Effect of planting Date, Seed Rate and Location on the ‎Incidence of Luteoviruses Affecting Chickpea under Natural ‎Infection in Syria

Nader Assad*(1) Safaa Kumari(2) Amin Haj-Kassem(3) Salah Al-Chaabi(4) and Attia Arab(4)

(1). AlGhab Research Center, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.

(2). Torbol Station, International Center for Agriculture Research in Dry Area (ICARDA), Albekaa, Lebanon.

(3). Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Aleppo University, Aleppo, Syria.

(4). General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Damascuse, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Nader Assad. E-Mail: asaad_nader@yahoo.com).

Received: 21/03/2020                               Accepted: 12/05/2020


Field experiments were carried out during 2017/2018 cropping season to study the effect of three planting dates (5 December, 25 December and 15 January) and five seed rates (80, 100, 120, 140 and 160 kg/ha) in two different sites/locations (Al Ghab Research Center and Jeb Ramleh Research Station/ Syria) on the chickpea infection with luteoviruses (aphid-born persistently transmitted viruses), which causing yellowing and stunting symptoms under natural infections. Tissue blot-immunoassay (TBIA) results showed that luteoviruses (family Luteoviridae) were the main causal of stunting and yellowing symptoms on randomly selected chickpea plants. High level of significant differences (P < 0.001) were recorded within the two experimental sites/locations. The early sowing date (5 December) reduced the percence of virus incidence by 75 and 85%, and grain yield were increased by 3.5 and 30.9% compared to other sowing dates (25 December and 15 January, respectively). Also, incidence of luteoviruses was reduced by 41% and remarkable enhancement of grain yield up to 28% was recorded on the second sowing date (25 December) compared to 3rd planting date (15 January). Disease incidence differed significantly (P< 0.001) at all levels of seeding rates, and it decreased gradually (2.7> 1.9> 1.5> 0.97> 0.63 %) in contrary to increased seeding rates (80< 100< 120< 140< 160 kg/ha, respectively). In addition, significant interactions were recorded between planting date and seed rate treatments, whereas the best treatment which was recorded when planting at the rates of 100 and 120 kg/h in early date (5 September), and the highest grain yield were 2,495 and 2,487 kg/ha, respectively, with low luteovirus incidence (0.5 and 0.45%, respectively). On the other hand, increasing of seed rates up to 140 and160 kg/ha played a positive role by decreasing the rate of virus infections by 64.3 and 76.7%, respectively, and enhancing the grain yield up to 25.7 and 30%, respectively when planting date was late on (15th January), to the contrary of early planting date where high seed rates resulted into negative effects on the grain yield. The highest parameters (except the disease severity levels) were significantly recorded (P<0.001) in Al Ghab Research Center in comparison to that of Jeb Ramleh Research Station with rates of 12, 40 and 39.5% for grain yield, infected plants per plot and disease incidence %, respectively; and in general, the performance of parameters were somehow similar in both locations with some differences.  

Keywords: TBIA, chickpea, seed rate, planting dates, Syria, Luteoviruses.

Full paper in English: PDF

Determination of Some Selection Indicators in Chickpeas ‎‎(Cicer arietinum) Under Water Stress Conditions‎

Hiba Alatrash*(1) Mohammad. Sh. Hakim(1) Abdallah ALYoussef(2) Mohammad. J. Hamndosh(1) and Ahmad. Sh.A. Shaaban(3)

(1). Department of Field Crops, Faculty of Agriculture, Aleppo University, Aleppo, Syria.

(2). Aleppo Research Center, General commission for scientific Agriculture Research GCSAR, Damascus, Syria.

(3). Department of Biotech Engineering, Faculty of Technological Engineering, Aleppo University, Aleppo, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Eng. Hiba Alatrash. E-Mail: hiba.fad.16@gmail.com).

Received: 26/05/2019                               Accepted: 12/06/2019


The study was carried out at AL-Sfireh location which belongs to Scientific Agriculture Research Center in Aleppo during 2016/2017, in  order to study the phenotypic-genotypic correlation and to define the most important selection indicators by path coefficient analysis of seed yield traits. (28) genotypes and two varieties i.e. Ghab4 and Ghab5 as control were planted in two experiments (under drought stress and non-drought stress conditions) in randomized complete block design with tow replications. The traits (100-seeds weight, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per plant, plant height, no. of days to flowering, no. of days to maturity) were studied. The results showed significant differences among genotypes for all traits in both experiments, the correlation analysis showed a positive and significant relationships between seed yield and number of pods per plant, number of seeds per plant, 100-seeds weight and plant height, while a significant and negative correlation was noticed between seed yield and no. of days to flowering and no. of days to maturity under drought stress experiment and in the non-drought stress experiment. Positive and high significant relationships were recorded between seed yield and number of pods per plant and positive significant correlation was recorded between seed yield and number of seeds per plant and 100-seeds weight. Path coefficient analysis exposed that number of pods per plant had the highest positive direct effect on seed yield followed by 100-seeds weight, but number of pods per plant had the highest positive indirect effect on seed yield through the number of seeds per plant followed by plant height whereas no. of days to flowering and no. of days to maturity had the highest negative indirect effects on seed yield through the number of pods per plant under drought stress experiments. Also, under non drought stress experiments number of pods per plant had the highest positive direct effect on seed yield followed by 100-seeds weight but number of pods per plant had the highest positive indirect effect on seed yield through number of seeds per plant followed by plant height. This study confirmed the importance of number of pods per plant, 100-seeds weight and early flowering as indicators for the development of drought tolerant genotypes.

 Key words: Chickpea, Yield components, Phenotypic-genotypic correlations, Path analysis, Selection indicators.

Full paper in Arabic: PDF

Effect of Plant Species on The Response to Phosphate Rock as a Source for Phosphorus Nutrition in Alkaline Soil

Rabab Moner Nasser*(1) Leila Ahmed Habib(1) and Ghiath Ahmed Alloush(1)

(1). Department of Soil and Water Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University, Latakia, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Eng. Rabab Moner Nasser. Email: rababnasser1973@gmail.com).

Received: 08/04/2018                                Accepted: 02/07/2018


A field trial was conducted in 2014 at Al Henadi village, which located in south of Latakia, to evaluate the response of three plant species: Rape plant, chickpea and Bermuda grass to phosphate rock (PR) compared to triple super phosphate (TSP). Phosphate sources (PR and TSP) were applied at three rates (520, 1040, 1560 kg P/ha) besides the control without addition. Also, an agar experiment was conducted to illustrate the role of root exudates in rhizosphere pH changes. The results showed that rape plant had high response to PR application, with high relative agronomic effectiveness (RAE%) of 102% compared to TSP. Whereas chickpea came second with a RAE value of 77.5% compared to TSP.  Finally, Bermuda showed a RAE% varied between 2 and 75% according to the number of cut, and 44% for total yield. The main factor may influence plant response to PR was due to induced changes in pH by roots system, and the exuded organic acids as showed by agar technique in chickpea and rape.

Key words: Rape plant, Chickpea, Bermuda grass, Phosphate rock, Agar technique.

Full Paper in Arabic: PDF

Effect of Osmotic Potential Induced by Polyethylene Glycol (PEG6000) on the Germination of Five Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Varieties

Loubana Al-Saleh (1) Bashar Hyass (2) and Fadi Abbas*(3)

(1). Department of Field Crops, Faculty of Agriculture, Al Baath University, Homs, Syria.

(2). Agriculture Research Center of Homs, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Fadi Abbas. E-Mail: fadiab77@gmail.com).

Received: 01/12/2018                                Accepted: 10/01/2019


This experiment was conducted in the labs of Chemistry and Petroleum Engineering Faculty at AL-Baath University, Homs, during 2017. PEG6000 was applied to the germination media with low osmotic potentials (OP) i.e. 0, -3 and -6 bar, for screening 5 chickpea varieties under controlled conditions. Complete randomized design (CRD) with three replicates was used. The results exhibited a genetic difference between the varieties concerning the response to the application of PEG6000 in the media. The germination percent was decreased with the decline of osmotic potential 0, -3 and -6 bar. The percentages of germination were 100, 93.67 and 70.73 % respectively, as compared with the control. While the speed of germination was 6.70, 4.98 and 2.22 respectively. The length of epicotyl and radicle were estimated in all of tested osmotic potentials, and the results showed that with decreasing the osmotic potential the length decreased, and the decrement in epicotyl was more than radicle. The variety Ghab5 achieved the lowest scores in growth declaim compare to the other varieties. The differences between genotypes in the response to drought stress using PEG6000 during germination, and the z-distribution analysis whish classified the varieties to tolerant and sensitive. Ghab5 and Ghab4 were considered as tolerant genotypes for drought stress, and could be sown successfully under the most drought conditions, compare to other varieties.

Key words: Osmotic potential, Polyethylene Glycol PEG6000, Germination stage, Chickpea.

Full paper in Arabic: PDF

Effect of Planting Dates on Yield of Chickpea (Cicer Arietinum L.) Because of the Infection with Gram Pod Borer (Helicoverpa Armigera)

Mashhour Nawaf Ghanem*(1)

(1). Swieda Agriculture esearch Center, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Sweida, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Mashhour Nawaf Ghanem.
E-Mail: mashhourghanem@gmail.com).

Received: 21/06/ 2015                                     Accepted: 22/09/ 2015


The experiment was conducted at Hoot Research Station in Sweida/Syria, during the growing seasons (2010/2011 and 2011/2012). Five winter dates and 4 spring dates were conducted. Ghab3 variety was used for winter planting and a local variety was used for spring planting. This experiment aims to determine the optimum planting date of rain fed chickpea in winter and spring planting, to achieve the highest yield and escape of the infestation by Gram Pod-Borer. The results showed that the highest yield was obtained at the early planting at the end of December (818.8 kg/ha) for winter planting, and end of January (537.6 kg/ha) for spring planting. The infection rate decreased directly by early planting for winter (5.14%), while it increased directly for earliness planting for spring (9.34%). The study concluded the possibility of growing winter chickpea in the second part of December, and to grow the local variety on early spring, and control the gram pod borer at the same time, to get the best result of yield and low infection.

Key words: Chickpea, Planting dates, Gram pod borer.

Full paper in Arabic:

تأثير مواعيد الزراعة في إنتاجية محصول الحمّص (.Cicer Arietimun L) نتيجة الإصابة بثاقبة القرون (Helicoverpa Armigera)