Generate Identification Key of Some Wild Trifolium L. Species Distributed in Syria Using Decision Tree

Aya Kanawaty*(1) Naseh Olabi(2) and Ali Shehadeh(3)

(1). Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Aleppo University, Syria.

(2). International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), Aleppo, Syria.

(3). International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), Egypt.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Aya Kanawaty. E-Mail:

Received: 01/08/2017                                Accepted: 20/02/2018


Identification key of 60 species of Trifolium L. were made by using 84 morphological characters for seeds, which planted under greenhouse conditions and then when they were grown, and were compared with local floras for identifying, or as herbarium specimen. The 84 morphological characters studied were concern about habit, stem, leaf, stipule, inflorescence, peduncle, bracts, pedicel, calyx, corolla, fruiting head and seeds. All data was entered to Orange program (C4.5) to make decision tree. Results showed that 60 species of Trifolium L. could be identified with a limited number of characters (7 specific characters) compared with local floras, which require whole plant material to be identified, so that, there were selective character could separate species from each other, which could help researcher in plant taxonomy.

Keywords: Wild species, Trifolium, Identification key, Decision tree, Syria.

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In vitro Conservation of Guava (Psidium guajava L.) var. Al-Baladi

Rehab Al Mousa*(1) Neveen Hassan(2) Ramzy Stino(3) and Amina Gomaa(3)

(1). Department of Biotechnology, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research, Damascus, Syria.

(2). National Gene Bank and Genetic Resources, Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt.

(3). Pomology Department, Faculty of agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Rehab Al Mousa. E-Mail:

Received: 04/01/2018                                Accepted: 06/02/2018


This study was conducted at the National Gene Bank, Egypt, from 2012 to 2014; to find out in vitro conservation protocol of guava (Psidium guajava L. var. Al-Baladi). The medium-term conservation study was initiated at 10 and 15°C under complete darkness conditions. Shoot tip explants were cultured on MS medium with different concentrations (3.0, 4.0, 5.0 and 6.0%) of sucrose or sorbitol. After 6 months of conservation, up to 83.33% of explants survived on medium with 5.0% sorbitol at 15ºC, while the same survival% (66.67%) was noticed when explants conserved on medium with 6.0% of sorbitol at 15ºC and on medium with 5.0 or 6.0% of sorbitol at 10ºC. Regeneration%, shoot number of explant and shoot length were not affected by osmotic concentrations. Meanwhile, all explants lost their ability to regenerate new shoots when conserved for 6 months on medium with 3.0% sucrose (control) at 10ºC. Guava seeds recorded 100% germination when desiccated for 6 h before cryopreservation in liquid nitrogen.

Keywords: Guava, Medium-term conservation, Sucrose, Sorbitol, Cryopreservation, Desiccation.

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Growth Characters and Dynamic of Some Apple Genotypes Selected as Rootstock

Ola Al-Halabi*(1) Bayan Muzher(1) and Faisal Hamed(2)

(1). Pome and Grapevine Division, Sweida Research Center, General Commission for Scientific Agriculture Research (GCSAR), Damascus Syria.

(2). Faculty of Agriculture, Damascus University, Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Ola Al-Halabi. E-Mail:

Received: 06/01/2018                                Accepted: 23/03/2018


This research was conducted at Pome and Grapevine Division in Sweida Research Center, GCSAR, during 2011-2012, to study growth characters and dynamic of five apple genotypes selected as rootstocks, through studying the changes in primary and secondary shoots length, and the number of leaves during the growth season, in addition to their length, leaves number and spiny shoots at the end of growth season of one year seedlings. The results showed differences among studied genotypes in growth dynamic during the growing season, and synchronization between structure units (primary and secondary shoots), this was clearly through significant values of auto and cross correlation coefficients, which correlated with the height and the decrease in growth rate according to the genotype. At the end of the growing season, the genotype S distinguished by highest average primary shoot of (77.9 cm) and secondary shoots (53.1 cm), these were in significant with genotype A. The differences in the average of total leaves number were insignificant among studied genotypes, and genotype B have significantly the highest number of spines on primary shoot (11 spines) with A, S and H, and on secondary shoots (13 spines) with C, S and H. Consequently, these results help to know the mechanism of rootstocks which affect the growth of cultivar scion.

Keyword: Apple Malus spp., Rootstock, Growth dynamic, Primary and secondary shoots.

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The Effect of Summer Pruning on the Production and Quality of Golden Delicious Apple Fruits in Dahr Al-Qusair Region-Homs

Wael Haddad*(1) Rashid AlSayed Omar(1) and Wessam Massah(2)   

(1). Horticulture Research Administration. General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.

(2). GCSAR, Damascus, Syria.

(*Corrsponding author: Dr. Wael Haddad. E-Mail: a ).

Received: 27/11/2017                                Accepted: 18/03/2018


The research was carried out in Dahr Al-Qusair Region-Homs during three successive seasons 2015, 2016 and 2017 on Golden delicious trees, to demonstrate the effect of summer pruning on two different periods on the productivity of pruning trees in the next season, and on qualities of fruits. The results showed that the last ten days of July had insignificant differences compared with other dates in increasing the production of trees. The average of production reached 61.67 kg in the first season and 70 kg in the next season. The results showed also, that there were insignificant differences between the three dates in their impact on firmness and TSS of fruits.

Keyword: Summer pruning, Golden delicious, Productivity, Total soluble solids, Firmness.

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Effect Potassium Chloride Addition in Different Proportions to Drinking Water on the Production Performance of Broilers During Hot Summer

Ahmad Ibraheem AL–Banki*(1)

 (1). Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture. Al-Furat University, Deir Ezzour, Syria.

(* Corresponding author: Dr. Ahmad Ibraheem AL–Banki.  E-Mail:

Received: 02/05/2018                                Accepted: 01/10/2018


The research was carried out in poultry house of broiler rearing in Deir Al-Zour (Al-Hermoushia village) from 18/6/2018 until 30/7/2018, to investigate adding potassium chloride to drinking water on the productive performance of broiler. Three levels of potassium chloride (30, 60 and 90 mg/ L water), were used in the experiment. A total of 240 one day old broiler chicks were used. The chicks distributed randomly to the 4 treatments; each treat had 3 replications, which involved 20 chicks per each. The results showed that the body weight was significantly increased (p> 0.05), where both treats (60 and 90 mg PC/L W) recorded (2795 and 2899 g respectively at (43) days old compared with the control group (2380 g). Mortality rate decreased in the second and third treatments compared to the control. There was a significant improvement in the production index. Adding (60) and (90) mg/L showed significant increase in a cumulative feed consumption, while there was no significant increase in the treat (30 mg/ liter).

Keyword: Broiler, Heat stress, Potassium chloride, Productive performance.

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The Effect of Selenium on the Digestion Factors and Their Relationship to Egg Production Chains of Local Quail (Coturnix coturnix)

Ahmad Omar Etaki*(1) Mostafa Ahmed ALJader(1) Rabab Hassan Absi(1) Adnan Adeeb ALMarrawi(1)

(1). Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Aleppo University, Aleppo, Syria.

(*Corresponding Author: Eng. Ahmad Omar Etaki. E-mail:

Received: 10/10/2018                                Accepted: 08/12/2018


The experiment was conducted at the Animal House, Faculty of Agriculture, Aleppo University, Syria within one year between 2017 and 2018 to determine the effect of organic selenium addition on the digestion treatments of local quail birds and its effect on egg production chains. 35 local mature quail aged 7 weeks old, were randomly distributed to 7 groups (5 birds per group) in the cages. besides the control group with no addition, but 0.3 mg/kg sodium selenite was added to the diets of groups (2, 3, 4 and 5), with the increase of (methionine-vitamin E-fat) in groups (3, 4 and 5) respectively. 0.3 mg/kg of organic selenium (in the yeast) was added to the sixth and seventh groups, and the fat was increased in the seventh group’s diet. In the 22nd week of egg production, the digestion experiment was conducted to calculate digestion factors. The results showed that the dietary parameters that were used did not affect the digestion factor of the dry matter, fiber and protein. The fat digestion coefficient was significantly increased (P0.05) when the concentration of vitamin E was increased in the diet. The addition of the organic selenium in the diet with additional concentrations of vitamin E significantly improved (P0.05 (the efficiency of the conversion of the digested protein to the egg protein and the performance of the productivity of birds by reducing the periods of interruption in egg production.

Keyword: Local quail, Organic selenium, Digestion factors, Efficiency of protein conversion.

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Assessment of Some Milk Production Traits on Shami Cattle under Rearing Conditions in Syria

Khaled Al-Najjar*(1) Abdulla Nouh(1) and Ali Badran(1)

(1). Animal Wealth Research Administration, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Khaled Al-Najjar. E-Mail:

Received: 08/10/2018                                Accepted: 13/02/2019


The Shami cows are local breeds producing milk in Syria, and adapted to environmental conditions but they are threatened with extinction and suffer of craving phenomenon to her calf. The research objective was to evaluate the productivity situation, and study some environmental factors which affect total, daily milk yield /kg, and lactation period /day. This research was carried out using the productivity data at Der-Alhajar Station, which belongs to the General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), in Damascus countryside during the period (1982-2009). Total records were 2461, and Data was analyzed using statistical fixed model to estimate Least Squares Means (LSM) for the studied traits. LSM of total milk yield was 1437.64±54.99 kg. The differences among calving years were highly significant, while calving season, parity, calving age, (calving seasonÍparity) and (calving ageÍparity) had non-significant influences on total milk production trait. LSM of lactation period was 152.08±4.53 day. Effect of calving year was found to be highly significant, while calving season, parity, calving age, (calving seasonÍparity) and (calving ageÍparity) were insignificant on lactation period. LSM of daily milk yield was 8.93±0.21 kg. Calving year showed highly significant effect, parity also had a significant effect, while calving season, calving age, (calving seasonÍparity) and (calving ageÍparity) had no significant effect on daily milk yield. The research concluded that, Shami cows had low milk yield, and daily milk accompanied with short lactation period. This might due to ineffective program selection in the station. So, the study recommends to follow a selection program based on genetic values of a cow in each the studied traits.

Keyword: Shami cows, Milk production, Syria.

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Isolation and Determination the Causes of Ringworm Infection in Camels, Syria

Abd Alnasser Al-Omar*(1)

(1). Hama Agricultural Research Center, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Abd Alnnaser Al-Omar. E-Mail:

Received: 11/02/2018                                Accepted: 13/03/2018


This study was carried out on 200 Ringworm infected camels’ samples under release breeding system in two governorates; Homs and Deir- eizour (Syria) during the period of March, 2010 till February, 2011 aiming for isolating and determining the dermatophytes that cause ringworm in camels. Samples were collected from clinically infected animals untreated by medicine, of which 100 samples from old camels aged (3-10 years), and 100 samples from small camels aged to 3 years. Laboratory tests were carried out by dividing each sample into two parts, the first part for direct microscopic test using Potassium Hydroxide solution 20% (KOH), and the second part for fungal planting on alimentary matrix Sabouraud,s Dextrose Agar (SDA). The morphological and colonial characteristic of outgrowth fungal colonies by microscopic and ocular exams were used to determine the gender and sort of fungous pathogenic. Results showed for the first time in Syria isolation and determining two sorts of fungous pathogenic which cause Ringworm in camels; the first was Trichophyton verracusum and the second was Trichophyton  mentagrophytes where the rates of isolation in the two governorates in old camels as an average of 77.5% and 13.75%  of isolations respectively, and it was appeared mixed isolation rate for two fungus which amounted 8.75%, whereas in small camels the rates of isolations amounted in averages of 94.5% and 5.49% respectively, but there was no significant difference between gender and sort of fungous pathogenic in the two governorates .The rate of samples that gave a positive result for ringworm infection by direct macroscopic test method with an existence of 20% KOH in old and small camels as an average of 92% and 95% of infected cases respectively. The rate of samples that gave growth of fugal colonies were 80% and 91% of positive cases of microscopic test respectively.

Keyword: Ringworm, Camels, Syria.

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Anatomical Changes Associated with Severe Toxicity of Levamisole in Broiler

Mai Al Maghout*(1) Wade Shadid(1) and Samer Hamud(1)

(1). Department of Pathology. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Hama University, Hama, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Vet. Mai Al Maghout. E-Mail:

Received: 10/12/2017                                Accepted: 21/02/2018


The research was carried out on 70 birds of two-week-old broiler, using a well-known strain (Habre flex), which is disease-free strain, at a poultry farm near Salamieh province in 2105.  The research was divided into two main stages: the first stage was divided into five groups, using 50 birds, which were treated with five doses of levamisole (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2) g/kg respectively, to determine (LD50). The second stage used 20 birds, which were divided to tow groups (10 birds for each). The first group was considered as control (water only), while the second group was given the LD50 of levamisole that was calculated in the first stage. Different tissues samples of the birds were taken and preserved in neutral formalin, and then a tissue slices were prepared and dyed with hematoxylin and Eosin. The LD50 levamisole value was determined according to local conditions of breeding in Salamieh by (LD50=1g/kg) of the bird’s weight. Before the death of the birds because of LD50 of levamisole, it was noticed some symptoms such as convulsions and dyspnea which they were not seen in the control. These symptoms were as a result of levamisole effect on cholinergic recipients. The histological study also showed that during severe toxicity of levamisole, it was noticed a microscopic changes in liver and kidney. The changes were in the form of necrosis foci and infiltration of inflammatory cells in cellular destruction sites. But the other examined tissues showed no changes. Because of that, it is necessary to use levamisole with extreme care, whether in the treatment of parasites or for immunity motivation, taking into consideration the toxic dose as showed by the study.

Keyword: Anatomical Changes, Levamisole, Broiler.

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Effect of Adding Peppermint Oil to Layer Hens Diet on Some Hematological and Physiological Parameters

Nashwan Majeed Ali*(1) and Walla Hussein Ali(2)

(1).  DNA Research Center, University of Babylon, Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research. Iraq.

(2). Directorate of Agriculture of Babylon, Ministry of Agriculture. Iraq.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Nashwan Majeed Ali. E-Mail:

Received: 31/01/2019                                Accepted: 12/04/2019


This study was conducted at the Research Farm of Shatrah Technical Institute, University of Southern Technical during the period 1/2/2018 until 10/6/2018, to investigate to the effect of adding different levels of peppermint oil to the hen’s diet on some hematological and physiological characteristics. A total of 180 layer hens aged 22 weeks old were used in this experiment. The birds were randomly and equally distributed on 5 treatments, with three replicates per each. The treatment included the addition of different levels of peppermint oil (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 ml/kg) to the diet, as treatment (T1- Control, T2, T3, T4 and T5 respectively). The studied parameters involved were: count of red blood cell (RBC), count of white blood cell (WBC), hemoglobin (Hb), Hetrophil/Lymphocytes ratio (H/L%), some liver enzyme (aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and malondialdehyde (MDA)), cholesterol, protein, glucose, calcium and phosphorus. The results showed that the addition of peppermint oil at levels of 25, 50 75 and 100 ml/kg diet of the layer hens at the beginning of egg production period significantly improved (p<0.05) the cellular indicators of the blood (PCV, RBC, HB, and H/L ratio). The peppermint oil had no effected on the total count of WBC. peppermint oil improved some of the biochemical parameters except for the activity of AST and MDA. It could be concluded that adding peppermint oil to the layer hens diet will improve some hematological and physiological parameters in their blood.

Key word: Layer hens, Hematological and physiological parameters, peppermint oil.

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