Influence of Cultivar and Harvest Date on the Productivity and Qualitative Characters of Apple Molasses

Bayan Mohammad Muzher*(1) Ola Tawfeek Al-Halabi(1) and Anton Salim Anton(2)

(1). Pome and Grapevine Research Division, Horticultural Department, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.

(2). Fruits Physiology Lab, Horticultural Department, GCSAR, Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Bayan Muzher. E. mail:

Received: 05/11/2018                                Accepted: 16/12/2018


The present research was carried out at Pome and Grapevine Division and Horticultural Department in General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR) during 2011 and 2012 seasons to study the effect of cultivar and harvest date on the productivity and qualitative characters of apple molasses. Apple fruits were collected from Golden delicious, Starking delicious and Stark rimson cultivars in two harvest dates 5/10 and 5/11. Apple molasses was manufactured and stored in normal room temperature for one year. Results showed that the second harvest date significantly produced more quantity of molasses than the first one in all studied cultivars, and Golden delicious cultuvar revealed highest productivity (7.4 Kg apple fruits/1 Kg molasses), while Starking delicious cultivar  revealed the highest productivity than the two studied cultivars in the first date (11.1 Kg apple fruits /1 Kg molasses). Chemical analysis of molasses showed that the second harvest date showed the highest content of TSS, TS, and titratable acidity in all cultivars compared with the first one, and Starking delicious molasses revealed the highest content of TSS and TS (74.75% and 64.37%, respectively) in comparison with the two other cultivars. The results indicated that after one year of storage, there were no significant differences in the color, flavor and chemical components of molasses. Consequently, apple molasses as a new product characterized by good qualitative characters.

Key words: Apple, Molasses, Total soluble solids, Total sugars.

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Effect of Some Plant Growth Hormones on Buds Formation and Callus Induction of Nasturtium Officinale R.Br. in vitro

Daniel Al-Awad(1) Maysaa Yazigi(1) and Reem Ebraheem*(1)

(1). Department of Plant Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Tishreen university, Latakia, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Reem Ebraheem, E-mail:

Received: 02/04/2018                                Accepted: 19/06/2018


This study investigated the effect of some plant growth hormones on the shoots formation and callus induction of Nasturtium officinale R.Br, in vitro. All experiments were carried out at the laboratory of Department of Plant Biology, Faculty of Science, Tishreen University during 2016 and 2017. Seedlings were grown on MS medium, then 0.5-1 cm of stem nodes were planted on the MS nutrient medium with 0.1, 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 mg/l of the cytokinin Benzyl Amino Purine (BAP). Stem nodes, leaves and petioles of leaves were planted on MS medium with various concentrations (1, 2) mg/l of the auxin 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) in combination with various concentrations (0.1, 0.5, 1) mg/l of BAP. The cultures were maintained in growth incubator at temperature 25±2 °C with a photoperiod of 16 hours light (2500-3000 lux) and 8 hours dark. The results showed that MS medium with 0.1 mg/l or 0.5 mg/l BAP was the best to propagate buds, where the average number of shoots ranged between 14-15, and some shoots formed roots. The MS medium supplement with 1mg/l of 2,4-D in combination with 0.5 mg/l BAP was  the best medium for callus induction from all parts of the plant, and the stem nodes were the best plant parts used to form callus on MS medium in most of hormone concentrations; stem nodes recorded best rates of callus formation 83.75% then the petioles of leaves was 75% and the leaves was 66.75%, on the best medium.

Keywords: Nasturtium officinal R.Br, Tissue culture, Auxin, Cytokinin, Callus.

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Effect of Humic Acid Spray on Morphological and Yield Traits of Cucumber (Cucumis Sativus L.) Var. Babylon Under Al-Hasaka Conditions

Abboud Hamoud Aljasim*(1)

(1). Horticulture Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Furat University.

(*Corresponding author: E-Mail:

Received: 12/04/2018                                Accepted: 06/07/2018


The research was conducted at Faculty of Agriculture in Al-Hassaka governorate during 2016 and 2017 seasons. RCBD design with three replications was used. The aim was to study the effect of spray with humic acid on morphological traits and yield of Babylon cucumber variety in different growth stages in an average of three sprays at the fourth real leaf stage, then after 10 days for each spray. Three concentrations of humic acid were used i.e. 500, 1000 and 1500 ppm. The results showed that humic acid improved morphological traits of leaves, where the leaf length reached (18.33) cm, the width was (20) cm  when humic acid was sprayed with 1500 ppm, while leaf length and width were 17.67 and 19 cm when sprayed with 500 ppm. The fruit length was (13.72 and 12.78) cm when humic acid sprayed with 1500 and 1000 ppm respectively. There was a significant increase most productivity traits when the concentrations 1000 and 1500 ppm were used compared to other treatments, where the fruit weight was (98 and 94 g) respectively, and the productivity was (4133 and 3498) kg/d respectively.

Key words: Humic acid, Cucumber, Morphological traits, Productivity.

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The Effect of Growth Regulators, Time Collecting and Type of Cutting on Rooting of Kiwi (Actinidia chinensis( Male Trees Cuttings

Imad Bilal*(1)

(1). Latakia Research Center, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Imad Bilal. E-Mail:

Received: 06/06/2018                                Accepted: 07/09/2018


The present investigation was carried out at Agricultural Scientific Research Center in Latakia, during (2011-2013) to study the propagation of male kiwi trees by wooden cuttings. Two dates for collecting cuttings (January and February) from kiwi trees were selected. On every date, the cuttings were divided into three groups according to cutting location on the shoot (basal, middle and apical). The NAA and IBA regulators were applied at two concentrations (5000, 6000 ppm).  In addition, there were four treatments of the mixture of both growth regulators. The cuttings were planted within the glasshouse for 60 days under sprinkle irrigation conditions. Then, the effect of cutting collection date, cutting location on shoot and the concentration of growth regulators on; number of rooted cuttings, total number of roots, average root weight and volume, and average shoot weight and volume. The results showed that the first date (end of January) is more significant than end of February according to weight and volume of both root and shoot, also in number of rooted cuttings, where the rooting ratio was 64.9%, 54.3% respectively. According to cutting location on the shoot, the middle and basal cuttings were significantly increased in term of root weight (20.31 g, 19.81g), while the apical cutting was 15.55 g.  According root volume, the result was 20.55cm3– 20.06 cm3 and 15.57 cm3 for apical cuttings. The NAA and IBA growth regulators showed different effect; where NAA was significantly superior to IBA, and the mixture treatments in terms of the average number of roots/cuttings. While IBA and the mixture treatments were significantly superior over NAA in terms of shoot weight and volume. The treatment with the mixture (IBA3000 + NAA3000 ppm) was significantly superior to the other treatments in terms of the average weight and volume of the roots. The treatment with the mixture (IBA1500 + NAA1500 ppm) was significantly superior to the other treatments in terms of the number of rooted cuttings by rooting (75%) compering to the control (28%).

Keywords: Kiwi (actinidia chinensis ), Collecting cutting dates, Wooden cuttings,  Rooting, Male trees, Plant growth regulators.

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The Influence of IBA Auxin on Stem Cuttings Rooting of Some Prunus cerasia Blanche Shrubs

Mohammad Nizam*(1) Haitham Ismael(2) and Hafez Mahfoud(1)

(1). Latakia Agricultural Research Center, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Eng. Mohammad Nizam. E-Mail:

Received: 09/07/2018                                Accepted: 16/09/2018


The research was carried out in 2017 on twenty-four shrubs of Prunus cerasia Blanche naturally prevailing in 12 sites in the Syrian coast to determine the ability of their stem cuttings to rooting after treatment with different concentrations of IBA (Indole-3 Butyric Acid): 1000, 2000 and 4000 ppm and the control. The findings showed that treatment (2000) ppm was the most significant and giving the highest rooting percentage, number of roots and root length for both wood and semi-wood cuttings. The shrubs LK1 and LK2 from Kassab location gave the best results for rooting of wood and semi-wood cuttings. LK1 shrub gave the highest rooting percentage, number of roots and root length for wood cuttings at concentration of 2000 ppm (26.66%, 4.33 root/cutting, 4.85 cm respectively). As for semi-wood cutting, the highest rooting percentage was for LK1 and LK2 shrubs at concentrations of (2000 and 4000) ppm (33.33)%, while the highest number of roots was for LK2 cuttings at concentration of (2000) ppm (6.19) root/cutting, and the highest root length was for LK1 cuttings at concentration of (2000) ppm (6.63) cm.

Key words: Wild plum, Stem cuttings, Prunus, IBA.

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Some Biological Aspects of Golden Fish Carassius auratus from Tigris River, Tikrit/Iraq

Ameer Suood Alwan*(1) and Nehad Khorseed Wahab(2)

(1). Department of Agricultural Research, Ministry of Agriculture. Iraq.

(2). Animal production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Tikrit University, Tikrit, Iraq.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Ameer Suood Alwan. E-Mail:

Received: 02/07/2019                                Accepted: 02/10/2019


Some biological aspects of golden fish Carassius auratus from Tigris River within Tikrit region studied from September 2013 to June 2014. Two hundred twenty-two fish (twenty-five males and one hundred ninety-seven females), their total length ranged from 11.5 to 29.0 cm and their total weight ranged between 19.36 to 399.76 g were caught. Regression coefficient (b) for the logarithmic relationship between length and weight was 3.22, 3.28 and 3.20 for males, females and both sexes, respectively. Condition factor (K) was 1.48, 1.50 and 1.49 for males, females and both sexes respectively. Condition factor increased with length for fish and differ between months. The highest gonad somatic index for males was 3.57 and it valued for females 9.24 in February. The spawning period extended from February to June. Sex ratio (males: females) tended toward females by 1:7.88 as well as in all months of the study, which ranged from 1:2.33 in October and 1:17 in May. The smallest mature male was 15 cm but for female it was 12.9 cm. The actual fertility ranged from of 1719 to 22185 eggs with average 7091 eggs and relative fertility ranged from 24.07 to 162.75 with an average of 92.57 g.

Key words: Biology, Carassius auratus, Tigris River, Tikrit, Iraq.

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Value Chain analysis of Production Units of Fancy Molasses from Sugarcane in Minya Governorate, Egypt

Harb El. Hasseen El-Bardisy*(1) and Mohamed Najy Bakr(1)

(1). Agricultural Economics Dep, Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Azher University at Assiut, Assiut, Egypt.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Harb El. Hasseen El-Bardisy. E-Mail:

Received: 17/10/2019                                Accepted: 06/11/2019


The study aimed to analyze the value chain of fancy molasses production units by analyzing the business activities in the value chain, measuring job opportunities and identifying the main problems that affec the different actions in value chains of the production units in Egypt (the juicers). The study showed that there were idle capacities in the units of production estimated about 13 thousand tons annually during the period (2009/2010-2017/2018), which represented about 26% of the available production capacity, and there was an increase in the exports of fancy molasses or black honey during the study period at an annual rate did not prove statistically significant which estimated 0.25 tons. It was found that the most important stages of increasing chain value which need to focus on is the process of collecting reeds due to its high costs, which is estimated about 563 pounds/ton cane on average, and the estimated cost of producing per quintal (45 kg) of fancy molasses was about 210.50 pounds/quintal, which was considered the weighted selling price at which costs were equal to revenue.  The study showed that final markets for sugar cane honey were represented in three main markets i.e. wholesale markets which accounted 74.51% of the total domestic market, retail markets which accounted 15.92% and street vendors which accounted 6.9%. The average of profit of wholesalers is about 828 pounds/quintal, which is more than 3 times of the value of buying a quintal in a wholesale price (270 g/quintal), and retailers earned about 729 pounds/quintal, which is more than twice of the value of buying a quintal in retail price (360 g/quintal) and street vendors earned about 759 pounds/quintal, which represented 1.9 times the purchase price. It was found that one fancy molasses quintal produced from honey cane provides about 0.25 job opportunities, and the average of net profit of quintal is 81.40 pounds/quintal for the sugar cane production units. The average cost per quintal of the study sample is 210.5 pounds/quintal. The price of sugar cane honey is increasing with the product movements throughout the supply chain, starting from the unit sale to the surroundings for 261 pounds/ quintal, 270 pounds/quintal for wholesalers, 360 pounds/quintal for retailers and 382.5 pounds/quintal for street vendors. The product price represented a very low percentage of the consumer price, which estimated 24% for wholesalers, 32% for retailers and 34% for street vendors. The recommendations were to develop production processes, especially inputs for small units and to focus on activities that generate chain value-added, and finance through wholesale markets, also the State adoption of the problems of producers and work on them, particularly during the period of production and marketing of the product which are considered as income-generating activities for medium level families, besides providing food for low-income people.

Key words: Value chain, Fancy molasses, production units, Production and manufacturing activities, Economic and marketing performance.

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Study on Extension and Technical Problems of Mobile Beekeepers in Yemen

Mohammed Alsharhi* (1) Ali Hassan Khalil (2) and Gamal Alsharabi(3)

(1). Department of Agriculture, Faculty of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Thamar University, Yemen.

(2). Department of Agricultural Extension and Economic, Faculty of Agriculture, Ibb University, Yemen

(3). Department of Plant Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Ibb University, Yemen.

(*Corresponding author correspondent: Dr. Mohammed Alsharhi. E-Mail:

Received: 17/05/2019                                Accepted: 02/10/2019


This study carried out in 2018 at Thamar Governorate of Yemen. The study utilized descriptive research approach to fulfill its objectives. An 85 mobile beekeepers who own about 24095 beehives were purposefully selected. The data were collected through administrative questionnaires through personal interview. The findings of the study showed that Thamar, Hodeida, Ibb and Sanaa were the best governorates for growing and development bee. Whereas, Amran, Marib, Hajah, Saadah, Shabwah, Taiz, Hadramout, Hodeida, and Thamar were the governorates which produced Sidr honey, however, Hodeida governorate was the only governorate which produces Sallam honey. Furthermore, Ibb governorate produced Sawrab honey. The study reported that the main problems that identified by the mobile beekeepers were 100% practicing traditional beekeeping, 82% presence of pests and diseases, 73% lack of feeding supplements, 47% pesticide poisoning and 35% of beekeepers who stated the lack of bee forage.

Key words: Beekeeping, Mobile beekeepers, Agriculture extension, Beekeepers, Yemen.

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Competitiveness Indicators of Egyptian Potatoes in the Global Market

Moataz Eliw Mostafa Ahmed*(1)

(1). Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Azhar University, Assuit, Egypt.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Moataz Eliw Mostafa Ahmed. E-Mail:

Received: 22/09/2019                                Accepted: 10/11/2019


The dependence on export is the most crucial developmental approach in the economy of any country as an essential pillar of economic growth. Egyptian potato exports have a relatively large share of the agricultural trade balance. Thus, the development of agricultural exports is one of the main axes in the Egyptian agricultural development policy. Where Egyptian agriculture has good ingredients and a comparative advantage in the production of potatoes, which enables it to compete with countries in the essential markets imported this crop. The study relied on the descriptive and quantitative statistical analysis methods and the estimation of the general time trend equations for the development of the cultivated area, productivity and total production of potatoes. The general time trend equations of the total production showed statistically, at a significant level of 0.01 a positive value which accounted 223.78 thousand tons per year. Also, some indicators of competitive export performance were used as an indicator of the efficiency of export performance. The results showed that it was higher than zero in all years of study confirming the existence of competitive export. The results showed that Egypt ranked tenth as the average quantity of potato exports was 312.93 thousand tons, which represented 2.58% of the average world potato exports during the period 2010-2013. In terms of instability index, it was found during the study period that there was an instability in the quantity of potato crop exports, which reached a minimum value of 1.14% in 2013, and a highest value of 51.84% in 2014.

Key words: Competitiveness price, Market share, Instability coefficient.

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Improve Irrigation Water Productivity by Applying Partial Root-Zone Drying Under Condition of Supplemental Irrigation in Yemen

Hazem Al-Ashwal*(1) Mohamad Moslih Alsanabani(2) Abdulrahman Haidar(3) and Abdulrahman Salah(2)

(1). Soil and Water Department, Regional Station of Agricultural Research in Northern Heights, Sanaa, Yemen

(2). Soil, Water and Environment Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Sanaa University, Yemen.

(3). Renewable Natural Resources Center, General Organization of Agricultural and Extension, Thamar, Yemen.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Hazem Al-Ashwal. E-Mail:

Received: 02/05/2018                                Accepted: 01/10/2018


An experiment was conducted in Northern Highlands Agricultural Research Regional Station- Sana’a- Yemen, in 2015 season to study the effect of alternative furrow irrigation technique on some growth and yield components, and water use efficiency (WUE) of corn crop variety Taiz-2, compared with conventional furrow irrigation at different levels of irrigation; also, to study patterns of soil moisture distribution, and soil water balance. Six treatments were applied, namely: EFI1, EFI2, EFI3, AFI1, AFI2, and AFI3; where EFI mean conventional or full furrow irrigation, and AFI alternative furrow irrigation, and the numbers 1,2,3 related to levels of irrigation 100%, 75%, 50% respectively, and the treatment EFI1 is the farmer practice. The experiment layout was RCBD design, with three replicates; the means compared by Duncan at 0.05 level of probability. Results showed that the most of growth and yield components, and WUE improved significantly under AFI treatments at all water irrigation levels; and decreased with the decrease in water irrigation level, but it was noticed slightly in AFI compared with EFI. The treatment AFI2 had the highest WUE with conservation in irrigation water by 18%, and without significant effects on yield compared with EFI1. The study concluded that the AFI technique would be useful in arid areas to maintain yield, where the water irrigation less than crop requirements compared with EFI.

Key words: Zea mays; Partial root-zone drying, Alternative furrow irrigation, Water use efficiency.

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