In vitro Mutagenesis for Increasing Drought Tolerance and Molecular Characterization in Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) cv. “Black Matrouh”

Rehab N. Al-Mousa*(1) Neveen A. Hassan(2) Ramzy G. Stino(3) and Amina H. Gomaa(3)

(1). Department of Biotechnology, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.
(2). National Gene Bank and Genetic Resources, Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt
(3). Pomology Department, Faculty of agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Rehab N. Al-Mousa. Email:

Received: 01/08/ 2015                                     Accepted: 29/10/ 2015


This study was conducted at the National Gene Bank and Atomic Energy Commission, Egypt started in 2012 to 2014; to produce grape (Vitis vinifera L.) plantlets more tolerant to drought. Shoot tip explants of grape cv. “Black Matrouh” were irradiated with various doses (0-50 Gray) of gamma rays and three vegetative generations (from M1V1 to M1V3) were obtained. To induce drought stress, different concentrations (0, 5 and 10 gl-1) of polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000) were added to the media. The sensitivity of shoot tip explants to radiation increased gradually with increasing gamma rays dose, and LD50 was found at 50 Gray. Elevated shoot number and length were observed with increasing the subculture number. Under drought stress, vegetative and rooting parameters gradually decreased at the same radiation dose with increasing PEG concentration. Explants could tolerate the hard effect of drought when irradiated with 20 Gray of gamma rays. Out of the 20 Inter Simple Sequence Repeat primers used, 6 primers (17898-B, 852, ISSR-35, 834, 889 and HB-9) generated 8 unique bands in plants irradiated with 20 Gray that could be considered as potential markers for initial estimation and selection of drought tolerance in grape.

Keywords: Grape, Gamma rays, LD50, Drought tolerance, PEG, ISSR analysis.

full paper: In vitro Mutagenesis for Increasing Drought Tolerance and Molecular Characterization in Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) cv. “Black Matrouh”.

Fodder Beet (Beta Vulgaris var. crassa Mansf) Varieties Response to Harvest Dates under North East Conditions of Syria

Entessar Al-Jbawi*(1), Hussien Al Nazal(2) and Hussien Al Zubi(1)

(1). General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Damascus. Syria.
(2). Agricultural Research Centre in Al Raqqa, (GCSAR), Al Raqqa. Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Entessar Al Jbawi. E-Mail:

Received: 24/03/2016                                      Accepted: 04/04/2016


The field experiment was conducted in AL Raqqa Agricultural Research Center, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Al Raqqa/Syria, during 2011/2012 season to investigate the response of two fodder beet varieties i.e Vermon, and Jamon, to three harvest dates (10 April, 25 April, and 10 May). Split plot design was used with three replicates. The statistical analysis exhibited no significant effect of harvesting dates (H), and varieties (V), on all the studied traits, but the difference between varieties were significant in terms of sucrose % (p≤0.05). It was notably that expanding harvest period leads to an introduction in most of studied traits. The results showed that Vermon surpassed Jamon (p≤0.05), in terms of sucrose% (27.3%). The percentage of variance confirmed that the most effective factor for the all studied traits was the harvest date, followed by the varieties, except for sucrose %, which varieties had the main and significant effect. It could be concluded that harvest date could be prolonged one month after it sown on 10th September, and used Vermon variety to get more sugar content in roots.

Keywords: Fodder beet, Harvest date, Yield and yield components, Syria.

full paper: Fodder Beet (Beta Vulgaris var. crassa Mansf) Varieties Response to Harvest Dates under North East Conditions of Syria.

Assessing the use of agricultural information sources by the extension agents in the United Arab Emirates

Walid Kaakeh*(1)

(1). Department of Aridland Agriculture, College of Food and Agriculture, UAE University, Al-Ain, U.A.E.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Walid Kaakeh. Email:

Received: 13/07/2016                                      Accepted: 01/09/2016


This research was conducted during March-May 2007 to identify demographic characteristics of the UAE extension agents, and determine extension agents’ levels of need and frequency of use for the different types and specific forms of agricultural information sources used in their daily practices.  Survey forms were mailed to 100 agricultural extension agents. The study showed the need of extension agents for written, specialized and personal information sources.  Also, the results exhibited higher levels of use for written forms of information sources, and lower levels of use for electronic, personal, specialized, and audio and visual information sources.  Those results are of interest to policy makers and agricultural decision makers for identifying the need of agricultural extension.

Key Words: Agricultural information exchange, Extension agent, Information source, Frequency and level of use.

Full paper: Assessing the use of agricultural information sources by the extension agents in the United Arab Emirates.


The Effect Inoculation with Bacteria Burkholderia spp  and Different Rates of Nitrogen Fertilization on the Productivity of Tomato

Merfat T. Ben Mahmud*(1)

(1). Soil and Water Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Tripoli University, Tripoli, Libya.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Merfat Ben Mahmoud.

Received: 10/04/2016                                      Accepted: 16/05/2016


The effect of inoculation with nitrogen fixation bacteria Burkholderia ssp. that isolated from Libyan soil and different rates of nitrogen fertilization (ammonium phosphate) 0, 80, 180,350, and 500 kg N/ha on the productivity and some fruits properties of tomato variety Marmande. The experiment was conductrd at a farm in Wadi Elrabie area (Tajura), which located at the east of Tripoli, Libya during 2014/2015 season. The results showed that the highest percentage in productivity was achieved when the plants inoculated with bacteria Burkholderia and fertilized with 180 kg N/ha, where the yield was 17.50 kg/plant (280.829 ton/ha). In terms of length, and width of the plant, fruit content of vitamin C, acidity and total soluble solids, the results did not show significant differences comparing to the control. Thus it can be concluded that the use of a bacterial inoculation is effective when it used accompany with a rate of nitrogen fertilization ranged from 80 to 350 kg N/ha under environmental experiment conditions.

Key Words: Marmand, Burkholderia Spp. Nitrogen fertilizer.

Full paper in Arabic:تأثير التلقيح ببكتيريا Burkholdria spp مع معدلات مختلفة من التسميد النيتروجيني في إنتاجية نبات الطماطم

Effect of Different Irrigation Methods on Water Use Efficiency of Maize in Homs Governorate

Bassam Oudeh*(1) Boshra Khozam(1) Abd-Al-Karim Jerdy(1) Nedal Khanem(1) and Tallal Al- Abdo(1)

(1). Mokhtaria Research Station, Agricultural Scientific Research Center in Homs, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Homs, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Bassam Oudeh. Mobile: 0988284819,

Received: 06/06/ 2015                                     Accepted: 07/08/ 2015


The study was carried out using different irrigation methods i.e. sprinklers with different spaces 9×9 m, and 12×9 m, drip irrigation GR, surge flow and the traditional surface irrigation as control, at Mokhtaria Research Station, Agricultural Research Center in Homs, Syria, started from 2008 to 2012 seasons. The results showed that using irrigation methods (sprinklers 9x9m, sprinklers 12x9m, drip GR, surge flow drainage 0.75 L/sec/row and surge flow drainage 0.50 L/sec/row) gave an average of gross water consumption as follow: 4313, 4717, 3592, 4617 and 5190 m3/ha, respectively, while the percentage of  irrigation water saving was (49.2, 45.5, 56.5, 51.1, and 45.1%) respectively, and the yield was (6756, 6258, 7278, 6088, and 5818 kg/ha), respectively, and the increase in yield compared with control was (71, 58, 84, 54, and 47%), respectively, gross water use efficiency was (1.57, 1.33, 2.03, 1.32, and 1.12 kg/m3/ha), respectively. The average of gross water consumption of the traditional surface irrigation was 9447 m3/ha with a yield of 3956 ton/ha. The results above showed that drip irrigation (GR) was the best in yield and saving irrigation water, and was the highest in gross water use efficiency as compared with other irrigation methods, and it is recommended to be executed as modern technique for irrigation of maize crop in Homs Governorate.

Key words: Water use efficiency, Different irrigation methods, Maize, yield.

Full paper in Arabic:تأثير استخدام طرائق ري مختلفة على كفاءة استخدام مياه الري لمحصول الذرة الصفراء التكثيفية بمحافظة حمص

The Suitability of CropWat 8 Program in Scheduling Irrigation and Water Consumption Estimation for Some Crops and Fruit Trees in Damascus Countryside

Ayman Hejazi*(1) Rabiaa Alhayek(2) and Mohammad Hakkoun(1)

(1). Natural Recourses Research Administration, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.
(2). Agricultural Research Center of Salamya, (GCSAR), Hama, Syria.

(*Corresponding author:  Eng: Ayman Hejazi. E-Mail:

Received: 30/06/ 2015                                     Accepted: 07/09/ 2015


This theoretical study was carried out in 2014 to study CropWat 8 model suitability to estimate water requirements and irrigation scheduling for some fruit trees and crops, using field trials data, which had been executed at Nashabia Irrigation Research Station, Damascus Countryside, Syria. The data that have been gotten of the net water consumption and number of irrigations for apricot, olive trees, tomato, and maize of field trials were compared with those results that have been gotten using the program . The results showed an increase in the estimated value as compared with real one for water consumption with a percentage of (1%) for apricot, and (23%) for tomatoes. The means differences between the estimated and real values, using T-test (paired samples) by SPSS showed insignificant differences for apricot, olive, and maize, except tomato where the differences were significant at 5% level of probability, also it was noticed in terms of the number of irrigations that there was a high matching between the estimated and real values for apricot, olive, and corn, but for tomatoes there was a difference in about 4 irrigations, this difference is due to the difference in crop coefficient values between the estimated program value and the calculated (real value). The simulation model curve of changes in soil moisture was similar to the changes in moisture in the field conditions to a large extent. Root mean square error (RMSE) values for water consumption of apricot, olive, tomato, and corn were as follows: 6.4, 14.5, 45.41, and 26.53 respectively, while the values of Index of Agreement (d) were as follows: 0.98, 0.83, 0.81, 0.94 respectively, which indicates a good matching between estimated and real values.

Key words: CropWat8, Water consumption, Irrigation scheduling.

Full paper in Arabic:

مدى ملائمة برنامج CropWat8  لجدولة الري وتحديد الاستهلاك المائي لبعض المحاصيل والأشجار المثمرة المزروعة في غوطة دمشق

Monitoring Changes in Vegetation cover in Agriculture Stability Zones of Syria Using Time Series NDVI/MODIS During 2000-2012

Eyad Alkhaled*(1) and Rada Kassouha(1)

(1). General Organization of Remote Sensing (GORS), Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Eyad Al Khaled. E-Mail:

Received: 27/07/ 2015                                     Accepted: 07/09/ 2015


Drought is a natural phenomenon that decreases plants biomass, which can be monitored using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). The study aimed to monitor the periodical and spatial changes of plant cover, and drought in Agriculture Stability Zones (ASZ) in Syria, using NDVI/MODIS images, and link them with the rainfall data during 2001- 2012. The results showed that the lowest NDVI values were recorded for zones 1 to 5; the averages during 2008 were 0.412, 0.259, 0.172, 0.131, and 0.109 respectively. The year 2008 was considered the most drought year during the studied period. On the other hand, the year 2003 was considered the least drought year during the same period. The averages of NDVI of the five zones were 0.55, 0.49, 0.37, 0.28, and 0.18 respectively. Al thought there was a high significant correlation (r=0.89*) between rainfall and NDVI during the studied period. The output maps of MODIS using NDVI for the studied period, which is classified to 13 classes, showed that the largest area was for zone 1 of the classes 7, 8, 9, and 10, and the NDVI values ranged from 0.3 to 0.7 which representing rain fed and irrigated crops, and a specific percentage of the horticulture. Zone2 was included in the classes 6,7, and 8 for the NDVI values that ranged from 0.2 to 0.5, which representing grass and rain fed crops, but zones 3 and 4 were included in the classes 5,6, and 7 for the NDVI values that ranged from 0.1 to 0.4, which representing low cover with grass and rain fed crops, finally Zone 5 was included in two classes; 4, and 5 which were dominant and representing low and semi grass cover, with an area about 91.3% of zone 5.

Key words: NDVI, Agricultural stability zones, Biomass, MODIS, Syria.

Full paper in Arabic:

مراقبة التغيرات في الغطاء النباتي في مناطق الاستقرار الزراعي لسورية باستخدام القرينة النباتية NDVI من معطيات MODIS للسلسة الزمنية 2000-2012

Estimation of Selection Indices in Some Primitive Wheat Genotypes using Correlation and Path Coefficient Analysis

Maysoun Mohamad Saleh* (1) Wessam Yahia Akel(2) Razzan  Mohamad Ali  Al Naggar(3)

(1) Genetic Resources Department, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.
(2). Swaida Agricultural Research Center, (GCSAR), Swaida, Syria.
(3). Crops Research Administration, (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Maysoun Mohamad Saleh.

Received: 15/09/ 2015                                     Accepted: 05/10/ 2015


The study was conducted at Izraa Research Station, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), in Syria during two growing seasons 2010 and 2011. Fifteen tetraploid wheat genotypes (2n= 4x=28) were planted under rainfed conditions (4 genotypes belong to species Ttiticum carthlicum, 3 genotypes belong to species Ttiticum polonicum, 8 genotypes belong to species Ttiticum dicoccum), and three local checks sham3, sham5, and Douma1, in randomized complete block design (RCBD), with three replications. Correlations and path coefficient analysis between yield components (number of fertile tillers, spike peduncle length, number and weight of grains per main spike, thousand grain weight) with the individual plant grain yield. Results showed that grain yield had a positive significant correlation (P≤0.01) with each of number of fertile tillers, spike peduncle length, number and weight of grains per main spike (r=0.636**، 0.366**،0.656**، 0.509**), respectively. Results of path coefficient analysis showed that the direct effect of number of fertile tillers on grain yield was high and positive (0.743), while the direct effect was medium and positive for each of number and weight of grains  in main spike and also  thousand grain weight on grain yield (0.239, 0.285, 0.21), respectively. Results also showed that number of fertile tillers had  the highest contribution %  in yield (55.32%), followed by the indirect effect of number of grains in main spike through the weight of grains in main spike (13.15%), then the direct effect of each of number and weight of grains in main spike (8.60, 8.17%), respectively. The study confirmed the importance of number of  fertile tillers, and number and weight of grains per spike, as selection indices for high yield in wheat, because of their significant correlation, and high relative importance with yield, either through direct or indirect effects.

Key Words: Wheat genotypes, Yield components, Correlation, path coefficient analysis.

Full paper in Arabic:تحديد الأدلة الانتخابية في طرز القمح المبدئي باستخدام معامل الارتباط وتحليل المسار

Effect of Planting Dates on Yield of Chickpea (Cicer Arietinum L.) Because of the Infection with Gram Pod Borer (Helicoverpa Armigera)

Mashhour Nawaf Ghanem*(1)

(1). Swieda Agriculture esearch Center, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Sweida, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Mashhour Nawaf Ghanem.

Received: 21/06/ 2015                                     Accepted: 22/09/ 2015


The experiment was conducted at Hoot Research Station in Sweida/Syria, during the growing seasons (2010/2011 and 2011/2012). Five winter dates and 4 spring dates were conducted. Ghab3 variety was used for winter planting and a local variety was used for spring planting. This experiment aims to determine the optimum planting date of rain fed chickpea in winter and spring planting, to achieve the highest yield and escape of the infestation by Gram Pod-Borer. The results showed that the highest yield was obtained at the early planting at the end of December (818.8 kg/ha) for winter planting, and end of January (537.6 kg/ha) for spring planting. The infection rate decreased directly by early planting for winter (5.14%), while it increased directly for earliness planting for spring (9.34%). The study concluded the possibility of growing winter chickpea in the second part of December, and to grow the local variety on early spring, and control the gram pod borer at the same time, to get the best result of yield and low infection.

Key words: Chickpea, Planting dates, Gram pod borer.

Full paper in Arabic:

تأثير مواعيد الزراعة في إنتاجية محصول الحمّص (.Cicer Arietimun L) نتيجة الإصابة بثاقبة القرون (Helicoverpa Armigera)

The Effect of Improved Technology Package on Alfalfa Productivity to Face Climate Changes under Central Highlands Conditions in Yemen

Mohammed M. Dows*(1) Ahmad AL-Mowlem(2) Abdullah alloan(3)  and Nadia Al solymany(4)

(1). Central  Highlands Regional Agricultural  Research Station, Yemen.
(2). Northern Highlands Agricultural Research Station. Yemen.
(3). Agricultural Research & Extension Authority. Yemen.
(4). General Administration for technology transfer, Agricultural Research and Extension Authority, Yemen.

(* Corresponding author: Eng. Mohammed M. Dows, Email:

Received: 07/05/ 2016                                     Accepted: 19/06/ 2016


Study has been carried out in three different environmental areas of Central Highlands in Yemen (Bait Rashed, Wasitah, and Bait Al-Nhmi), during 2013/2014 season. Alfalfa  local cultivar (Koly) was cultivated in three locations of each area. The improved technology package added was: 80 kg/h super phosphate P2O5 48% , 60 kg/h of Urea N 46% and 20 kg/h seed. Whereas the farmer practice was (seed rate of 15 kg/ha and without fertilizing). Randomized Completely Block Design (RCBD) was used with three replications per location. Results revealed that improved technology packages significantly (P≤0.01) enhanced values of: Plant height, tillers per plant, number of days to cut, and forage yield, with the percentage of 87.04%, 85.5%, 8.9%, and 147.4% , respectively over the control. Improved technology package got a high degree evaluation from the farmers in all locations with 66% over the control. Economic analysis showed that the application of improved techniques can make a net return of about 560.316 YR /ha, which reveals an increase of 365.830 YR /ha in revenue compared to the control.

Key words: Technology package, Alfalfa productivity, Climate changes, Revenue, Farmer evaluation, Yemen.

Full paper in Arabic:أثر حزم التقنيات المحسنة في إنتاجية محصول البرسيم لمواجهة التغيرات المناخية تحت ظروف المرتفعات الوسطى في اليمن