The Effect of Different Levels of Poultry Manure on the ‎Production of Pistachios var. ‘Ashouri’‎

Mohammed Al Doeames*(1) Rashid Kharbutli(2) and Rashid AlSaid Omar(3)

 (1). Hamah Research Center, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research GCSAR, Damascus, Syria.

(2). Department of Horticulture Science, Faculty of Agriculture,  Tishreen University, Latakia, Syria.

(3). Administration of Horticulture Research, GCSAR, Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Eng. Mohammed Al Doeames.

Received: 21/03/2020                               Accepted: 12/05/2020


This research was conducted during the seasons 2017 and 2018 on pistachio trees var.’ Ashouri’ which grown in Bsireen village at Hama governorate, in order to study the effect of different levels of  poultry manure on the production of pistachio trees var. Ashouri.  Five rates of poultry manure were applied  (10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 kg/tree), and the treatments were (T2, T3, T4, T5 and T6 respectively) which compared to chemical fertilizer (T1 treatment) as applied by the farmer, and with a control without any fertilizer addition (T0). The experiment was designed according to randomized complete block design. The results confirmed the positive effect of manure treatments on the productivity indicators of pistachio trees which clearly observed at the second season. The highest production per tree were (34.49, 34.58 and 34.83 kg)  for the treatments (T4, T5 and T6) respectively, and all treatments surpassed the control. In terms of fruits crack and empty fruits ratios the treatments T4, T5, T6 had the best values.

Key words: Pistachio, Pistacia vera, Poultry manure, Productivity traits.

Full paper in Arabic: PDF

Designing of a HACCP Plan of Lokum Line Production With Pistachio

Saleem Bani Almrjeh*(1) Fuaad Obboush(1) and Maytham Galiss(1)

(1). Food Technology Department, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.
(*Corresponding author: Eng. Saleem Bani Almrjeh. E-Mail:

Received: 20/09/ 2015                                     Accepted: 18/02/ 2016


In this research, a HACCP plan (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point “HACCP”) was designed for a production line of lokum with pistachio in a Syrian food establishment for lokum production, which located in Damascus countryside in 2011. First, an evaluation of the Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) and Good Health Practices (GHP) in the establishment was done. It has been found a medium personal cleanliness practices considering the workers. Besides, there wasn′t a training program for the workers about GMP and GHP. According to the hazard analysis during the production process of lokum with pistachio, five critical control points (ccp) were determined: The first and the second were detected during the reception of pistachio (the hazard of shell sand aphlatoxins), and the third was detected during heating process (survival of dangerous bacteria) and the fourth and fifth were during storing (dangerous bacteria or mold multiplication, and contamination by aphlatoxins). According to that the HACCP plan was defined, and the critical limits of each (ccp) were determined, and the monitoring system and corrective actions that should be followed were defined, to avoid deviation from the critical limits.

Key words: HACCP plan, Lokum, Hazard analysis, Critical control point, Pistachio.

Full paper in Arabic: Designing of a HACCP Plan of Lokum Line Production With Pistachio