A Hydrological Climatic Study for Tal Al-Tot Watershed in ‎Hama, Syria

Jamil Abbas(1) and Hafez Mahmoud AlSalman*(1)

(1). Renewable Natural Resources and Environment Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Aleppo University, Aleppo, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Eng. Hafez Mahmoud AlSalman. E-Mail: hafsel80@gmail.com).

Received: 19/03/2019                               Accepted: 17/07/2019


The research was conducted  in 2009 at Tal Al-Tot watershed in ​​Salmiya, Hama governorate, with has an area of ​​281.3 km2, in order to define  the hydrologic  situation and water balance, depending  on topographic maps, geological maps, satellite image, GIS and climatic data (temperature, precipitation and evaporation), which were collected from a number of meteo stations in the study area, besides data from the Directorate of Water Resources in Hama, which included surface flow ratios and underground water levels, for number of  the representing wells in the study area, to make a  set of databases, also, the relation between the elements of water balance was studied, besides the ground water movement of the targeted watershed. The results indicated that the basin was elongated and the hydrographic net was dense and branched, and the concentration time was 10.14 hours. The water balance showed that most of the total rainfall is lost by evaporation, and the runoff  was (23)%. The diagrams of the studied wells indicated to a decrease in water levels by 1 m/year, where the lowest level was in November. The comparison of groundwater with rainfall clarified that the infiltration took two months to recharge the aquifers. These findings highlighted  the importance of focusing  on hydrological study of the watershed to give good management that optimizes the use of water by determining  volume of precipitation, water inflow, water outflow, storage and various requirements, then to  develop of these resources through the dissemination of  water harvesting techniques.

Key words: Watershed, Tal Al-Tot location, Water balance, Water loss.

Full paper in Arabic: PDF

Using SSM Model to Simulate Growth of Durum Wheat “Cham 7” Under Gradual Levels of Supplemental Irrigation

Ahmad Shams Aldien Shaaban*(1) Ahmad Alhafez(2) Abdullah Al-Yousef(2) and Osama Al-Issa(3)

(1). Department of Biotechnology Engineering, Faculty of Technical Engineering, Aleppo University, Aleppo, Syria.

(2). Aleppo Research Center, General Community for Scientific Agricultural Research GCSAR, Damascus, Syria.

(3). General Organization of Seed Multiplication, Aleppo, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Ahmad Shams Aldien Shaaban. E-Mail: Shaabany57@gamail.com).

Received: 08/03/2018                                Accepted: 05/09/2018


The study was conducted to compare the effect of supplemental irrigation levels on some productivity traits and water use efficiency of durum wheat variety “Cham 7”, and use SSM simulation model to study the effect of supplemental irrigation scenarios on water consumption and grain yield (GY). For that, the study was carried out in two steps: the first one was a field experiment with completely randomized block design with three replications during 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 seasons at Srbaya Research Station. Three treatments of supplemental irrigation were used i.e. 33%, 66% and 95%, in addition to the rainfed treatment as a control. Water balance and water consumption were estimated depended on neutron prop readings. Yield and its components were taken at maturity. The second step was a simulation study using SSM simulation model based on daily climatic data during the period 2001-2011. The irrigation water quantities were added at rain rate at three dates according to results of field experiment. The results of field experiment showed an increase in grain yield of 72% and 59% for each season when using supplemental irrigation at 95% compared with the control. Significant differences were found in grain yield, straw yield, biological yield and weight of thousand grains for the two studied years. In addition, simulation results showed an existence of high significant differences for the studied traits. Positive regression correlation was observed between water use efficiency and GY, and between transpiration efficiency and GY. In addition, results showed that the supplemental irrigation subscribes to increase the grain yield of durum wheat crop in percentages 23.7, 40.7 and 49.2%, with increase of evapotranspiration values in a values of 21.8, 39.3 and 52% for treatments 33%, 66% and 95% respectively compared to the control (rainfed), and the increasing ratio of evaporation did not exceed 7.5% in extremes. When these ratios were transformed on country level, the adding of supplemental irrigation will increase national production of durum wheat about 201, 339 and 407 thousand tons for treatments 33%, 66% and 95% respectively compared with the control (rainfed).

Key Words: Simulation, Supplemental irrigation, Water balance, Evaporation, Transpiration Efficiency, Grain yield, Durum wheat.

Full paper in Arabic: PDF