Study the Tolerance of Durum Wheat (Triticum turgidum ‎subsp. durum) Mutations at M3 Generation to Salt Stress

Mokhtar Baraket* (1) Hassine Marwa(2) Olfa Ayed Slama(2) Trifa Youssef(2) Hajer Slim Amara(2) and Karmous Chahine(2)

(1).National Research Institute for Rural Engineering, Water and Forestry, Ariana, Tunisia.

(2).University of Carthage, National Agronomic Institute of Tunisia, LR14AGR01, Laboratory of Genetics and Cereal Breeding, National Agronomic Institute of Tunisia, Avenue Charles Nicolle 43, 1082 Tunis, Tunisia.

(*Corresponding author: Mokhtar Baraket. E-Mail:

Received: 10/04/2020                               Accepted: 29/05/2020


The present study aimed to identify new sources of salt stress tolerance in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum subsp. durum) through mutations induced by gamma radiation. Therefore, the  irradiation of the seeds of the two most widely grown cultivars of Tunisia namely Karim and Rezzak was performed in order, to develop a new tolerant mutant of these two varieties, which  are well adapt to stress conditions with the best potential productivity. Two mutants, the first (K20/108/5) was derived from Karim and the second (R20/134/4) was derived from Rezzak using irrigation with NaCl. The plants were grown under controlled conditions using pots. It was observed that the two mutants have different tolerance mechanisms to NaCl, which were summarized by the modification of the root structure of R20/134/4 mutant. However, the mutant K20/108/5 had a distinct tolerance mechanisms that was mainly summarized in mechanisms that limited sodium entry under salt stress conditions by 34% compared to the parent. Key words: Durum wheat, Salt stress, Gamma irradiation.

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Estimating of Genetic Parameters of Some Important Traits in Interspecific Hybrids of Durum Wheat (Triticum durum Desf)

Yaman Jabbour*(1) Mohammad Shafik Hakim(1) Filippo M Bassi(2), Abdallah Al-Yossef (3) Maysoun M. Saleh(4) and Ahmad Shams Al-Dien Shaaban(5)

 (1). Department of Field Crops, Faculty of Agriculture, Aleppo University, Aleppo, Syria.

(2). International Center for Agriculture Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), Aleppo, Syria.

(3). Aleppo Agricultural Centre, General commission for scientific Agriculture Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.

(4). Genetic Resources Department, GCSAR, Damascus, Syria.

(5) Dept. Of Biotech Engineering, Faculty of Technological Engineering, Aleppo University, Aleppo, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Eng. Yaman Jabbour. E-Mail:

Received: 13/10/2018                                Accepted: 22/11/2018


The study was carried out during two seasons 2016/2017 and 2017/2018 at Scientific Agriculture Research Center in Aleppo, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research GCSAR, Syria to estimate narrow and board sense heritability, additive and dominance variances, dominance degree, expected genetic advance, genotypic and phenotypic correlations and path analysis between grain yield and study traits in interspecific hybrids of durum wheat. Nine parents were planted in the first season 2016/2017 in AL-Sofera location, five of them were primitive wheat (2 genotypes of T.dicoccum, 2 genotypes of T.carthlicum and one genotype of T.polonicum) which were used as male parents, while three cultivated varieties beside one line from ICARDA were used as female parents. North Carokina II design was used for crossing to produce 20 crosses groups (5×4). The genotypes were planted in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with two replications in Hemaima Station. Data was collected for phenological traits (No. of days to heading, No. of days to physiological maturity and grain filling period), morphological traits (plant height, spike length, peduncle length and awns length), and yield components (1000-kernels weight, number of grains per spike and grain weight/spike). The results showed significant differences among genotypes for all studied traits, additive gene action controlled all traits, the genes that controlled all traits showed partial dominance, board sense heritability was high for all traits, whereas the heritability in narrow sense was high for most of the traits except peduncle length, and awns length were mid. A high value for expected genetic advance associated with high narrow sense heritability were recorded for plant height, spike length, grain filling period, grain weight/spike, and thousand kernels weight. A positive high significant genotypic and phenotypic correlations was recorded between grain yield with (thousand kernels weight, number of grains per spike, grain weight/spike and awns length) whereas that correlation was negative and high significant with No. of days to heading. The grain weight/spike was the most studied trait that contribute in grain yield with positive direct effect (0.74) followed by awns length with positive direct effect (0.34), then number of days to heading with negative direct effect (-0.33) and finally, thousand kernels weight with positive direct effect (0.17), as for indirect effect the number of grains per spike was the most studied traits that contribute in grain yield (0.63) followed by thousand kernels weight (0.55) through the grain weight/spike. This study confirmed the importance of each (grain weight/spike, thousand kernels weight, awns length and early heading) as selection criterion for development drought tolerance genotypes.

Key words: Genetic parameters, Interspecific hybrids, North Carolina II, Durum wheat.

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Evaluation Some Agronomic Traits in Some Durum Wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) Genotypes

Yousef Wjhani*(1) and Maysoun Saleh(1) and Nader Alkarki(2)

(1). Genetic Resources Department, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.

(2). Dara’a Agricultural Centre, GCSAR, Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Yousef Wjhani. E-Mail:

Received: 03/10/2018                                Accepted: 19/12/2018


Thirteen local and entries tetraploid genotypes of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) were planted at Izra’a Station (Dar’a Centre), General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research GCSAR, during three seasons (2013/2014, 2014/2015 and 2015/2016) under rainfed conditions, in addition to the local variety Sham3 as a check in a Randomized Complete Block Design RCBD with three replications. The studied traits were (days to maturity, plant height, spike number per plant, spike length, weight of grain per spike, weight of thousand grains and individual plant grain yield) in order to evaluate the variance between genotypes and seasons and the interaction between them, and to define the superior genotypes to provide them to the breeding programs. Results showed that the genotype wheat1527 was significantly superior in spike length, grain weight per spike, thousand grains weight, and individual plant grain in a rate of 36.92, 32.10, 21.43 and 36.47% respectively, compared to the check variety Sham3. Results also showed that the genotype wheat 1471 was significantly superior in spike number in a rate of 23.07% comparing to the check Sham3 as the number of spikes in plant was (10.67, 8.67) for each of them respectively. Each of plant grain yield, spike length, spike number per plant and days to maturity were all significantly superior during the season 2016 comparing to both seasons 2014 and 2015.

Key words: Genotypes, Durum wheat, Grain yield.

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Genetic Diversity of Some Wheat (Triticum durum) Genotypes Using SSR Technique

Reham Abo Al-Kanj*(1) Ghinwa Lababidi(1) and Naim Al-Husien(2)

(1). Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Technical Engineering, University of Aleppo, Aleppo, Syria.

(2). Aleppo Research Center, General Commission of Scientific Agricultural Research Center (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Reham Abo Al-Kang. E-Mail:

Received: 02/05/2018                                Accepted: 01/10/2018


The understanding of wheat genetic variation is considered the basis for successful plant breeding programs.the use of molecular markers in genetic diversity assessment studies and in plant breeding programs has become critical. Therefore, the research aimed to studying the genetic diversity of durum wheat genotypes, it was carried out at the Biotechnology Laboratory of the Aleppo Research Center during 2016 – 2017. The DNA was extracted from all genotypes by using CTAB method, and determined its quality, purity, and quantity.  SSR technology is used to study the genetic diversity with 13 primers and the dendrogram was drew using UPGMA method according to Jaccard coefficient. The results showed there were 160  bands ranged between 100-2000 bp. PIC value was between 0.14-0.37, So the wms70، wms666، wms642، wms408 primers showed the best results. Cluster analysis showed that genotypes distributed in two main clusters. The similarity ranging from 0.21 – 0.9. This confirms the efficacy of SSR markers in detecting a wide range of genetic variation and its ability to identify genotypes.

Keywords: Durum wheat, Genetic diversity, Molecular markers, SSR.

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Using SSM Model to Simulate Growth of Durum Wheat “Cham 7” Under Gradual Levels of Supplemental Irrigation

Ahmad Shams Aldien Shaaban*(1) Ahmad Alhafez(2) Abdullah Al-Yousef(2) and Osama Al-Issa(3)

(1). Department of Biotechnology Engineering, Faculty of Technical Engineering, Aleppo University, Aleppo, Syria.

(2). Aleppo Research Center, General Community for Scientific Agricultural Research GCSAR, Damascus, Syria.

(3). General Organization of Seed Multiplication, Aleppo, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Ahmad Shams Aldien Shaaban. E-Mail:

Received: 08/03/2018                                Accepted: 05/09/2018


The study was conducted to compare the effect of supplemental irrigation levels on some productivity traits and water use efficiency of durum wheat variety “Cham 7”, and use SSM simulation model to study the effect of supplemental irrigation scenarios on water consumption and grain yield (GY). For that, the study was carried out in two steps: the first one was a field experiment with completely randomized block design with three replications during 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 seasons at Srbaya Research Station. Three treatments of supplemental irrigation were used i.e. 33%, 66% and 95%, in addition to the rainfed treatment as a control. Water balance and water consumption were estimated depended on neutron prop readings. Yield and its components were taken at maturity. The second step was a simulation study using SSM simulation model based on daily climatic data during the period 2001-2011. The irrigation water quantities were added at rain rate at three dates according to results of field experiment. The results of field experiment showed an increase in grain yield of 72% and 59% for each season when using supplemental irrigation at 95% compared with the control. Significant differences were found in grain yield, straw yield, biological yield and weight of thousand grains for the two studied years. In addition, simulation results showed an existence of high significant differences for the studied traits. Positive regression correlation was observed between water use efficiency and GY, and between transpiration efficiency and GY. In addition, results showed that the supplemental irrigation subscribes to increase the grain yield of durum wheat crop in percentages 23.7, 40.7 and 49.2%, with increase of evapotranspiration values in a values of 21.8, 39.3 and 52% for treatments 33%, 66% and 95% respectively compared to the control (rainfed), and the increasing ratio of evaporation did not exceed 7.5% in extremes. When these ratios were transformed on country level, the adding of supplemental irrigation will increase national production of durum wheat about 201, 339 and 407 thousand tons for treatments 33%, 66% and 95% respectively compared with the control (rainfed).

Key Words: Simulation, Supplemental irrigation, Water balance, Evaporation, Transpiration Efficiency, Grain yield, Durum wheat.

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The Contribution of Some Physiological Traits of Durum Wheat Crop in the Tolerance Improvement of Water Deficit Stress

Abdelrazzak Asaud*(1) Maamoun Khaity(2) Ahmad Haj Suleiman(3)

(1). Izraa Research Station, Daraa Research Center, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Daraa, Syria.
(2). Field Crops Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Damascus University, Damascus, Syria.
(3). Aleppo Research Center, GCSAR, Aleppo, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Eng. Abderazzak Asoud. E-Mail:

Received: 13/07/ 2015                                     Accepted: 03/08/ 2015


This study was conducted using 12 durum wheat genotypes at Izraa Research Station, Daraa governorate in the southern part of Syria during the growing season (2012 – 2011). The study aimed to identify some physiological characters associated with yield improvement in durum wheat grown under water deficit. The results showed that water stress at tillering stage caused a decrease in all physiological traits (chlorophyll content, membrane stability index, leaf water Potential, and chlorophyll fluorescence) in addition a decrease in grain yield. It was observed that the grain yield was the highest in genotypes H.8150, and Cham5 (216.1 216 g) respectively, and these genotypes recorded the highest value significantly in the studied physiological characters. The results clearly indicated the importance of these physiological traits in the development of high yield varieties of durum wheat under water deficit stress, therefore using of these physiological traits in breeding programmers could be effective in improvement the ability of durum wheat crop to be tolerance under water deficit stress.

Keywords:  Durum wheat, Water deficit stress, Physiological traits.

Full paper in Arabic:

بعض الصفات الفيزيولوجية التي تسهم في تحسين قدرة محصول القمح القاسي على تحمل الإجهاد المائي

Contribution of Awn in Grain Yield of Durum Wheat Under Drought Conditions

Abd Al Razzak Soud* (1) Mamoun Khaity (2) Sami Al Ghazali (1)  Fadi Abu-Rukba(3) and  Moead Almeselmani (4)

(1). Izraa Research Station, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR) , Izraa, Daraa, Syria.
(2). Department of Field Crops, Faculty of Agriculture, Damascus  University, Syria.
(3). Daraa Research Center, (GCSAR) , Daraa, Syria.
(4). Department of biotechnology, (GCSAR), Damascus , Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Eng: Abd Al Razzak Soud, Izraa Research Station, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR) , Izraa, Daraa, Syria).

Received: 01/02/ 2015                                     Accepted: 04/04/ 2015


Six durum wheat varieties (Horany, Sham3, Sham5, Bouhouth 7, Bouhouth 11, and Doma1) were used to study the contribution of awns in grain yield. The experiment was carried out in Izraa Research Station, General Commission For Scientific Agricultural Research (GSAR), Daraa, Syria, during (2010/2011). Split plot design was used with three replications. The results showed a significant difference between varieties in percentage of awns contribution in grain yield. The percentage of awns contribution in grain yield for the control ranged between 7.22 – 11.93 % and increased to 14.84 – 21.16 % under drought conditions. Correlation coefficient between awn length and grain yield was positive, and high. The values of correlation coefficients were (*0.521, *0.695) for control and treatment, respectively at level of probability 0.05.

Key words: Durum wheat, Awn length, Drought, Grain filling.

Full paper in Arabic:مساهمة السفا في الغلة الحبية للقمح القاسي تحت ظروف الجفاف