Study of Genetic Diversity and Correlation of some Important Traits of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.( Genotypes Using Diversity Array Technology Markers (DArT)

Abdullatef Ahmad Al-Assaf*(1) Mohammad Shafik Hakim(1) Mohammad Fadi Basmaji(2) and Stefania Grando(3)

(1). Department of Field Crops, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Aleppo, Aleppo, Syria.

(2). Aleppo Research Center, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.

(3). International Crops Research Institute for Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), Hyderabad, India.

(*Corresponding author: Eng. Abdullatef Ahmad Al-Assaf. E-Mail:

Received: 13/11/2018                                Accepted: 02/12/2018


The research was conducted in corporation between Faculty of Agriculture, Aleppo University and General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR) and International Center for Agricultural Researches in Dry Area ICARDA at three locations: Tal Hadya, Homeimeh and Breda during two seasons 2008/2009 and 2099/2010. RCBD was used with three replications. The study aimed to estimate the genetic diversity in barley using 43 collected genotypes from seven different geographical regions in the world to be used in the breeding programs. In addition, to study the association between markers with grain yield and plant height and some root traits in barley seedlings under controlling conditions to determine assisted markers for selection this trait in dry areas. 70 DArT markers (Diversity Array Technology) were used in the DNA analysis, and 139 alleles were detected in the whole collection. The number of alleles detected per locus varied from zero to 2, with an average of 1.99 alleles per locus. The genetic diversity GD values ranged between zero and 0.5, with an average of 0.366, while the Polymorphism Information Content PIC values ranged between zero and 0.488 with average of 0.358. The high level of genetic diversity and the absence of genetic similarity among genotypes indicated high genetic variability levels within barley collection. The results indicated that the collection regions had high genetic diversity of barley genotypes. Moreover, there is a positive association between molecular markers and barley traits, as 27 markers were associated with the traits in whole barley genome.

Key words: Barley, Genetic diversity, Molecular markers, DArT, Association analysis.

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Genetic Diversity of Some Wheat (Triticum durum) Genotypes Using SSR Technique

Reham Abo Al-Kanj*(1) Ghinwa Lababidi(1) and Naim Al-Husien(2)

(1). Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Technical Engineering, University of Aleppo, Aleppo, Syria.

(2). Aleppo Research Center, General Commission of Scientific Agricultural Research Center (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Reham Abo Al-Kang. E-Mail:

Received: 02/05/2018                                Accepted: 01/10/2018


The understanding of wheat genetic variation is considered the basis for successful plant breeding programs.the use of molecular markers in genetic diversity assessment studies and in plant breeding programs has become critical. Therefore, the research aimed to studying the genetic diversity of durum wheat genotypes, it was carried out at the Biotechnology Laboratory of the Aleppo Research Center during 2016 – 2017. The DNA was extracted from all genotypes by using CTAB method, and determined its quality, purity, and quantity.  SSR technology is used to study the genetic diversity with 13 primers and the dendrogram was drew using UPGMA method according to Jaccard coefficient. The results showed there were 160  bands ranged between 100-2000 bp. PIC value was between 0.14-0.37, So the wms70، wms666، wms642، wms408 primers showed the best results. Cluster analysis showed that genotypes distributed in two main clusters. The similarity ranging from 0.21 – 0.9. This confirms the efficacy of SSR markers in detecting a wide range of genetic variation and its ability to identify genotypes.

Keywords: Durum wheat, Genetic diversity, Molecular markers, SSR.

Full paper in Arabic: PDF

Genetic Studies of Some Local Syrian Bread Wheat Using RAPD

Nedal Jerodieh(1) Yousef Wjhani*(1) Fakhri Al mousa(2) Wafaa Reda(4) and Ossama Mouhra(1)

  1. Genetic Resource Department, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.
  2. Field Crops Research Administration, (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.

(*corresponding author: Dr. Yousef Wjhani, Genetic Resource Department, (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria. E-mail:

Received: 10/07/ 2014                                     Accepted: 29/03/ 2015


The research was conducted at the Laboratory of Genetic Resource Department in the General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria. The aim of the study was to investigate the genetic diversity between 9 local bread wheat cultivars (T. aestivum)  i.e. Baladieh Hamraa, Florance Aurore, Salamoni, Maxibak, Kandahari Abiad, Kandahari Ahmar, Sweid, Briji, and Hreideh), and Cham 4 as control. The DNA was isolated, and the genetic diversity was studied by RAPD technique using 9 primers with a GC percentage between 60 to 70%. Results showed that the highest percentage of similarity was 56% between Maxibak and Salamoni and, between Briji and Sweid. The lowest percentage of similarity was 24% between Sweid and Baladieh Hamraa. The 9 primers generated 259 bands in averaging 28.8 band for each primer. 243 bands were polymorphic with a variation rate ranged between 58.6 and 100%. Whereas all studied cultivars were characterized by 89 positive unique bands from all primers, only three cultivars (Baladieh Hamraa, Cham 4 and Briji) were characterized by 5 negative unique bands from /5/ primers. The cultivar Baladieh Hamraa had the highest positive unique bands (18 bands) followed by Florance Aurore (15 bands) and Cham 4 had the highest negative unique bands (3 bands). In addition, VBC2-15 was the most characterizing primer, followed by VBC 3-9. The cluster analysis revealed that the cultivars under study were distributed into two branches, sub branches and groups separated by their environmental requirements. For instance, Salamoni (drought tolerant cultivar), which can grow under rainfed conditions was placed in a branch whereas the cultivars Baladieh Hamraa and Sweid that need irrigated conditions were placed under another branch.

Key words: Bread wheat, Local Syrian cultivars, Genetic Diversity, RAPD.

 Full paper in Arabic : دراسة جزيئية لبعض الأصناف السورية المحلية من القمح الطري باستخدام تقنية RAPD