Relationship between Rainfall and Surface Soil Moisture ‎within Time series in the Syrian Coast Using Remote Sensing ‎Data

Nada Wafik Mohammad*(1) Waseem Al Mesber(2) and Eyad Ahmad Al_Khaled(3)

(1). Ministry of Agriculture and Agrarian Reform, Damascus, Syria.
(2).Department of Soil, Faculty of Agriculture, Damascus University, Syria.
(3). General Organization of Remote Sensing, Damascus, Syria.
(*Corresponding author: Eng. Nada Wafik Mohammad. E-Mail: 

Received: 20/12/2020                               Accepted: 09/02/2020


This study was carried out in the Syrian coast region with the aim of studying the relationship between the amount of rain precipitation and the surface soil moisture at a depth of 10 cm for a time series starting from 2005 to 2010 and for this purpose data derived from satellite imagery of rain precipitation of type Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission TRMM was used for each month of the study period from the beginning of January 2005 to December 2010 to get a total of 72 images, in addition to the use of satellite images of surface soil moisture at a depth of 10 cm simultaneously with the space data of rain precipitation. Erdas Imagine and ArcGis software were used to process the images of rain precipitation and soil moisture and their outputs. The correlation between rain precipitation and soil surface moisture was also studied. The produced maps showed that the years 2008 and 2010 were the least recorded years of rain (579 and 544 mm), respectively, while the year 2009 was the highest recording of the precipitation of 1039 mm. This was in line with the maps produced for surface moisture, as the years that retain the highest surface moisture at a depth of 10 cm during this time series were 2009, 2006, 2007, 2005 and the lowest years recording the surface moisture during the studied time series were 2008 and 2010. The results also showed when studying the relationship between ground and surface moisture at the level of the study points and months of the year that rainfalls are concentrated in the months of January and February to decrease in March and April, to clearly decrease from May to almost no in August and July to start to rise from September to ascending until December was somewhat in line with the surface moisture maps. The study of the total correlation of the total time series showed a highly significant positive correlation between the amount of rain and surface moisture of 0.739**. This relationship was at the level of months of the year of high positive correlation for months 1, 2, 4, 10, 11 and 12 and negative for months 6, 7, 8 and 9.

Key words: Remote sensing, Soil surface moisture, Rainfall, Syrian coast.

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A Hydrological Climatic Study for Tal Al-Tot Watershed in ‎Hama, Syria

Jamil Abbas(1) and Hafez Mahmoud AlSalman*(1)

(1). Renewable Natural Resources and Environment Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Aleppo University, Aleppo, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Eng. Hafez Mahmoud AlSalman. E-Mail:

Received: 19/03/2019                               Accepted: 17/07/2019


The research was conducted  in 2009 at Tal Al-Tot watershed in ​​Salmiya, Hama governorate, with has an area of ​​281.3 km2, in order to define  the hydrologic  situation and water balance, depending  on topographic maps, geological maps, satellite image, GIS and climatic data (temperature, precipitation and evaporation), which were collected from a number of meteo stations in the study area, besides data from the Directorate of Water Resources in Hama, which included surface flow ratios and underground water levels, for number of  the representing wells in the study area, to make a  set of databases, also, the relation between the elements of water balance was studied, besides the ground water movement of the targeted watershed. The results indicated that the basin was elongated and the hydrographic net was dense and branched, and the concentration time was 10.14 hours. The water balance showed that most of the total rainfall is lost by evaporation, and the runoff  was (23)%. The diagrams of the studied wells indicated to a decrease in water levels by 1 m/year, where the lowest level was in November. The comparison of groundwater with rainfall clarified that the infiltration took two months to recharge the aquifers. These findings highlighted  the importance of focusing  on hydrological study of the watershed to give good management that optimizes the use of water by determining  volume of precipitation, water inflow, water outflow, storage and various requirements, then to  develop of these resources through the dissemination of  water harvesting techniques.

Key words: Watershed, Tal Al-Tot location, Water balance, Water loss.

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Taxonomy of Imported Medicinal Plants Used in Traditional ‎Medicine in Aleppo

Abdel Aleem Bello*(1) and Tawfik Al-Boshi(2)

(1). Plant Bilolgy Department, Faculty of Science, University of Aleppo, Aleppo, Syria.

(2). Renewable Natural Resources and Ecology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Aleppo, Aleppo, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: D. Abdel Aleem Bello. E-Mail:

Received: 24/09/2018                               Accepted: 13/02/2019


The medicinal plants were still used in traditional medicine in the city of Aleppo, despite the availability of prescribed chemical drugs, and the documentation of this medical knowledge is very important. The study included identification and classification of 52 imported medicinal plants belonging to 36 plant families, and used in traditional medicine in Aleppo city to treat many diseases and disorders. The samples were collected from the herbalist shops, and the data were collected from the herbalists and from the related references. The list of plants was arranged alphabetically by scientific name, recorded next to each plant, the plant part used, and the uses of each species in traditional medicine. The most representative families were Zingiberaceae and Fabaceae, with 5 plants (9.61%) each, followed by Lauraceae with 3 plants (5.77%). The most vegetative parts used were fruits from 16 plants (30.77%), followed by gums and oils from 8 plants (15.38%), then seeds from 6 plants (11.54%). The most common uses were the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases in 27 plants (51.92%), followed by skin and hair, cardiovascular diseases and sexual problems in 10 plants (19.23%) each. Plants were classified according to the source as 22 plants from India (42.31%), 12 from China (23.08%), and 6 from Sudan (11.54%).

Keywords: Medicinal Plants, Traditional Medicine, Herbalists, Scientific classification, Plant family.

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Effect of Phosphate and Potassium Humate on Growth and ‎Productivity Traits of Maize (Zea Mays L.) Cultivated in ‎Calcareous Soil

Osama Hatta(1) Ghiath Alloush*(2) and Rabee Zainah(1)

(1). Lattakia Research Center, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research GCSAR, Damascus, Syria.

(2). Department of Soil and Water Sciences, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering, University of Tishreen, Latakia, Syria. 

(*Cprresponding author: Dr. Ghiath Alloush. E-Mail:

Received: 17/01/2020                               Accepted: 04/04/2020


A field experiment was conducted in calcareous soil (CaCO3 = 49.7%) during 2018 season at Stkheres Research Station in Lattakia to study the effect of humates (0 and 25 kg K-humate/ha) on the response of maize crop (Tango hybrid) to TSP application (0 – 30 – 60 – 90 – 120 and 240 kg/ha). The experiment therefore consisted of 12 treatments with three replicates, and plots were completely randomized. Growth and P uptake were followed on complete selected plants 56 and 101 days from sowing, corresponding to VT and V6 of maize phonological stages. At harvest (after 101 days), productivity of grain yield and straw were measured and some efficiency parameters related to growth. Also, P uptake and productivity were calculated. Maize plants produced the highest dry matter in non-humic treatments at VT stage in the treatment P5H0 (115.1g/plant), which was not significantly different compared to the second TSP application rate in the presence of humate (treatment P2H1=112 g/plant). The analysis of variance showed a highly significant effect for both phosphate and humates applications on relative grain yield increase (RGYI), which increased in P3H0 treatment by 21.5% and in P3H1 treatment by 28.1%. Humate application did not provide a significant impact on the phosphate utilization efficiency.

Keyword: Phosphate fertilizer TSP, Potassium humate, Zea mays, Calcareous soil.

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The Effect of Soil Treatments with Different Concentrations ‎of Sulfuric Acid on Some Vegetative Growth Traits of Tomato ‎‎(Lycopersicom esculentum L.) Under the Conditions of ‎DerAzzur Governorate

Maain Najem AlAbdallah(1) and Mohammed Ahmad AlSheikh*(1)

(1). Soil and Reclamation Lands Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Al Furat University, DerAzzur, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Eng. Mohammed Ahmad AlSheikh. E-Mail:

Received: 21/03/2020                               Accepted: 12/05/2020


Under the natural conditions of soil and climate in Der Azzur governorate, the experiment was carried out in pot size (1000) cm3 during the agricultural season (2018). The soil was clay, and some physical, chemical and fertility analyzes were conducted in order to study the effect of soil treatment with different concentrations of sulfur acid solutions, on some vegetative growth traits of tomato plants Lycopersicon esculentum (supermarimond) variety. The sulfur acid solutions concentrations were 0, 0.4, 0.8, 1.2, 1.6, and 2)%. The soil at each concentration treated with a solution concentration of (100) ml. The major nutrients were added at 15 ppm of (N, P, K), as urea (46% N), superphosphate (46% P2O5) and potassium sulfate (50% K2O), while the control treatment (0) was treated with (100) ml of distilled water only, and the major nutrients were added as in the other treatments. The experiment was designed in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replicates. With the addition of 1.6% of sulfuric acid, the tomato gave the highest values of germination percentage, number and length of leaves, leaf area surface and fresh and dry weight /plant.

Keywords: Sulfuric acid, Tomatoes, Vegetative growth traits.

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Mineralogical Composition and Genesis Properties of Soils ‎Formed on Igneous Rocks in Some Areas of Latakia ‎Governorate

Samar Ghanem*(1) and Adel Rukia(1)

(1). Department of Soil and Water  Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University, Lattakia, Syria.

(*Corresponding author:  Eng. Samar  Ghanem. E-Mail:

Received: 02/05/2019                               Accepted: 01/10/2019


The aim of this research was conducted in 2018, to study the mineralogical properties as well as, the origin of the soil formed on an igneous rock in the coastal region in lattakia governorate. Soil survey had been conducted in the study area, then two soil profiles were chosen as a representative one. Soil profiles were described and soil samples were collected for physical, chemical, morphological, and mineralogical studies. The results showed that the soil profiles were undeveloped, newly formed, with high soil composition formed from the parent material. The micro morphological study of the parent material, as well as the mineralogical composition and weathering process emphasized the domination of primary minerals, where the weathering process was still in the early stages. Nevertheless, the occurrence of some secondary minerals such as Kaolinite and Leucite can be considered as transferred minerals or formed in a previous suitable conditions for it. Similarly, Philipsite can be considered as secondary minerals formed from weathering of igneous rocks. All in all, according to the American soil classification, the soil can be classified as follows: (Order, Suborder, Great group, Sub group).

P1: Entisols, Orthents, Xerorthents,  Typic Xerorthents .

P2: Entisols, Orthents, Xerorthents, Lithic Xerorthents .

Keywords: Mineral composition, Micro morphological study, Diagnostic properties, Soil classification, Weathering indicators.

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Evaluation of Groundwater Quality and Effect of its Use for Irrigation on Surface Soil Salinity in South East of Syria (Alyaaroubiya Area)

Rami Kaba(1) and Ahmad Majar*(2)

(1). Alqamishli Research Center, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research GCSAR, Damascus, Syria.

(2). Administration of Natural Resources, GCSAR, Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Ahmad Majar. E-Mail:,

Received: 10/03/2019                                Accepted: 15/04/2019


Groundwater is considered the main irrigation resource in South-eastern of Syria (Syrian Jazeera). In order to guarantee its sustainable use, qualitative and quantitative evaluation is very much needed. Our study aimed to evaluate wells water quality, as main source for irrigation, and its effect on soil salinity. The study was conducted during 2012 and 2013 in Alyaaroubiya province. Field investigation was undertaken in two stages, where soil and water samples from 16 locations were collected, first and second stages included 7 and 9 locations respectively. pH, EC and TDS, cations and anions were determined, in addition, water quality indicators were calculated. Results showed that water salinity as well as use restrictions were varied from sever to medium levels at different wells, according to infiltration indicator there were no restrictions in the wells 1 and 2, slight ones in the wells 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7. According to chloride poisoning, no restriction noticed in the well 8 and slight to medium in the well 9, however rest of wells were suffered of high content of chloride where its concentrations varied between 12.9 and 97.2 mg/l. It was recognized that increasing of soil salinity was compatible with increasing of irrigated water salinity especially in the zone 2, where salinity of the soil, irrigated from the well 16 of highest salinity of water (14.5 dS/m), reached 8.4 dS/m. Dominated salts were chloride and sulfate of sodium, calcium and at lower rate magnesium, and less content of bicarbonate. 

 Keywords: Groundwater, Water salinity, Soil salinity.

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Designing a Computer Software to Calculate Plant Water Requirements

Mazen Dougouz(1) Mahammed Haqqoun(1) Ayman Hijazi*(1) and Hadi Nasr-Allah(1)

(1). Administration of Natural Resources, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research GCSAR, Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Eng. Ayman Hijazi. E-Mail:

Received: 18/08/2019                                Accepted: 02/10/2019


This research was carried out at the Administration of Natural Resources Research, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research GCSAR, in 2018; it is considered a computer software with the first version, which calculates the quantity of water requirement for optimal plant growth without water stress according to the climatic data which was calculated for the specific area, taking into consideration no water waste, according to the proper irrigation method of the plant based on the climate data which is included in the program database. The monthly modified crop coefficients were confirmed which depended on the phonological stages of crops and trees and the results of long term of researchs that were carried out at the irrigation research stations of GCSAR, which distributed to cover the seven water basins in Syria. This program calculates the monthly plant water requirements for crops, vegetables, and trees according to Penman Montieth equation which estimates the reference evapotranspiration taking into consideration the irrigation efficiency and coefficient of reduction according to the irrigation method. This program aimed to be a guide software for estimating plant water requirements and this software is considered as a result of a research project which was supported by (GCSAR) reflecting its efforts to rationalize uses of irrigation water and improving water use efficiency especially in arid and semi-arid regions, which already had scarce in its water resources.

Keywords: Software, Water requirement, Evapotranspiration, Crop coefficient. 

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Evaluation of Land Suitability for the Cultivation in A Chosen Area in Al-Hasaka Using GIS and LAMIS Program

Rukea El-Hassan*(1) Othman Hamal(2) and Younes Idris(3)          

(1). Natural Resources Research Administration, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.        
(2). Department of Soil and Land Reclamation, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Euphrates, Der Ezzor, Syria.       

(3). General organization of Remote Sensing, Damascus. Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Eng. Rukea El-Hassan. E-Mail:

Received: 02/05/2019                                Accepted: 01/10/2019


This research was conducted at a selective area in Al Hasaka Governorate (Wadi Khribet Al Maliha) to evaluate the profitability of its lands to be grown and determine the optimum land use of it. A geo-pedological soil survey was initiated, and 10 soil profiles representing the physiographic units in the study area were collected for some chemical and physical properties analysis. Land evaluation was achieved using LAMIS (Land Management Information System) program under ArcView 3x platform. Evaluation was done by applying map-algebra on both crops’ requirements with parametric conditions of lands and climate characteristics. The results of the evaluation showed that 23.28 % of studied area had good suitability S1, 73.02% had moderate suitability S2, because of simple limitations (CaSo4, and active depth), and 3.62% had limited suitability because of moderate limitations (CaSo4, and frost).

Key words: Land suitability evaluation, LAMIS program, Geographic Information System, AL- Hasaka.

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Trends of Daily Temperature Extremes in the Coastal Region of Syria, 1986–2016

Heven Bouzo (1) and Taher Cheikho*(1)

(1). Department of Forestry and Environment, Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University, Lattakia, Syria.

 (*Corresponding author: Dr. Taher Cheikho. E-mail:

Received: 20/10/2019                                Accepted: 07/12/2019


Climate change and its potential consequences are one of the major challenges facing human development in the 21st century and one of the most important environmental issues related to human life, prosperity and security. This study examined the trends in thirteen annual extreme indices of temperature over the period 1986-2016 at Lattakia and Safita in the Syrian coastal region. Analysis of annual time series trends of temperature indices using linear regression test and Man- Kendall test revealed that the coastal region is warming. Clear and significant increasing trends were found at both stations in the annual number of summer days and tropical nights, the annual average of maximum and minimum daily temperatures, warm days and warm nights and diurnal temperature range, and insignificant increasing trend in temperature of the hottest days. Clear and significant increasing trend was also found in the temperature of the warmest nights at Lattakia station. In contrast, clear significant decreasing trends were detected in the cool days and the cool nights, and insignificant decreasing trends in the temperature of the coldest nights. The temperature of the coldest days witnessed an insignificant decreasing trend at Lattakia station and an increasing trend at Safita station. Comparing the trends observed in the Syrian coast region suggests that, in general, the Lattakia station closer to the Mediterranean Sea warmed at a greater rate than Safita mountain station.    

Key words: Climate extreme indices, Daily temperature, Trends, Lattakia, Safita.

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