Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L.) Seedlings Response to Potassium and Foliar Spray of Methanol under Drought Conditions Induced by Poly Ethylene Glycol (PEG-6000)

Fadi Abbas *(1)  Entessar AL-Jbawi (2) and Mahmoud AlHamdan(3)

(1). Scientific Agriculture Research Center of Homs, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.

(2). Sugar beet Research Department, Crops Research Administration, GCSAR, Damascus, Syria.

(3). Natural Resources Directorate, Scientific Agriculture Research Center of Homs, GCSAR, Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Fadi Abbas. E-Mail:

Received: 24/09/2018                                Accepted: 14/11/2018


This experiment was conducted at Homs Agriculture Research Center Lab, during 2014, using two monogerm sugar beet varieties (Rival and Semper), to study the effects of drought induced by polyethylene glycol (PEG-6000) on seedling stage, and the role of potassium and foliar spray of methanol in reducing the negative effects of drought. Plants thinned to one plant per polyethylene sac which contains 10 kg of soil. Three osmotic solutions (0, -3, -6 bar) were applied, using three levels of potassium sulfate (0, 1.5, 3 g/plant), besides spraying 25% of methanol (four times), one week after emergence, then one-week interval between treatments. Results showed a significant effect of osmotic potential on growth stages, because of that, the time needed to complete each stage increased with decreasing osmotic potential level. Potassium had no significant effect on the early growth stages (germination, cotyledon pairs), while this factor affected the following stages (first, second and third true leaves pairs) significantly. Methanol had no significant effect on the early growth stages (germination, cotyledon pairs and first true leaves pairs), while it affected the following stages (second and third true leaves pairs) significantly. The values of leaves dry matter, leaves area and net assimilation rate decreased with the reduction of osmotic potential, and the differences were significant. Also, potassium and methanol enhanced growth, and had a positive effect on these attributes significantly. Rival variety surpassed Semper in all of studied attributes.

Key Words: Drought stress, Potassium, Methanol, Seedling, Sugar beet.

Full paper in Arabic: PDF

Yield Stability Parameters of Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L.) Cultivars in Iran

Saeed Sadeghzadeh Hemayati(1), Abazar Rajabi*(1), Mohammadreza Orazizadeh(1)

(1). Sugar Beet Seed Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization, Karaj, Iran.

(* Corresponding author: Dr. Abazar Rajabi: E-Mail:

Received: 18/04/2017                                 Accepted: 19/07/2017


The present study focused on estimating yield stability of sugar beet cultivars in Iran. The data were collected from pilot studies on imported and domestic cultivars. Twenty-one cultivars of sugar beet were compared in 12 main spring growing regions of Iran in 2014, in randomized complete block design, with three replications. The effect of location and cultivar was significant (P≤0.05) on root yield. Among the cultivars, Pauletta and Fernando had the highest root yield (75.8-80.5 t/ha), followed by SBSI034 and BTS 335 (70 t/ha), whereas Canaria, Rasta, Torbat, Novodoro, Tucan, Morly, Aria, Pars, Antec, Nagano, Rosier, Iris, Flores, Boomrang, Sanetha, and Ekbatan had the lowest root yield (56.2-67.2 t/ha). The significance of location × cultivar interaction (P≤0.05) showed that cultivars did not have uniform performance at different locations. Estimation of different stability parameters revealed that Fernando, Pauletta, SBSI-034 and BTS-335 had high root yield and stability, while Boomrang, Iris, Isabella, Morly, Novodoro, Rasta, and Rosier were found to be cultivars with low yield and stability. Pars, Torbat, Iris, Flores, Morly, Ekbatan, BTS-335, Canaria, Antec, and Rosier displayed moderate stability. The estimation of the reliability of root yield for different cultivars at different levels of agriculture development indicated that Pauletta, Fernando, SBSI-034, TBS-335 and Aria had higher reliability than the other cultivars under both modern and subsistence farming conditions.

Keywords: Location × cultivar interaction, Sugar beet, Stability, Root yield.

Full paper in English: PDF

Efficacy of Betanal Expert Herbicide and Application Time of Phosphorus and Potassium Fertilizers on the Productivity and Quality Traits of Sugar Beet

Abd Ul-Karim Al-Hmmad(1) Bahaa ALRahban*(2) and Isood Al-Mihaymeed(1)

 (1). Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Furat University , Der Ezzur, Syria.

(2). Plant Protection Administration, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research GCSAR, Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Bahaa AlRahban. E-Mail:

Received: 28/07/2016                           Accepted: 31/08/2016


The experiment was conducted on sugar beet crop, using Cawyinterpoly new, a multigerm cultivar, during the fall season of 2013\2014 at Halta village in Der- Ezzur governorate. Betanal expert herbicide, (75g/L Phenmedipham+25 g/L Desmedipham+ 151g/L Ethofumesat) was used as post-emergence treatment with an average of 2 L/ha for one application, manual weeding control for three times and non-weeded as a check. Phosphorus and potassium fertilizers were added by two ways: (1st) whole quantities were added before planting; (2nd) the quantities were divided and added in three times: one third before planting, one third after thinning, and one third after a month from thinning, besides the check without fertilization .The experiment was laid according to split plot design with three replicates. Broad-leaved weeds were dominated. Results showed that manually weeded treatment effectiveness was (100%), sugar yield (6.53 ton/ha ) and root yield (46.72 ton/ha) while Betanal expert herbicide treatment effectiveness resulted (89.78%, 6.27 ton/ha and 44.39 ton/ha) respectively. The un-weeded treatment surpassed significantly Betanal expert and manual weeding treatments in root sugar contents (17.18%), whereas there were no significant differences between manual weeding and Betanal expert herbicide in this trait. Splitting the quantity of fertilizer into three increased root yield  (41.11 ton/ha) significantly as compared with adding the whole quantity before planting (38.56 ton/ha). However, there were no significant differences in sugar yield in terms of fertilizer methods. With respect of sugar content, adding whole quantity of fertilizer before planting gave higher root sugar content (16.67%) significantly compared with splitting the fertilizer to three (16.39%). The interaction between fertilization and weed control treatments affected only root sugar content significantly.

Key words: Sugar beet, Herbicide, Fertilization.

Full paper in Arabic: PDF

Effect of Slaked Lime Concentrations on Sugar Beet Roots in Storage

Hussien Al Zubi(1) Entessar Al Jbawi*(2) Thamer Al Huniesh(2)Sameer Al Jeddawi(3) Hussien Jdid(3) Gaidaa Aliesha(3) Radwan Radwan(3)Mohammad Khair Tahla(4) Raafat Ismaiel(4) and Hassan Azzam(5)

(1). General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Damascus Syria.
(2). Crops Research Administration, GCSAR, Damascus, Syria.
(3). Al Ghab Agricultural Research Center, GCSAR, Al Ghab, Syria.
(4). Food Technology Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Damascus University, Damascus, Syria.
(5). Crops Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Damascus University, Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Entessar Al Jbawi. E-Mail:

Received: 15/12/ 2015                                     Accepted: 31/01/ 2016


An experiment was conducted at the Agricultural Research Center of Al Ghab, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Syria, to evaluate the effect of slaked lime application on the sugar losses reduction, and some quality traitsin2014/2015 season. Four slaked lime concentrations of 0, 5, 10 and 15 percent (factor C) and storage durations of 6 days (factor D) and tow varieties (Factor V) were arranged as factorial experiment in RCBD with four replications. The varieties one of them was monogerm (Vico), while the other was multigerm (Reda), they were drilled in mid November, and storage roots were harvested late August. Weight percent loss and quality of beet samples such as sugar content, total soluble solids (TSS%), and purity% were determined throughout storage period. The results of analysis of variance ANOVA showed that effect of varieties was significant for TSS (brix%), sucrose%, root weight loss (P<0.05).All the studied traits were affected significantly (P<0.05) by storage duration. Lime concentration had significant effect only on sucrose% (P<0.05).There was no interaction between lime concentration and storage duration for all studied traits, but for sucrose%. The percentage of variance confirmed that the most effective factor for the all studied traits was the storage period, followed by the varieties, and finally in a very low percent was the chemical treatments, because of that it is very urgent to send the harvested roots immediately to the factories to be processed within 24 hours.

Keywords: Slaked lime, Sugar losses, Storage duration, Sugar beet.

Full paper in English

The Effect of Boron Fertilizer Application Method and Level on the Production and Quality Traits of Two Sugar Beet Varieties

Hyam Al Numan(1) Entessasr Al Jbawi*(2) Thamer Al Huniesh(2) Ziad Al Ibrahim(3) Zuhair Al Jasem(3) Nahla Al Mahmoud(3) and Ahmad Al Abdallah(3)

(1). Crops Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Al Furat University, Der Al Zur, Syria.
(2). Sugar Beet Department, Crops Research Administration, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR). Damascus, Syria.
(3). Scientific Agricultural Research Center in Der Al Zur, (GCSAR), Der Al zur, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Entessar Al JBawi, E-mail:

Received: 08/03/ 2015                                     Accepted: 18/06/ 2015


The experiment was conducted at Al Muriea Station, Der Al Zur Agricultural Research Center, (GCSAR), Syria, during 2010/2011 season, in a loamy silt soil, the soil composed of 40 and 32% of clay and silt, respectively. NPK contents were 4.1:10.9:121.5 respectively, while boron content was 1.56%. This study aims to study the effect of boron fertilizer application method and level on the production and quality traits of two sugar beet varieties, one was monogerm (Scorpion), the other was multigerm (Nadir). Split plot design with three replications was used. Boron fertilizer was appointed in the main plots, but the varieties were allocated randomly in the sub plots. Four levels of ground boron fertilizer were added to the soil (as Borax 11%) (5, 10, 15, and 20 Kg Borax/Ha), and two levels of spray boron fertilizer (as Borax 11%) were sprayed on the leaves (10, and 20 Kg Borax/Ha), besides the control treatment, the total treatments of boron addition were six. The results showed that ground boron application has no significant effects on the studied traits, because of the high content of boron in the soil 1.56 ppm. The results exhibited a significant effect of the spray boron on sugar and root yields (ton/ha).

Keywords: Sugar beet, Varieties, Production and quality traits.

Full paper in Arabic: تأثير طرق ومعدل إضافة البورون في الخصائص الإنتاجية والنوعية لصنفين من الشوندر السكري

Economic Comparison Between Autumn and Summer Sowing of Sugar Beet in Al Raqqa Governorate, Syria

Smaan Al Atwan(1) Entessar Al-Jbawi(2) Eyad Al-khaled*(3) and Alaa Jaafar(4)

(1). Economic Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Damascus University, Damascus, Syria.
(2). Sugar Beet Research Department, Crops Research Administration, General Commission for Scientific and Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.
(3). General Organization of Remote Sensing (GORS), Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Eyad Al Khaled. E-Mail:

Received: 09/07/ 2015                                     Accepted: 06/08/ 2015


This research aims to study the actual cultivation and production of sugar beet in Al Raqqa governorate, Syria, in summer and autumn times, during 2011/2012 season, the study depended on the data collected, using a questionnaire covering the goal. 12 villages were selected representing the region of the study, 24 fields for summer time, and 26 for autumn time, thereby, total sample individuals were 50 fields. The study showed that the total economic efficiency in summer time (1.4) was higher than autumn time (1.2), indicating the profitability of production of the new promising -summer time sugar beet- which is recently recommended for north and eastern area of Syria (Al Raqqa and Der Al Zur).

Key words: Sugar beet, Total economic efficiency, Production costs, Farm income.

Full paper in Arabic:

مقارنة اقتصادية بين العروتين الخريفية والصيفية لمحصول الشوندر السكري بمحافظة الرقة في سورية


The Effect of Water Stress on Some Physiological Characteristics of Two Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L.)  Monogerm Hybrids

Entessar AL-Jbawi* (1) Fadi Abbas (2)

(1). Sugar beet Research Department,  Crops Research Administration, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research  (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.
(2). Scientific Agriculture Research Center of Homs, (GCSAR). P.O.Box 626, Homs, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Entessar Al Jbawi, E-mail:

Received: 02/02/ 2015                                     Accepted: 17/06/ 2015


The experiment was carried out in the General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR) at Homs Agricultural Research Center, Homs, Syria, during 2009-2010 seasons, at winter time, to study the effect of early water stress on some physiological characteristics of sugar beet. Two genotypes (Brigita and Dorotea), were subjected to water stress by withholding water for 40 days after rainfall ceased. A split plot design with three replicates was used. Results showed that, early drought stress had a significant effect on the studied parameters. Water content (WC%) and relative water content (RWC%) were decreased in all plant parts under drought condition as compared to control.  However, WC% in taproot decreased more than blades and petioles. RWC% decrement was less in mature leaves than in old and new leaves. Under drought stress, fresh and dry weight of tops and roots were decreased. Sugar beet genotypes showed the capability to regulate its osmotic potential by increasing sodium, potassium, and soluble sugars in both, tops and roots. Results also Indicated that drought stress caused an increasing value of fluorescence origin (fo), decreasing the values of fluorescence maximum (fm), and maximum yield of quantum in photo system-II, (fv/fm). The reduction in Dorotea genotype was more drastically compare to Brigita.

Key words: Water stress, Physiological characteristics, Sugar Beet.

Full paper in Arabic: تأثير الإجهاد المائي في بعض الصفات الفيزيولوجية لهجينين وحيدي الجنين من الشوندر السكري (Beta vulgaris L.)

Response of Mono and Multigerm Varieties of Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L.) to Nitrogen Fertilization, Using Two Irrigation Methods (Sprinkler – Furrow) During Summer Time

Awadis Arslan(1), Entessar Al Jbawi(1), Ziad Al Ibrahim(2)& Khaled Al Ismaeel(2)

(1). General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR). Douma, P. O. Box 113, Damascus, Syria.
(2). Scientific Agricultural Research Center of Der- Al Zur. Der-Al Zur, Syria.

(Corresponding author: Dr. Entessar Al Jbawi: General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR). Douma, P. O. Box 113, Damascus, Syria. E-mail:

Received: 19 / 07 / 2014           Accepted: 04 / 10 / 2014


The field experiment was conducted at Al Mray’eyh Research Station, Scientific Agricultural Research Center of Der- Al Zur (NE Syria) during 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 seasons, to study the effect of two methods of irrigation (sprinkler, furrow) and five levels of nitrogen fertilizers (0, 60, 120, 180 and 240), on technological and production traits of three sugar beet varieties, i.e. Dita, Reda, and Nadir in summer time. The experiment was sown in August. A split split plot design was used with four replications. The results exhibited that the addition of 180 pure unit of nitrogen achieved the best technological and production traits. Dita monogerm variety surpassed the other varieties in most of the technological and production characters. It is recommended the sprinkler irrigation, because it increased sucrose percentage (16.2%) and root yield (73.7 ton/ha), as compared with furrow irrigation (15.9%, 67.2 ton/ha) respectively, besides sprinkler irrigation saves water consumption about 20% as compared with furrow irrigation method.

Key words: Sugar beet, Summer time, Irrigation methods, Nitrogen fertilization, Technological traits, Production traits, Varieties.


Full paper in Arabic:

استجابة أصناف من الشوندر السكري(Beta vulgaris L) وحيد ومتعدد الأجنة للتسميد الآزوتي باستخدام طريقتين للري (رذاذ وسطحي) في العروة الصيفية.

Effect of Planting Method and Tillage Depth on Sugar Beet Growth, Yield and Quality in Homs Region

Fadi Ismaiel Abbas(1)& Mahmood Ahmad Seedo(1)

(1). Scientific Agriculture Research Centre of Homs.P.O. Box: 626, Homs, Syria.

(Corresponding author: Dr. Fadi Ismaiel Abbas P.O. Box: 626, Homs, Syria. E-mail:

Received: 09 / 07 / 2014                                 Accepted: 26 / 10 / 2014


This research was carried out in Homs Agriculture Researches Center, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Homs, Syria, during 2010, 2011 seasons to study effect of planting method (rows and drills) and tillage depth (deep: 50-55 cm, medium: 30-35 cm, shallow: 10-15 cm) on some growth attributes, yield and quality traits of sugar beet (Agora variety) in Homs region (middle of Syria). Split plot design, with three replicates was used. Results showed that planting on rows improved leaf area and net assimilation rate, but doesn’t affect leaves number. Deep tillage achieved the best values in growth attributes. Differences in quality traits (sucrose and purity percentages) were not significant, while root yield increased significantly in deep tillage (61.75 ton/ha) compare to medium and shallow tillage (55.05, 54.47 ton/ha) respectively. This cause an increasing in true sugar yield, so deep tillage surpassed medium and shallow tillage by following values (8.83, 7.92, 6.31 ton/ha). On the other hand planting on rows surpassed planting on drills in all of quality and yield traits.

Key wards: Planting method, Tillage depth, Growth attributes, Yield and quality traits, Sugar beet.

Full paper in Arabic: تأثير طريقة الزراعة وعمق الحراثة في نمو الشوندر السكري وإنتاجيته كماً ونوعاً تحت ظروف منطقة حمص