Effect of Sowing Dates and Different Concentrations of IBA ‎on the Multiplication of ‎Dodonaea viscosa ‎

Aysar Mohammad Salem AlMeaamari*(1) and Alaa Hashem Younes AlTaai(1)

(1). Horticulture and Forestry Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Al Mosul University, Iraq.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Aysar Mohammad Salem AlMeaamari. E-Mail: aysaralsalim@yahoo.com).

Received: 21/03/2020                               Accepted: 12/05/2020


This study was conducted in a plastic house at the Department of Horticulture and Landscape Design, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry,  Mosul University, In tow dates (15th November and 15th February) during 2019/2020 season, in order to study the effect of the date of sowing and treatment with Indole Acid at concentrations of (0, 250, 500, 750, 1000 and 2000 mg/L), and the effect of the interaction between them on root ability of the half woody cuttings of Dodonaea viscosa plants, and the extent of its effect on improving the characteristics of root and plant growth.  The experiment was laid according to completely randomized design CRD with two factors and 3 replicates per treatment, and ten cuttings per replicate. The data was statistically analyzed and its treatments were compared with Duncan multiple test. The results showed that the date of getting the cuttings and treatment with Indole acid had a significant impact on the studied traits. No rooting was observed at the first date, while the second date had a clear response after ten weeks of cultivation, where the highest rooting percentage was obtained (33.33 %) due to the treatment with a concentration of 1000 mg/L and the number of roots (14.43) and the highest value of root length (10.86 cm) and the number of vegetative branches (1.96) and the length of the vegetative branch (2.76 cm) besides the fresh weight of the roots (2.50 g) and the highest dry weight (0.08 g).

Keyword: Dodonaea viscosa, Sowing dates, IBA, Multiplication.

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The Phenotypic Characterization of Some Damask Rose (Rosa ‎damascena Mill.) Genotypes Distributed in Latakia ‎Government

Tharwat Saleem Redwan*(1) Hafez Mohammed Mahfouz(1) and Mazen Ali Nassour(2)

(1). Scientific Agricultural Research Center of Lattakia, General Commission for Scientific

Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.

(2). Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University, Lattakia, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Eng. Tharwat Saleem  Redwan. E-Mail: tharwat.redwan@yahoo.com) .

Received: 12/12/2018                               Accepted: 08/04/2019


This research aimed to study the morphological characterization and to determine the  variability among twenty Rosa damascene genotypes, which grown in different areas of  Latakia and  compare them with two genotypes from Marah location at the countryside of Damascus to  take advantage of high quality characteristics  in order to be improved in the future, and  to enhance its cultivation. The results of morphological characterization  of forty traits showed a clear difference between some studied genotypes. The highest differences were related to flowers and vegetative characters compared with fruits and seeds characters.  A dendrogram based on the morphological data showed clear separation between studied genotypes, and reached (85%) for flowers characters and reached (60%) for vegetative characters, while it attained (47%)  for  fruits and seeds characters. The study showed that there were a distinct differences for some genotypes which can be used in breeding and genetic improvement programs in the future.
 Key words: Genotypes,  Rosa damascena,  Morphological characterization, Syria.
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In Vitro Micropropagation of Seedlings of Ceratonia siliqua L. ‎with Micro-Cuttings

Fadi Kazngi*(1) Talal Amin(1) and Hafez Mahfoud(2)

(1). Environment and Forestry Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University, Latakia, Syria.

(2). Biotechnology Division, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Eng. Fadi Kazngi. E-Mail: fadikazngi79@yahoo.com).

Received: 30/07/2019                               Accepted: 24/09/2019


This study was carried out during 2018 and 2019 seasons at the Green House Nursery using S1 genotype of Ceratonia Siliqua L. which is grown at the site of Snobar Jablah in Lattakia Governorate to determine the best hormonal balance to multiply the vegetative growth and rooting the micro- cutting of the seedling and thus the possibility of multiplying the desired genotypes of mature carob plants to produce vegetative strains for re-infiltration in its degraded areas. This study found a successful and detailed In Vitro propagation system for rapid micropropagation of carob. 10% Sodium Hypochlorite for 20 minutes gave the best efficiency for surface sterilization of vegetative growth. Concentration of 0.5 mg/L of Gibberellin with BAP at a concentration of 0.5 mg/L gave the best average of shoots length (8.47 cm), while the seedling multiplying became better when using the BAP hormone at a concentration of 0.5 mg/L with 0.1 mg/L of AIB. The best concentration of rooting hormone AIB was 2 mg/L which achieved the best percentage of rooting (71.67%), and the best mean number of roots(5.43) , while the concentration of 1 mg/L achieved the best mean length of roots (4.25 cm).

Key words: Carob, Micropropagation, Benzyl Amino Purine BAP, Indol Butyric Acid AIB.

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The Effect of Different Levels of Poultry Manure on the ‎Production of Pistachios var. ‘Ashouri’‎

Mohammed Al Doeames*(1) Rashid Kharbutli(2) and Rashid AlSaid Omar(3)

 (1). Hamah Research Center, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research GCSAR, Damascus, Syria.

(2). Department of Horticulture Science, Faculty of Agriculture,  Tishreen University, Latakia, Syria.

(3). Administration of Horticulture Research, GCSAR, Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Eng. Mohammed Al Doeames. E-Mail:mohammaddaems@gmail.com).

Received: 21/03/2020                               Accepted: 12/05/2020


This research was conducted during the seasons 2017 and 2018 on pistachio trees var.’ Ashouri’ which grown in Bsireen village at Hama governorate, in order to study the effect of different levels of  poultry manure on the production of pistachio trees var. Ashouri.  Five rates of poultry manure were applied  (10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 kg/tree), and the treatments were (T2, T3, T4, T5 and T6 respectively) which compared to chemical fertilizer (T1 treatment) as applied by the farmer, and with a control without any fertilizer addition (T0). The experiment was designed according to randomized complete block design. The results confirmed the positive effect of manure treatments on the productivity indicators of pistachio trees which clearly observed at the second season. The highest production per tree were (34.49, 34.58 and 34.83 kg)  for the treatments (T4, T5 and T6) respectively, and all treatments surpassed the control. In terms of fruits crack and empty fruits ratios the treatments T4, T5, T6 had the best values.

Key words: Pistachio, Pistacia vera, Poultry manure, Productivity traits.

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The Effect of Indole Butyric Acid IBA Concentrations on ‎Rooting and Growth of Stem Cuttings of Thymus spp. Which ‎Spread Naturally in Latakia Governorate

Malak Sabbouh*(1) Talal Amin(2) and Hafez Mahfoud(3)

(1). Forestry and Environment Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University, Latakia, Syria.

(2). Biotechnology Department, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research GCSAR, Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Eng. Malak Sabbouh. E-Mail: malak.sabboh@gmail.com).

Received: 08/01/2019                               Accepted: 01/04/2019


The study was conducted during 2018 to determine the effect of Indole Butyric Acid (IBA) on rooting of three types of thyme spread naturally in Latakia governorate. A stem cuttings of thymus capitatus (Snobar Gableh), Thymus syriacus (Kasab), and thymus cilicicus (Al-Dalia) were collected. and treated with different concentrations of IBA (0, 250, 500, 750 and 1000 ppm) then they were planted under controlled conditions at the greenhouse of the seedlings of olive propagation in Latakia. The root traits (rooting%, number of roots and length of roots), and shoot traits (length of main stem cm, number of shoots and length of shoots) were measured after two months of planting. The results were analyzed according to Randomized Completely Block Design with three replicates. The treatments of IBA showed positive effect on all the studied trait as compared with the control, according to the concentration of IBA and the species studied. The concentration 500 ppm showed the best results over the studied species of thyme in terms of rooting percentage (81.78%), number of roots (139.86) and number of shoots (6.97), while the concentration of 250 ppm gave the highest root length (16.83 cm) and the main stem length (9.5 cm). In general, these concentrations significantly surpassed the other concentrations. T. cilicicus showed the best root characteristics, while T. capitatus had better shoot characteristics , whereas T. syriacus showed intermediate values between the two previous species.

Key words: Thymus spp., IBA, Stem cutting, Rooting percentage.

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Effect of Foliar Spraying with Different Concentrations of ‎‎(Huzone) Nutrients and Pruning Methods on Growth of ‎Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.)‎

Fawaz Al-haji Abboud (1) Ibrahim Nada Al-Shetewi(1) and Nada Huseen ALAmeir* (1)

(1). Horticulture Department, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Al Furat, Deir Al-Zour, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Eng. Nada Huseed ALAmeir. E-Mail: mmnndd9074@gmail.com).

Received: 07/12/2019                               Accepted: 25/03/2019


The research was carried out during the agricultural seasons of 2017 and 2018 at a private farm in Deir Al-Zour on watermelon plants (Citrullus lanatus L.) Niagara variety to study the effect of using different concentrations of Huzone nutrients (0, 2, 4 and 6 cm3/L per plant), at a rate of three sprays, the first spray was accompanied at the stage of 2nd  leaf formation, and the second was at the beginning of fruit stage formation, while the third spray was  two weeks before fruits maturity. The pruning methods were (Method A: Pruning the plants to three stems while keeping one fruit on each stem, the second method B: Pruning the plants to four stems while keeping the one fruit on each stem, and the third method was pruning the plant to five stems and keeping one fruit on each stem, besides the control (without pruning). Randomized Complete Block Design RCBD was used with three replicates per treatment. The results showed that there was a significant effect of pruning and Huzone nutrient on all studied traits. The control (without pruning) which treated with a concentration of 4 cm3/L achieved the highest value in the number of leaves, and reached 231-234 leaves/plants for the first and second seasons respectively. The highest value of the leaf area when using the pruning method on three branches and spraying with a concentration of (4 cm3/L) gave a value of (3131-3120 cm2) for the first and second seasons respectively. The interaction between spray and pruning significantly affected the number of days to flowering, where this trait decreased when using 4 cm3/L of Huzone with the pruning method on three branches compared to the other treatments. The number of male flowers decreased in the plants which pruned on three branches and sprayed with a concentration of 4  cm3/L of Huzone, where the number of male flowers was (18.4-20.9 flower/ plant) for the first and second seasons respectively compared to the control and other concentrations. In terms of the number of female flowers, it increased at pruning on three branches and by adding a concentration of 4 cm 3/L (13.93-15.2) compared with the control and other concentrations.

Key words: Watermelon, Citrullus lanatus L., Nutrient Huzon, Pruning, Vegetative growth, Flowering.  

Full paper in Arabic: PDF 

Effect of Adding Different Levels of Nano Boron to the Diet ‎on Some Biochemical and Lipid Profile of the Broiler Ross 308‎

Nebras Kadhim Abbas(1) and Nihad Abdul-Lateef Ali*(2)                           

(1). Babel Agriculture Directorate, Ministry of Agriculture, Iraq.

(2). Department of Animal production, College of Agriculture, University of AL-Qasim Green, Iraq.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Nihad Abdul-Lateef Ali. E-Mail: aalnidawi@yahoo.com).

Received: 16/04/2020                              Accepted: 23/05/2020


This study was conducted at Poultry Farm of Animal production Dept., Faculty of Agriculture, University of AL-Qasim Green to investigate the effect of  adding different levels of nano boron to the diet on some biochemical and lipid profile of the broiler Ross 308. 180 broiler chicks of Ross 308 at the age of one day were randomly assigned to four treatments with 3 replicates for each, and 15 chicks per replicate. The treatments were as follows; the first one was the control group, which was free of  any addition, the second  one contained 40 mg nano-boron/kg diet, the third treatment contained 60 mg nano-boron/kg diet and the fourth treatment contained 80 mg nano-boron/kg diet. The studied characteristics were: total protein, albumin,  globulin, albumin to the globulin  A/G, cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein LDL, high-density lipoprotein HDL. The results showed no significant differences between all the treatments in total protein concentration, albumin concentration, globulin in serum, and the percentage of albumin to the globulin A/G. Nano-boron treatments showed a significant (P≤ 0.05) decrease in the concentration level of cholesterol and triglycerides, as well as low-density lipoprotein LDL compared to control treatment, which recorded the highest concentration, while there were no significant differences (P≤ 0.05) between the treatments of the experiment for the level of high-density lipoprotein. It could be concluded, that the addition of nano-boron to the diet led to improving some blood parameters of the broiler.

Key words : Nano-boron, Biochemical traits, Lipid profile of serum, Broiler.

Full paper in Arabic: PDF

The Education Impact of the Farmer Field Schools of Almond ‎Trees At Shahbaa Region In Al-Suwayda Governorate

Jalaa Kanbar*(1)

(1). Department of Economic and Agricultural Extension, Faculty of Agriculture, Al Furat University, Der-ezzor, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Jalaa Kanbar. Email:  2010drjalaa@gmail.com).

Received: 26/02/2020                               Accepted: 07/04/2020


The research aimed to determine the education impact of the Farmer Field School (FFS) at Shahbaa region in the Al-Suwayda governorate, by identification the contribution of FFS in education and transferring the recent agricultural recommendations for almond trees. Data of the study from 40 farmers within the FFS were collected by personal interview, using a questionnaire prepared for this purpose. This research was conducted in two villages (Park and Al-Hit) at Shahibaa agriculture directorate in Al-Suwayda governorate. The tabulated presentation of data was used, which included the frequencies, percentages, average, and standard deviation. The results of study showed that the proportionofagriculture respondents with high level of education reached 25% of the respondents. While the proportion of  respondents with  low level  was 20% , and with an average level of  55% of the respondents. The results showed that 82.5% of the respondents learned best methods for controlling diseases and insects through the participation in FFS. 72.5% of the respondents learned how to implementation of  the pruning and rootstock almond trees. The most important suggestions of the respondents to increasing the advantages of  FFS were to continue and increase the  number of FFS for the same crop in one season (85% of the respondents), provide financial and technical support for facilitators to be able to do their job more easily and all of the respondents appeared their desire to participate in another  FFS in the future. The research recommended to the need to mainstream and support farmer field schools in all governorates to work on increasing the efficiency of the deployment of agricultural innovations, to provide financial and technical support for facilitators and to stimulate farmers within FFS financially or morally.

Key Words: The education impact, Farmer field schools, Almond trees, Al –Suwayda Governorate.

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Analytical Study of Cherry Production in Latakia ‎Governorate. Case Study: Al-Haffah Region

Samah Mohammad Ahmad*(1) and Ghassan Yacoub(2)

(1). Department of Plant Production, Directorate of Agriculture, Lattakia, Ministry of Agriculture, Damascus, Syria.

 (2). Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of  Agriculture, Tishreen University, Lattakia, Syria.

(* corresponding author: Eng. Samah Mohamed Ahmed, Email: samohahahmad93@gmail.com).

Received: 25/08/2019                               Accepted: 10/11/2019


This search aims to calculate production costs of all service operations provided to the cherry tree during the production season and calculating some of its economic indicators. The study was carried out during 2017 in Al-Haffah area with the help of a questionnaire which distributed to 95 farmers. Prices and costs were also based on the same year. The results found that the total costs per dunum planted with cherries equal (151882 s.p). Total output value was (700000 s.p), profit from dunum was (548118 s.p), profitability ratio based on costs was (3.6), while profitability coefficient based on invested capital was (21.6), and the economic efficiency attained (4.6). The trend of the development of the area and production in Al-Haffa showed that the linear model was suitable. Significant increases were recorded at the level of 5% at a rate of (6.13 ha per year) from the average value of (302.9 ha). The quadratic model of the development of production showed a significant increase at the level of 5%, representing 36.63% of the average production value which reached about (1627.6 tons), then production began to decrease significantly to about 2.34% of the average value. The study recommends that farmers should be encouraged to grow cherry trees, whether basic or bearing, because of their economic feasibility. Try to find the way to support farmers in terms of input requirements, and establish extension courses for farmers to guide them to provide the best services for the cherry crop.

Key words: Cherry orchards, Production costs, Profitability ratio.

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Production Efficiency of Some Vegetable Crops Under the ‎Protected Agriculture System in Egypt

Diaa ElHaq Ibrahim Ibrahim(1) Moataz Eliw Mostafa Ahmed*(2)

(1). Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

(2). Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Azhar University, Assuit, Egypt.

(*Corresponding author: Moataz Eliw Mostafa Ahmed. E-mail: moatazeliw@azhar.edu.eg).

Received: 03/04/2020                               Accepted: 18/05/2020


The Egyptian agricultural sector has an importance among the other sectors. In addition to being a source for foreign currency, about 30% of the total employees are working in it in 2014. The research problem has been determined in that the Egyptian agricultural sector has several challenges. It makes vertical expansion important for this sector development so this research aimed to identify the usage efficiency of the economic resources for cucumber in the large capacity, and small capacity greenhouses, and the cantaloupe. The results indicated that the study crops had an economic efficiency because of the return rate was more than 1. In addition to the total production elasticity which was 1.4, 1.02, and 1.19 for the study crops, respectively, which means that production was taking place in the non-economical stage for the production, and it still needs intensify of some production elements. With an estimate of the function cost, it was found that the production volume that  make  the return the greatest amounted to 118 tons, and the production volume that makes costs minim was 88.8 tons, and the total cost elasticity was 0.89. All that was for the cucumber in the large capacity. However, the production volume that makes the revenue the greatest in Dakahlia Governorate was 166 tons, and the production volume that makes the cost is lowest was 120 tons. For Al-Buhaira Governorate, the production volume that maximizes the revenue had reached about 345 tons, and the production volume that makes the lowest cost was 197 tons. The research found that the problems facing protected agriculture were the high costs for protected agriculture, low of standard specifications for plastics and some problems related to workers.

Keywords: Production efficiency, Protected agriculture, Vegetable crops, Egypt.

Full paper in Arabic: PDF