Study the Effect of Some Microorganisms in Biocontrol of‏ ‏Fusarium Tomatoes Wilting (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ‎lycopersici) under Lab Conditions‎

Bachar Aldakil*(1)

(1). Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Aleppo University, Aleppo, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Bachar Aldakil. E-Mail:

Received: 15/12/2019                               Accepted: 6/01/2020


Tomato is one of the most important vegetable crops and it is infected with many pathogens, and the most important one is F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici. Biocontrol is one of the most important components of IPM. This research studied the effect of different bacterial isolates of Bacillus, Pseudomonas and different isolates of fungus Trichoderma harzianum to identify the most effective isolates in reducing the radial growth of vascular tomato wilt caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici. The experiment was carried out at Faculty of Agriculture Labs, Aleppo University, in 2012, according to complete randomized design CRD with 5 replicates for each isolate in addition to the control treatment. Measurements of the average diameter of the Fusarium colony was taken in each replication of the control area. The results showed significant differences between treatments when comparing the average colony diameter of different treatments with the control. The highest value was (8 cm) when using isolation PS3 while the lowest value when using isolation was (PS2 = 1.29 cm). T2, bas1 PS 3 and the control while there were no significant differences between PS, bas1, PS3, T2, T1, and bas1 and control treatment, which make it a promising method in controlling this pathogen.
Keywords: F.oxysporu f.sp.lycopersici, Biocontrol, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Trichoderma harzianum.
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Isolate and Identify of Storage Fungi in Two Varieties of ‎Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and Detection their Ability for ‎the Toxins Secretion ‎

Magida Younis El-Kadi(1) and Zahra Ibrahim El-Gali*(1)

(1). Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Omer Al-Mukhtar University, Libya.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Zahra Ibrahim El-Gali. E-Mail:

Received: 31/03/2020                               Accepted: 21/05/2020


In the present study, seeds of tow groundnut varieties viz. Landraces (local vs.) and Virginia were collected from different market places of El-Beida city, Libya, and seed mycoflora was isolated by standard blotter paper method and agar plate method, then identified and addition to be checked for toxin production on PSA, CMA and YSA solid media. The identified fungal isolates included Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, A. terreus, Cldosporium cladospoirides, Fusarium sp. and Penicillium italicum. Data revealed that both varieties were affected by the fungal species however, 30 % of A. niger on agar plate method and 25 % on standard blotter paper, while A. terreus had the least percent incidence of up to 2% on agar plate method. Large seeds were more prone to fungal contamination than small seeds and higher numbers of fungi were isolated on agar plate method used as compared to standard blotter paper method. Results of the ability of fungal isolates for secretion toxins after exposure to liquid ammonia were recorded that color changed in pigment with different intensities, and PSA medium was suitable for toxin secretion by A. flavus, A. niger and P. italicum.

Keywords: Storage fungi, Incubation tests, Toxins secretion, Peanut, Libya.

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Effect of Carbendazim and Thiophanate Methyl Fungicides ‎on the Conidia Spores Germination and Mycelial Growth of ‎Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici Causing Tomato Wilt in ‎the Coastal Region of Syria

Mais Alkbaily*(1) Mohamed Tawil(1) and Sabah Al-Maghribi(1)

(1). Plant Protection Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University, Lattakia, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Eng. Mais alkbaily. E-Mail:

Received: 26/12/2018                               Accepted: 25/03/2019


The objective of this research was to study the effect of Defazeem (carbendazim 50%) and Agrisin (thiophanate methyl 70%) on the mycelial growth and conidia spores germination for five isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici at Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University, during 2017 and 2018. The two fungicides were used in different concentrations ranged from 0.1 to 1000 parts per million (ppm) (active ingredient) on nutrient culture media (PDA). The results showed that carbendazim inhibited the fungus growth by 59.94% to 76.4% at 1 ppm and by 100% at 10 ppm for all isolates. Thiophanate methyl inhibited the growth by 71.73 to 81.47% at 100 ppm, and by 100% at 1000 ppm. The effect of carbendazim in conidia spores germination was medium and ranged from 37.98 to 66.75% at 100 ppm and by 100% at 1000 ppm. While the effect of thiophanate methyl was low at all studied concentrations.

Key words: Carbendazim, Thiophanate methyl, Fusarium oxysporum, Tomato.

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Effect of planting Date, Seed Rate and Location on the ‎Incidence of Luteoviruses Affecting Chickpea under Natural ‎Infection in Syria

Nader Assad*(1) Safaa Kumari(2) Amin Haj-Kassem(3) Salah Al-Chaabi(4) and Attia Arab(4)

(1). AlGhab Research Center, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.

(2). Torbol Station, International Center for Agriculture Research in Dry Area (ICARDA), Albekaa, Lebanon.

(3). Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Aleppo University, Aleppo, Syria.

(4). General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Damascuse, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Nader Assad. E-Mail:

Received: 21/03/2020                               Accepted: 12/05/2020


Field experiments were carried out during 2017/2018 cropping season to study the effect of three planting dates (5 December, 25 December and 15 January) and five seed rates (80, 100, 120, 140 and 160 kg/ha) in two different sites/locations (Al Ghab Research Center and Jeb Ramleh Research Station/ Syria) on the chickpea infection with luteoviruses (aphid-born persistently transmitted viruses), which causing yellowing and stunting symptoms under natural infections. Tissue blot-immunoassay (TBIA) results showed that luteoviruses (family Luteoviridae) were the main causal of stunting and yellowing symptoms on randomly selected chickpea plants. High level of significant differences (P < 0.001) were recorded within the two experimental sites/locations. The early sowing date (5 December) reduced the percence of virus incidence by 75 and 85%, and grain yield were increased by 3.5 and 30.9% compared to other sowing dates (25 December and 15 January, respectively). Also, incidence of luteoviruses was reduced by 41% and remarkable enhancement of grain yield up to 28% was recorded on the second sowing date (25 December) compared to 3rd planting date (15 January). Disease incidence differed significantly (P< 0.001) at all levels of seeding rates, and it decreased gradually (2.7> 1.9> 1.5> 0.97> 0.63 %) in contrary to increased seeding rates (80< 100< 120< 140< 160 kg/ha, respectively). In addition, significant interactions were recorded between planting date and seed rate treatments, whereas the best treatment which was recorded when planting at the rates of 100 and 120 kg/h in early date (5 September), and the highest grain yield were 2,495 and 2,487 kg/ha, respectively, with low luteovirus incidence (0.5 and 0.45%, respectively). On the other hand, increasing of seed rates up to 140 and160 kg/ha played a positive role by decreasing the rate of virus infections by 64.3 and 76.7%, respectively, and enhancing the grain yield up to 25.7 and 30%, respectively when planting date was late on (15th January), to the contrary of early planting date where high seed rates resulted into negative effects on the grain yield. The highest parameters (except the disease severity levels) were significantly recorded (P<0.001) in Al Ghab Research Center in comparison to that of Jeb Ramleh Research Station with rates of 12, 40 and 39.5% for grain yield, infected plants per plot and disease incidence %, respectively; and in general, the performance of parameters were somehow similar in both locations with some differences.  

Keywords: TBIA, chickpea, seed rate, planting dates, Syria, Luteoviruses.

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First Report of Polymorphism of Hippodamia variegata ‎‎(Goeze) (Coleoptera:Coccinellidae) in the Coastal Area of ‎Syria (Latakia Governorate)‎

Mohammad Ahmad(1) Majeda Mohammed Mofleh(2) and Hiba Makhlouf*(3)

(1). Department of Plant protection, Faculty of Agriculture. Tishreen University, Latakia,
(2). General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR). Damascus, Syria.
(3). Scientific Agricultural Research Center in Latakia, (GCSAR). Damascus, Syria.
(*Corresponding author: Eng. Hiba Makhlouf. E-Mail:

Received: 25/04/2020                               Accepted: 05/06/2020


In this study, various morphological patterns of Hippodamia variegata (Goeze, 1777)(Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) were identified. Adult specimens were collected from various places of the Syrian coastal area, in Lattakia governorate, and reared in the laboratory at different temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30 and 35)˚C during the period 2014-2016. Different colorations were noted in various forms on the elytron. The number of patches located on the elytron was variable and ranged from 3 to 7 spots. Depending on the number, size and shape of these spots, 37 morphs of H. variegata were identified.

Key words: Coleoptera, Coccinellidae, Hippodamia variegata, Lattakia, Polymorphism, Syria.

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Impact of Certain Insecticides Against Pink Bollworm ‎Pectinophora gossypiella, Sucking Pests, and Their Associated ‎Predators in Cotton Fields

Mohammed E. M. A. Hegab*(1) Ahmad A. T. Zaki(1) Ali A.A. El-Sayed(1) and Adel A. Amer(1)

(1). Plant Protection Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Mohammed E. M. A. Hegab. E-Mail: 

Received: 15/03/2020                                              Accepted: 12/05/2020


Field experiments were conducted at ALZagazig  Al-Sharkia  Governorate during 2017 cotton season to tested some chemical insecticides on the larvae of  Pectinophora gossypiella cotton bolls. Three insecticides of Chlorpyrifos+Chlorfluazeron then Lambda-Cypermethrin and then Chlorpyrifos) on P. gossypiella, certain sucking pests, (Aphis gossypii, Bemecia tabaci, Empoasca spp., Nezara veridula and Tetranychus spp.) and their associated predators, (Coccinella spp., Chrysoperla spp., Peaderus alferii, Scymnus spp., Orius spp. and true spiders). The resultes showed that 1st spray was moderately effective on P. gossypiella larvae and recorded 67.33 % reduction after 2nd week while, the highest reduction was 85.71% after 2nd week of 2nd spray. The seasonal mean of reduction was 73.89% after the three sprays. In case of studying the effect of pesticides used to control pink bollworm and its effect on sucking piercing pests. Also, data revealed that the 1st spray was the preferable spray on Tetranychus. spp. and Aphid gossypii attained (100 and 87.79 %), respectively. while in the case of the 2nd spray the effect were noticed on A. gossypii, Tetranychus. spp. and Empoasca spp., which attained (100, 53.40 and 56.20 % ). While the 3rd spray recorded the high mean of reduction percentages on N. veredula and A. gossypii attained (92.15 and 84.16 %). The seasonal mean of reduction percentages after the three sprays can be arranged as follows: (90.65, 79.82, 71.52, 58.56 and 36.49 %) of A. gossypii, N. veredula ,Tetranychus. spp., B. tabaci and Empoasca spp., respectively. On the other hand, the effect of the tested compounds on  Chrysoperla spp. were 53.72, 8.23 and 9.39 % reduction recorded after the three sprays, respectively. The obtained results cleared that the tested predators affected on all sucking pests population numbers and recorded the lowest seasonal mean 23.78 % which recorded on Chrysoperla spp. On the other side there was found a relationship ranged between positive & negative and insignificant between Coccinella spp. and the sucking pests, and the relationship was positive and significant with Empoasca spp. In the case of the Chrysoperla spp., the relationship was, and significant with Empoasca  spp., N. veridula and Tetranychus spp. numbers. Whereas in the case of Scymnus spp., the relationship was positive or negative and significant in the case of B. tabaci, N. veridula and truespider mites. At the same time, the relationship between Orius spp. beetles and sucking piercing pests ranged between positive & negative, significant and insignificant, and that relationship was significant and negative true spiders and insignificant & positive with other insect piercing insects. Generally, multiple regressions between the sucking pests and predators were 65.19, 72.24, 55.75, 71.45 and 41.56 for (Coccinella spp., Chrysoperla spp., Peaderus alferii, Scymnus spp., Orius spp. and true spiders), respectively.  It could be concluded that the treatment of pink bollo worm using the following pesticide program (Chlorperifos + Chlorfloiseron and then Lambadacyhalothrin alone and then Chlorperifos alone) led to a significant reduction in the number of pink bolloworm, pests associated with this effect were low on insect predators associated with perforating sucking insects in cotton fields..

Key words: Pectinophora gossypiella, Insecticides, Sucking pests, Predators.

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The Effect of Two Spotted Spider Mite in the Presence of the ‎Predator Phytoseiulus Persimilis Athias-Henroit on the Quality ‎of Some Climbing Beans Cultivars under Greenhouse ‎Conditions ‎

Riad  Tofik Zidan(1) Mohammad Ahmad  Ahmad(2) and Alisar Nadim Shaabow*(1)

(1). Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University, Lattakia, Syria.

(2). Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University, Lattakia, Syria.

(*Corresponding author:  Eng. Alisar Shaabow. E-Mail:

Received: 24/12/2018                               Accepted: 24/02/2019


The effect of the infection of the  two spotted spider mites and using the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henroit, as biological control agent to control it,  and its effect on the quality of the bods of climbing beans cultivars: Kentucky wonder white, Blue lake, Fatima, Purple Queen, Zilioni and Gigant.  The study was carried out at a greenhouse at Lattakia Center for Rearing Natural Enemies during 2017 and 2018. Results showed a negative effect of T. urticae on the pod’s quality that it decreased its contents of  soluble solids, fibers, dry matter, protein and vitamin C, and it increased nitrates contents. While  releasing the predatory mite P. persimilis on the infected plants controlled this pest and improved pod’s quality, and that it increased its contents of  soluble solids, fibers, dry matter, protein and vitamin C, and conversely it decreased nitrates. In terms of Beans cultivars the results showed that the higher content of dry matter was attained in Kentucky wonder white and Blue lake cultivars’ pods, while the higher content of  soluble solids, fibers, protein, vitamin C, and the lower content of nitrates was notices in Fatima’s pods.

Key words: Climbing bean, Greenhouse, Cultivar, Tetranychus urticae, Phytoseiulus Persimilis

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A New Record of Parasitoid Trechnites flavipes (Mercet) ‎‎(Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) on the Pauropsylla buxtoni ‎‎(Laing, 1924) that Infests Cultivated Fig in Syria

Mahran Zeity(1)*and Majeda Mofleh(2)

(1). Agriculture Research Center in Lattakia, General Commission for Scientific and Agricultural Research, (GCSAR), Damasucus, Syria.

(2). (GCSAR), Damasucus, Syria.

(* Corresponding author: Dr.  Mahran Zeity. E-Mail:

Received: 17/03/2020                               Accepted: 10/04/2020


The study was conducted to identify the parasitoid of the fig gall psyllid, Pauropsylla buxtoni, which was collected from Damascus, Syria during 2019. The parasitoid of the psyllid was collected from the infested leaves in plastic boxes with moistened cotton and was kept at a laboratory condition for the emergence of the adult parasitoid. The parasitoid was identified as Trechnites flavipes (Mercet), which was recently reported in Palestine during 2018.This study provided a new collection data about two psyllid species that infests the cultivated fig in Syria, namely, fig gall psyllid, Pauropsylla buxtoni and the free living fig psyllid, Homotoma ficus.

Key words: Syria, Parasitoid, Cultivated fig, Homotoma ficus, Bio-control.

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Effectiveness of Kaolin, Silica and Zeolite Dusts Against Cowpea Beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) Under Laboratory Conditions

Ziad Chikh-Khamis(1) Ebraheem Al-Jouri*(2) and Rehab Esber(1)

(1). Plant Protection Department, Agricultural Engineering Faculty, Al-Baath University, Homs, Syria.

(2)  . Insect Research Department, Plant Protection Research Administration, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Ebraheem Al-Jouri. E-mail: and

Received: 13/08/2018                                Accepted: 30/01/2019


Three types of inert dusts i.e. Kaolin, Silica and Zeolite, was tested against cowpea seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera, Bruchidae) adults at five concentrations viz. 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 g/kg cowpea seeds. The study was carried out at Biotechnology Research Center, Al-baath University.  mortality rates were calculated after 72 hours and effectiveness to reduce loss of seed weight damage rate and the reduction of adult emergence were calculated. The results showed the effectiveness of three dusts in increasing mortality rates with superiority to Kaolin which increased by 85.49% and with significant deference P≥0.01 compared to both dusts Silica 81.72% and Zeolite 82.93%, and the effectiveness increased with increasing the concentration. The maximum value was 85.58% at a concentration of 80 g/kg and the lowest value was 76.36% at a concentration of 5 g/kg. The relationship was positive between increasing concentration and increasing effectiveness of dusts in reducing seed loss, damage ratio and adult emergence, where the effectiveness at a concentration of 5 g/kg were 88.11, 88.59 and 89.07% respectively, and the effectiveness increased at a concentration of 80 g/kg were 98.54 and 98.14 and 98.28% respectively. Kaolin dust was superior over Silica and Zeolite where Kaolin effectiveness in reducing weight loss, damage and adult emergence were 99.71, 99.70 and 99.77%, respectively, while it was 87.06, 87.76 and 86.56%, respectively in case of Zeolite. The results of the study showed that Kaolin dust is the most effectiveness compared to Silca and Zeolite against Cowpea seed beetle.

Keywords: Kaolin, Silica, Zeolite, Cowpea seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus.

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Spot Diseases Survey on Barley in North Eastern of Syria and Evaluation the Response of Some Varieties Against Spot Blotch

Alan Remo*(1)

(1). Al Qamishly Research Center, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research GCSAR, Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Alan Remo. E-Mail:

Received: 16/10/2018                                Accepted: 24/02/2019


Barley is an important crop in Syria, many fungal pathogens caused barley foliage diseases. So this study aimed to survey the main diseases in the region, identify the most frequent pathogenic fungi, and evaluate reaction of some released varieties of barley against Helminthosporium sativum at two stages, the first was at both tilling and extension, while the second was at the extension stage only, therefore, barley fields in the North Eastern Syria were  surveyed during the two growing seasons 2013 and 2014. The results showed spread some barley diseases such as Helminthosporium sativum, Alternaria alternate and Rhynchosporium secalis, in the region, and the most frequent pathogen was Helminthosporium sativum. Arabi Aswad variety was the most susceptible variety to H. sativum, while Furat 2, Furat 3 and “Furat 6” were the most resistant/tolerance at tiller stage, and Furat 7 was the most susceptible, while, Furat 2 and Furat 6 were the most resistant/tolerances cultivars in the extension stage.

Keywords: Syria, Barley, Leaf necrosis, Helminthosporium sativum.

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