Effect of Repeated Inoculation with Increasing Inoculum Rates of Bradyrhizobium japonicum on Biological Nitrogen Fixation of Soybean

Mussaddak Janat*(1) Mohsen Makhlouf(1) and Muhhamad Manhal Alzoubi(2)

(1). Department of Agriculture, Atomic Energy Commission of Syria.
(2). Natural Resources Research Administration, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Mussaddak Janat. E-Mail: ascientific@aec.org.sy).

  Received: 07/01/ 2016                                   Accepted: 01/03/ 2016


Introducing effective Bradyrhizobium japonicum liquid inoculum for inoculation of soybean seeds is an effective and efficient way for introducing the specific rhizobia to the soil and consequently to the rhizosphere of the soybean. The efficacy of inoculation of soybean varies depending on several factors, such as; inefficient or very low density of B. japonicum or any other uncompetitive indigenous bradyrhizobial strain if any, soil temperature, depth of application, specific stain, poor soybean root infection, number of viable rhizobia, and time of application. Therefore, field experiment was carried out for three consecutive years (2007–2009) to assess the efficacy of repeated inoculation of soybean with liquid inoculant at different growth stages, the effect of repeated cultivation and increasing number of rhizobia per injection on good infection of soybean roots, consequently the amount of N2fixed by soybean  were determined. Treatments consisted of four different liquid inoculum of Bradyrhizobium japonicum at a rate of 5×108 cells/ ml per injection repeated two, three, and four times, then compared to the control without inoculation. Results showed that the first injection through the drip irrigation system was enough to ensure good infection, still two, three and four injection did not negatively affect the infection and the amount of N2 fixed but in some cases improved the efficacy of inoculation.

Key words: Fertigation, Water Productivity, Soil nitrogen, Nitrogen derived from atmosphere.

Full paper in English

Effect of Slaked Lime Concentrations on Sugar Beet Roots in Storage

Hussien Al Zubi(1) Entessar Al Jbawi*(2) Thamer Al Huniesh(2)Sameer Al Jeddawi(3) Hussien Jdid(3) Gaidaa Aliesha(3) Radwan Radwan(3)Mohammad Khair Tahla(4) Raafat Ismaiel(4) and Hassan Azzam(5)

(1). General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Damascus Syria.
(2). Crops Research Administration, GCSAR, Damascus, Syria.
(3). Al Ghab Agricultural Research Center, GCSAR, Al Ghab, Syria.
(4). Food Technology Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Damascus University, Damascus, Syria.
(5). Crops Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Damascus University, Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Entessar Al Jbawi. E-Mail: dr.entessara@gmail.com).

Received: 15/12/ 2015                                     Accepted: 31/01/ 2016


An experiment was conducted at the Agricultural Research Center of Al Ghab, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Syria, to evaluate the effect of slaked lime application on the sugar losses reduction, and some quality traitsin2014/2015 season. Four slaked lime concentrations of 0, 5, 10 and 15 percent (factor C) and storage durations of 6 days (factor D) and tow varieties (Factor V) were arranged as factorial experiment in RCBD with four replications. The varieties one of them was monogerm (Vico), while the other was multigerm (Reda), they were drilled in mid November, and storage roots were harvested late August. Weight percent loss and quality of beet samples such as sugar content, total soluble solids (TSS%), and purity% were determined throughout storage period. The results of analysis of variance ANOVA showed that effect of varieties was significant for TSS (brix%), sucrose%, root weight loss (P<0.05).All the studied traits were affected significantly (P<0.05) by storage duration. Lime concentration had significant effect only on sucrose% (P<0.05).There was no interaction between lime concentration and storage duration for all studied traits, but for sucrose%. The percentage of variance confirmed that the most effective factor for the all studied traits was the storage period, followed by the varieties, and finally in a very low percent was the chemical treatments, because of that it is very urgent to send the harvested roots immediately to the factories to be processed within 24 hours.

Keywords: Slaked lime, Sugar losses, Storage duration, Sugar beet.

Full paper in English

The Effect of Boron Fertilizer Application Method and Level on the Production and Quality Traits of Two Sugar Beet Varieties

Hyam Al Numan(1) Entessasr Al Jbawi*(2) Thamer Al Huniesh(2) Ziad Al Ibrahim(3) Zuhair Al Jasem(3) Nahla Al Mahmoud(3) and Ahmad Al Abdallah(3)

(1). Crops Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Al Furat University, Der Al Zur, Syria.
(2). Sugar Beet Department, Crops Research Administration, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR). Damascus, Syria.
(3). Scientific Agricultural Research Center in Der Al Zur, (GCSAR), Der Al zur, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Entessar Al JBawi, E-mail: dr.entessara@gmail.com).

Received: 08/03/ 2015                                     Accepted: 18/06/ 2015


The experiment was conducted at Al Muriea Station, Der Al Zur Agricultural Research Center, (GCSAR), Syria, during 2010/2011 season, in a loamy silt soil, the soil composed of 40 and 32% of clay and silt, respectively. NPK contents were 4.1:10.9:121.5 respectively, while boron content was 1.56%. This study aims to study the effect of boron fertilizer application method and level on the production and quality traits of two sugar beet varieties, one was monogerm (Scorpion), the other was multigerm (Nadir). Split plot design with three replications was used. Boron fertilizer was appointed in the main plots, but the varieties were allocated randomly in the sub plots. Four levels of ground boron fertilizer were added to the soil (as Borax 11%) (5, 10, 15, and 20 Kg Borax/Ha), and two levels of spray boron fertilizer (as Borax 11%) were sprayed on the leaves (10, and 20 Kg Borax/Ha), besides the control treatment, the total treatments of boron addition were six. The results showed that ground boron application has no significant effects on the studied traits, because of the high content of boron in the soil 1.56 ppm. The results exhibited a significant effect of the spray boron on sugar and root yields (ton/ha).

Keywords: Sugar beet, Varieties, Production and quality traits.

Full paper in Arabic: تأثير طرق ومعدل إضافة البورون في الخصائص الإنتاجية والنوعية لصنفين من الشوندر السكري

The Effect of Bio-Fertilization With Azotobacter Spp and Different Rates of Urea Fertilizer on the Growth of Barely

Merfat T. Ben Mahmud*(1) and Eman A. Elferjani(1)

(1). Department of Soil and Water, Faculty of Agriculture, Tripoli University, Tripoli, Libya.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Merfat T. Ben Mahmud. Email: dr.mbenmahmoud@yahoo.com).

Received: 03/01/ 2016                                     Accepted: 24/01/ 2016


Pots experiment of grown Barely Hordeum, was inoculated with Azotobacter species, isolated from Wadi Elrabie soil (Tajura)/Libya, (loam sandy soil,  pH=8.6),  that live free in soil and it has a high ability to impact on the growth of barley plants. This experiment was carried out during the winter seasons of 2014, to evaluate the effect of Azotobacter species inoculums and four levels (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg/ha) of nitrogen fertilizer (Urea 46% N), on barley growth and number of cell density bacterial in rhizosphere area (CFU). The results proved that bio-fertilization with Azotobacter had a positive role in increasing dry weight of shoot and root (g), and the growth of the number of cell density bacterial (CFU), which had a positive effect, with the addition of 100 kg N / ha of urea.

Key words: Azotobacter, Urea, Rhizosphere, Barely

Full paper in Arabic:

تأثير التسميد الحيوي ببكتريا Azotobacter  Spp ومعدلات مختلفة من سماد اليوريا في نمو نبات الشعير

Influence of Some Iron Compounds in the correction of Iron Deficiency in Grape Trees, Helwani cultivar

Badr AL-deen Jalab*(1) and Mohammad Yahia Al-Saied Al-Sallom(2) 

(1). Natural Resources Directorate, Agricultural Research Center in Aleppo, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Aleppo, Syria.
(2). Horticulture Directorate, Agricultural Research Center in Aleppo, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Aleppo, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Bard AL-deen Jalab, E-mail: b.jalab@yahoo.com).

Received: 10/03/ 2015                                     Accepted: 20/06/ 2015


The research was conducted during 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 at Sarbaya Station (25 km south east of Aleppo), in grape orchard cultivated Halwani variety, which grafted on rootstock 41B. The grapes tree’ age was 14 years, to study the respond of grape trees to foliar and ground fertilization with some  compounds of iron to solve the chlorosis which caused by deficiency of iron. The results showed that the foliar fertilization with ferrous sulfate gave the best productivity and high economic revenue, and the best average of sugar and total soluble solids (TSS) in berries juice, whereas the foliar fertilization with ferrous sulfate and humic achieved the best results for to solve the chlorosis, due to the increase of iron concentration in leaves after the first spray directly. While, the foliar spray with iron chelate detected the highest accumulated iron in leaves after three sprays, which solve the chlorosis phenomena for a long period.

Key words: Grape, Foliar and ground fertilization, Iron compounds.

Full paper in Arabic: تأثير بعض مركبات الحديد في معالجة نقص الحديد على شجيرات العنب صنف حلواني

Early Detection of Brown Rust (Leaf Rust) Puccinia recondita in Wheat Plant Using Remote Sensing Techniques

Eyad Ahmad Al-khaled*(1) Basel Al-kai(2) and Asmaa Makdah(2)

(1). General Organization of Remote Sensing (GORS), Damascus, Syria.
(2). Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Albaath University, Homs, Syria.
(3). (GORS), Homs, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Eyad Ahmad Al-Khaled, E-Mail: dr.eyadalkhaled@gmail.com).

Received: 29/6/ 2015                           Accepted: 01/08/ 2015


The experiment carried out during 2008-2009 season at Homs; the objective was to study the spectral characteristics of healthy and infected wheat plants with brown rust Puccinia recondita, and the possibility of early detection of this disease before the symptoms appearance of disease on the plants. The spectral characteristics of plants showed significance differences in reflectance values, for both healthy and inoculums plants after one week of artificial inoculation with fungi on 9/4/2009 within wavelength 750-1060 nm of near infrared NIR and short infrared wave SINW. The healthy plants recorded higher spectral reflectance values more than the infected plants in range of spectrum, the spectral reflectance value within the wavelength 790-810 nm was 64.68 % for healthy plants and 60.34 % for infected plants, and these differences in spectral reflectance values were increased between the healthy and infected plants in this spectral range with the appearance of disease symptoms on the infected plants, and with the increment of disease severity of the infected plants. In 21/5/2009 the spectral reflectance values in the wavelength 790-810 nm were 44.22 -33.65 % for healthy and infected plants, respectively. It was found that the differences in spectral reflectance values between healthy and infected plants were clear in the spectral area of near and short infrared, which represented the wavelength 750-1120 nanometers, and the best wavebands for early detection of brown rust disease were within the range 750 – 940 nanometers of the near infrared NIR spectral range. Where significant differences were found in this range after one week of inoculation with fungi or before almost 21 days from symptoms appearance of disease of the infected plants to the end of the growing season.

Key words: Wheat, Leaf rust, Spectral reflectance, Artificial inoculation, Syria.

Full paper in Arabic:

الكشف المبكر عن الصدأ البني (صدأ الورقة) Puccinia recondita على نبات القمح باستخدام تقنيات الاستشعار عن بعد

Correlation and Path Coefficients Analysis between Yield Components in some Wheat Genotypes

Nabeel Awad Hassan(1) Maysoun Saleh*(2) and Nader Ibraheem Alkaraki(1) 

(1). Izraa Research Station, Agricultural Research Center in Daraa, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Daraa, Syria.
(2). Genetic Resources Department, GCSAR, Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Maysoun Saleh. E-Mail: mzainsamasaleh@gmail.com).

Received: 15/06/ 2015                                     Accepted: 24/07/ 2015


The study was conducted at Izraa Research Station, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Syria, during 2012/2013 season. Eight genotypes (3genotypes belongs to the species Triticum. carthlicum, 2 genotypes belongs to the species Triticum. polonicum , 3genotypes belongs to the species Triticum. dicoccum, and tow local checks sham3 and sham5, which were planted in Randomized Complete Block Design RCBD with three replications. Correlations and path coefficient analysis between yield components (number of total and fertile tillers, number and weight of grains per spike, thousand grain weight, individual plant yield) were studied. Results showed that grain yield had a positive significant correlation with both of number of total and fertile tillers (0.849**,0.932**) respectively, but number of total tillers had a positive significant correlation with number of fertile tillers (0.926**), while negative significant correlation was noticed with the number of grains per spike. The correlation was positive and significant between weight of grains per spike and with both of number of grains per spike and thousand grain weight. The results of path coefficient analysis showed that the indirect effect of number of total tillers on grain yield through the fertile tillers was positive and high (0.850), and was very close to the direct effect of the number of fertile tillers on grain yield (0.918), and the direct effect of grain weight per spike on grain yield was positive (0.322), and it’s indirect effect was negative and medium through the number of fertile tillers, and the indirect effect of thousand grain weight on grain yield was positive and medium through the weight of grain per spike (0.213). This study recommends to pay attention to the number of fertile tillers and grain weight per spike as a selection index of grain yield in the breeding programs, because of their high correlations an direct effect on yield.

Key Words: Wheat, Yield components, Correlation coefficient, Path coefficient analysis.

Full paper in Arabic: دراسة الارتباط وتحليل المسار بين مكونات الغلة لدى بعض الطرز من القمح

The Contribution of Some Physiological Traits of Durum Wheat Crop in the Tolerance Improvement of Water Deficit Stress

Abdelrazzak Asaud*(1) Maamoun Khaity(2) Ahmad Haj Suleiman(3)

(1). Izraa Research Station, Daraa Research Center, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Daraa, Syria.
(2). Field Crops Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Damascus University, Damascus, Syria.
(3). Aleppo Research Center, GCSAR, Aleppo, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Eng. Abderazzak Asoud. E-Mail: abdsoud1@hotmail.com).

Received: 13/07/ 2015                                     Accepted: 03/08/ 2015


This study was conducted using 12 durum wheat genotypes at Izraa Research Station, Daraa governorate in the southern part of Syria during the growing season (2012 – 2011). The study aimed to identify some physiological characters associated with yield improvement in durum wheat grown under water deficit. The results showed that water stress at tillering stage caused a decrease in all physiological traits (chlorophyll content, membrane stability index, leaf water Potential, and chlorophyll fluorescence) in addition a decrease in grain yield. It was observed that the grain yield was the highest in genotypes H.8150, and Cham5 (216.1 216 g) respectively, and these genotypes recorded the highest value significantly in the studied physiological characters. The results clearly indicated the importance of these physiological traits in the development of high yield varieties of durum wheat under water deficit stress, therefore using of these physiological traits in breeding programmers could be effective in improvement the ability of durum wheat crop to be tolerance under water deficit stress.

Keywords:  Durum wheat, Water deficit stress, Physiological traits.

Full paper in Arabic:

بعض الصفات الفيزيولوجية التي تسهم في تحسين قدرة محصول القمح القاسي على تحمل الإجهاد المائي

Estimation of Daily Intake of Lead and Cadmium from Chicken Luncheon Meat Consumed in Damascus

Abdulkarim Husen*(1)

(1). Syrian Arab Standardization and Metrology Organization, Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Eng. Abdulkarim Husen. E-Mail: ablon80@yahoo.com).

Received: 12/04/ 2015                                     Accepted: 03/07/ 2015


The research which was conducted in the laboratories of Syrian Arab Standardization and Metrology Organization (SASMO) aimed to estimate the daily intake of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) for adult person of 70 Kg weight when he consumed 100 g/day of canned chicken luncheon meat of 5 different brands samples, three of them were locally processed (A, B, and C), while two of them were imported (D, and E), and all brands were sold in the markets. The results revealed that lead levels of the samples differed significantly and ranged between 0.351 and 0.73 mg/Kg (p≤0.05). The samples A and E exceeded the permissible limit which is mentioned in the Syrian Standardization and Metrology number (2719) (>0.5 mg/Kg) in 2008. Regarding cadmium levels, it ranged between 9.37 and 15.22 µg/Kg, and all samples were within the permissible limit according to FAO, (1980) (>100 µg/Kg), and according to ECR, (2006) (>50 µg/Kg).  The daily intake (DI) from elements was compared with acceptable daily intake (ADI), which is recommended by Syrian Standardization and Metrology number (575) in 2009 (250 µg/day/person of lead and 70 µg/day/person of cadmium). The results exhibited that the daily intake of lead ranged between 35.1 and 73 µg/day/person, with a contribution percentage ranged between 14.04 and 29.2% of the daily intake, on the other hand cadmium daily intake ranged between 0.937 and 1.522 µg/day/person with a contribution percentage ranged between 1.33 and 2.17% of the daily intake. We conclude that the consumed canned chicken luncheon meat of different studied brands constitutes an important source for lead and cadmium, with the possibility of exceeding the permissible limits for some brands.

Key words: Cadmium, Lead, Accepted daily intake, Chicken luncheon meat.

Full paper in Arabic:

تقدير المدخول اليومي من الرصاص والكادميوم الناتج من استهلاك لحم لانشون الدجاج في مدينة دمشق

The Role of Women in Improving the Added Value of Dairy Products in Sweida Province of Syria

Kenan Fawaz kamal Aldeen*(1)

(1). Socio Economic Research Administration, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR). Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Kenan Fawaz Kamal Aldeen. E-Mail: Kenana76@gmail.com).

Received: 17/11/2015                                      Accepted: 15/03/2016


This research aimed to identify the proportion of female breeders of cows, who make dairy products, and study the effect of socio- economic variables affecting the women’s decision in making these products, and to determine the value-added, which is caused by the female breeders that due to the dairy products process, in Sweida, Syria. A stratified sample sized of 192 cow breeders was selected, based on a field questionnaire during 2014. The results showed that 82.3 % of cows’ breeders make one product at least of dairy products. The results also showed that 100% of them make yoghurt and labna, 98.7% make cheese, 72.2 % make ghee, 66.5 % make kishk, and 46.8 % make Aelchencklish. The results, also clarified significant negative relations between the dependent variable, which was a dummy variable represented by the women’s decision of making dairy products, and each of the independent variables involving, the educational level of a woman, having another job outside the house, price of milk. While there was a positive relations with each of the independent variables including, the families’ size, and economic awareness. Results also showed that the value-added, which is caused by women from making 1 kg of milk, is accounted to 10sp for yoghurt, 17.4sp of labna, 8sp for cheese, 9.2sp for ghee, 10.3sp Aelchencklish , and 81.4sp of the kishk, which achieved the highest profit as a result of making of milk.

Key words: Rural woman, Dairy Products, Value added.

Full paper in Arabic: دور المرأة في تحسين القيمة المضافة لمنتجات الألبان في محافظة السويداء من سورية