A Hydrological Climatic Study for Tal Al-Tot Watershed in ‎Hama, Syria

Jamil Abbas(1) and Hafez Mahmoud AlSalman*(1)

(1). Renewable Natural Resources and Environment Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Aleppo University, Aleppo, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Eng. Hafez Mahmoud AlSalman. E-Mail: hafsel80@gmail.com).

Received: 19/03/2019                               Accepted: 17/07/2019


The research was conducted  in 2009 at Tal Al-Tot watershed in ​​Salmiya, Hama governorate, with has an area of ​​281.3 km2, in order to define  the hydrologic  situation and water balance, depending  on topographic maps, geological maps, satellite image, GIS and climatic data (temperature, precipitation and evaporation), which were collected from a number of meteo stations in the study area, besides data from the Directorate of Water Resources in Hama, which included surface flow ratios and underground water levels, for number of  the representing wells in the study area, to make a  set of databases, also, the relation between the elements of water balance was studied, besides the ground water movement of the targeted watershed. The results indicated that the basin was elongated and the hydrographic net was dense and branched, and the concentration time was 10.14 hours. The water balance showed that most of the total rainfall is lost by evaporation, and the runoff  was (23)%. The diagrams of the studied wells indicated to a decrease in water levels by 1 m/year, where the lowest level was in November. The comparison of groundwater with rainfall clarified that the infiltration took two months to recharge the aquifers. These findings highlighted  the importance of focusing  on hydrological study of the watershed to give good management that optimizes the use of water by determining  volume of precipitation, water inflow, water outflow, storage and various requirements, then to  develop of these resources through the dissemination of  water harvesting techniques.

Key words: Watershed, Tal Al-Tot location, Water balance, Water loss.

Full paper in Arabic: PDF

Hydrologic and Climatic Study of Al-Sanaober Watershed – Coastal Basin, Syria

Ammar Abbas*(1)

(1). Directorate of Natural Resources, Agricultural Rsearch Center in Latakia, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research GCSAR, Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Ammar Abbas. E-Mail: ammarabbas1984@hotmail.com).

Received: 27/05/2018                                Accepted: 16/09/2018


This research was conducted by the year of 2011 in Al-Sanobar watershed in Latakia province, with an area of ​​1336 km2, in order to study the hydrological status, climate factors and water budget for this watershed. A dam was built on the watercourse with a storage capacity of 98 million m3. Depending on the topographic maps 1: 50,000, geological maps 1: 200000, satellite images, climatic data of the dam station (precipitation, temperature and evaporation), runoff data from the Directorate of Water Resources in Latakia, and land use data of the watershed, the geometric features of the basin, and water budget were studied and the land use map was prepared. The results of geometric characteristics showed that the watershed was elongated and the shape factor value was greater than (1), so the flood hazard was low. The results of the water budget showed that more than 65% of precipitation is lost by evaporation, and the runoff reaches 30%. The land use map showed that about 55% of total area is cultivated with olive and citrus.

Key words: Watershed, Al-Sanaobar river, Al Thowra Dam, Water budget, Water losses.

Full Paper in Arabic: PDF