer agents. Clinical symptoms were studied, and blood samples were taken from the lateral venous plexus of the eye at the end of the 6th week to measure serum creatinine by Jaffe’s reaction method, then the anatomy of hamsters were executed to study histopathological changes of the kidney. The peritoneal injection with anti-cancer agents led to many clinical symptoms such as diarrhea, neurological disorders, loss of appetite and hair loss. The blood changes were in the form of high serum creatinine level which indicated to the damage of kidney and low glomerular filtration rate, but the histopathological changes were in the form of necrotic epithelial cells lining the renal tubules, necrosis of the renal glomerules and loss of their structure and building. It was also noted that oral administration of protective materials (honey, ginseng and vitamin E), led to the reduction of clinical symptoms, reduction of creatine levels, and preservation of the kidney histological structure in experimental animals. Therefore, The study recommends the use of these preventive materials during treatment with anti-cancer agents.

Key words: Anti-cancer agents, Nephrotoxicity, Hamster.

Full paper in Arabic: PDF

Effect of Adding Pollen Palm Date to Diet on Some ‎Biochemical Blood Parameters of Japanese Quail Males ‎‎(Coturnix coturnix japonica)‎

Khalid C.K. Al-Salhie*(1) Tarik F. Shawket(1) and Bashar A.M. Lehmood(2)

(1). Animal Production Department, Agriculture College, Basrah University, Iraq.

(2). The State Company for Agricultural Supplies, Ministry of Agriculture, Iraq. 

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Khalid C.K. Al-Salhie. E-Mail: knnz1977@yahoo.com).

Received: 18/12/2019                               Accepted: 13/03/2020


A total of (240) of brown quail were used in the present study of one-day old. The birds were randomly distributed into five treatments. Each treatment contained 48 chicks with three replicates, each had 16 chicks. The treatments were as the following; the first (T1), the second (T2), the third (T3), the fourth (T4) and fifth (T5), which were diet on date palm pollen of (0, 250, 500, 750 and 1000 mg/kg) for the aforementioned treatments, respectively. The results indicated a significant increase in the concentration of total protein and globulin in male serum of T3, T4 and T5 compared to other treatments. In addition, there was a significant increase in albumin concentration in the control treatment compared to other treatments. On the other hand, a significant decrease in H/L was found in the blood of T5 compared to other treatments. As well as, a significant increase in serum cholesterol, glucose, GOT and GPT were found in the control treatment compared to other treatments. It could be concluded that the addition of date palm pollens to brown quail diet increased the globulin and consequently immunity. On the other hand, the treatments  decreased  H/L ratio and liver enzymes (GPT and GOT).

Keywords: Quail, Date palm pollen, Blood parameters.

Full paper in Arabic: PDF

Carcass Characteristics in Three Lines of Quail (Coturnix ‎coturnix spp) and their Crosses. I- The Weights

Shekhmous H. Hussen*(1) Asia M. Hassan(1) Jameela H. Salih(1) and Khabat N. Hussein(1)

(1). Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, University of Duhok, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Shekhmous H. Hussen. E-Mail: sheikhmous68@gmail.com).  

Received: 13/01/2020                               Accepted: 12/03/2020


A total of 54 birds aged 42 days old from both sexes (equally) of different quail genotypes resulted from complete diallel cross design of three lines (White-W, Light brown-L and Dark brown-D) were used in the present study. The trial was conducted at Animal Production Dept., College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, University of Duhok, Sumail, KR-Iraq, during 2016. The aim was to investigate the carcass characteristics of the quail genotypes. Live body weight and the following carcass characteristics; blood, feather, shank, head, gizzard, heart, liver, thigh, drumstick, breast, back, neck, wing and dressing carcass (with giblets) were weighed (gm.). The results showed that there were significant differences among studied genotypes and between both sexes, in addition to their interaction. In general, the best genotype for carcass characteristics was LL line; but for some main cuts, economic cuts and inedible out-parts, the DW reciprocal cross shared LL line the superiority; while for gizzard weight, the DL reciprocal cross recorded the superiority compared to the rest genotypes. However, the average carcass weights as affected by genotype were ranged from 118.5 – 144.5 gm. The females recorded higher values than males for all significant characters. The interaction between genotype and sex appeared that few genotypes interacted significantly with specific sex (female). As conclusion, the crosses didn’t appear any superiority for carcass characteristics; while a specific line and specific reciprocal cross appeared superiority in specific characters.

 Key words: Quail, Lines, Crosses, Carcass weights.

Full paper in English: PDF

Biology of the Lessepsian Pufferfish Lagocephalus suezensis ‎‎(Clark & Gohar, 1953) in Syrian Marine waters:‎ Length-Weight Relationship and Gonads Development Stages

Mai Masri*(1) and Waad Sabour(2)

 (1). Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University, Lattakia, Syria.

(2). Department of Animal Biology, Faculty of Science, Tishreen University, Lattakia, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Mai Masri. E-Mail: mememasri96@gmail.com)

Received: 16/02/2020                               Accepted: 01/04/2020


The length-weight relationships (LWRs) were determined for (320) specimens of Lagocephalus suezensis captured in the Syrian seawaters (Eastern Mediterranean). The histological study of gonads at  different development stages was performed. Fishing samples were taken with trammel net at a depth between 3 and 50 m, during April 2014 and September 2015.Total length and weight of each specimen were recorded with accuracy of 0.1 cm and 0.01 g, respectively. The calculated values of (b) were 2.8932 for male individuals and 2.8416 for females. The coefficient of determination (R2) was significant for all individuals. The types of growth for both sexes were negatively allometric. The development stages and gonad maturation, are similar with regard to the tissue structure and the form of gonads, and for the six development scale.

Key words: Lagocephalus suezensis, Lessepsian pufferfish, LW relationship, Histological structure Gonads, Syrian seawaters.    

Full paper in English: PDF

Diagnosis and Detection of Infectious Bronchitis Virus Using RT-PCR Technology in Broiler Farms in Syria

Tamara Ahmad Al-Jallad*(1) Fahim Ali Abdelaziz(2) Mohamad Jamil Salhab(3) and Anouar Mohamad Dib Alomar(4)

(1). Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University, Lattakia, Syria.

(2). Department of Life Science, Faculty of Science, Tartous University, Tartous, Syria.

(3). Research Center of Latakia, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research GCSAR, Damascus, Syria

(4). Faculty of Science, Al-Baath University‎‏, Homs, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Eng. Tamara Ahmad Al-Jallad. E-Mail: tamara.aljallad@gmail.com).

Received: 26/08/2019                                Accepted: 02/10/2019


A reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique was used to detect infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) in the commercial broiler flocks in Syria. 50 tissue samples were taken from tracheal tissue, trachea and kidney of the broilers suspected of infectious bronchitis (IB) from different governorates of Syria i.e. Latakia, Tartous, Hama and Damascus countryside. RNA was extracted directly from the tissue samples and then RNA was converted to cDNA by RT-PCR technology; PCR reaction and Nested PCR interaction were carried out sequentially. The primers used in the RT-PCR reaction were selected from the S1 gene (spike), where mutations of the virus genome were concentrated in this region (the hypervariable region). Some positive samples (10) were injected at an age of 9-11 days old SPFEE-specific pathogen free embryonated eggs according to the methods adopted in virology. This research was carried out at the laboratories of Latakia Research Center, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research GCSAR, in cooperation with the PCR laboratory at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine in Hama. The results showed the existence of 37 positive case for RT-PCR (74%), and the infectious embryos showed clear and characteristic anatomical lesions of the infectious bronchitis virus after 5-6 days post injection, delayed and undeveloped fetal (dwarfism), fingertip entanglement and hemorrhage compared with the negative control. The results also showed the sensitivity and speed of the RT-PCR test in the detection of the IBV virus.

Key words: Infectious Bronchitis Virus IBV, RT-PCR, Broiler.

Full Paper in Arabic: PDF

Effect of Some Non-Genetic Factors on Milk Production and Length of The Lactation Period in Awassi Sheep

Rehaf Ibrahim Al-Shaar*(1) Ali Deeb(1) and Abd Al-Naser AL-Omar(2)

(1). Faculty of Agricultural, Al-Baath University, Homs, Syria.  

(2). Hama Agriculture Research Center, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GSCAR), Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Rehaf Ibrahim Al-Shaar. E-Mail: ellena.rehaf@gmail.com).

Received: 18/06/2019                                Accepted: 03/08/2019


This study was conducted at Agricultural Research Center in Hama, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research GCSAR, in Syria during the period 2016-2018 in order to find out the length of lactation and milk production in Awassi sheep and the effect of some non-genetic factors on them. The results showed that the average milk production was 187.9 kg for one ewe and the average of lactation period was 183.9 days. The effect of type of birth was significant for both milk production and lactation period. The birth of single lambs surpassed the twin birth, and the interaction between the sex and the birth type had no significant effect on lactation period and milk production. The results also showed non-significant effect of the age of the sheep and the parity of lambing, on milk production and lactation period. The lambing interval had a significant effect on lactation period, while it had no effect on milk production. The weight of the ewe at birth had a significant effect on the production of milk and did not have any significant effect on lactation period, and the month of birth had a significant effect on the length of lactation period and not significant on the production of milk.

Key words: Milk production, Lactation period, Awassi sheep.

Full Paper in Arabic: PDF