Yield Stability Parameters of Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L.) Cultivars in Iran

Saeed Sadeghzadeh Hemayati(1), Abazar Rajabi*(1), Mohammadreza Orazizadeh(1)

(1). Sugar Beet Seed Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization, Karaj, Iran.

(* Corresponding author: Dr. Abazar Rajabi: E-Mail: rajabi@sbsi.ir).

Received: 18/04/2017                                 Accepted: 19/07/2017


The present study focused on estimating yield stability of sugar beet cultivars in Iran. The data were collected from pilot studies on imported and domestic cultivars. Twenty-one cultivars of sugar beet were compared in 12 main spring growing regions of Iran in 2014, in randomized complete block design, with three replications. The effect of location and cultivar was significant (P≤0.05) on root yield. Among the cultivars, Pauletta and Fernando had the highest root yield (75.8-80.5 t/ha), followed by SBSI034 and BTS 335 (70 t/ha), whereas Canaria, Rasta, Torbat, Novodoro, Tucan, Morly, Aria, Pars, Antec, Nagano, Rosier, Iris, Flores, Boomrang, Sanetha, and Ekbatan had the lowest root yield (56.2-67.2 t/ha). The significance of location × cultivar interaction (P≤0.05) showed that cultivars did not have uniform performance at different locations. Estimation of different stability parameters revealed that Fernando, Pauletta, SBSI-034 and BTS-335 had high root yield and stability, while Boomrang, Iris, Isabella, Morly, Novodoro, Rasta, and Rosier were found to be cultivars with low yield and stability. Pars, Torbat, Iris, Flores, Morly, Ekbatan, BTS-335, Canaria, Antec, and Rosier displayed moderate stability. The estimation of the reliability of root yield for different cultivars at different levels of agriculture development indicated that Pauletta, Fernando, SBSI-034, TBS-335 and Aria had higher reliability than the other cultivars under both modern and subsistence farming conditions.

Keywords: Location × cultivar interaction, Sugar beet, Stability, Root yield.

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Biological Effect of Tiger Nut (Cyperus esculentus L.) Oil on Healthy and Hypercholesterolemia Rats

 Eid El-Naggar*(1)

(1). Food Science and Technology Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Azhar University. Assiut, Egypt.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Eid Al Naggar E-Mail: eidelnaggar72@gmail.com).

Received: 08/05/2017                       Accepted: 08/08/2017


The present work aimed to study the effect of tiger nut oil on healthy and hypercholesterolemia rats, including feeding, growth parameters and biological analysis. Forty-eight male albino rats weighting 150 ±5 g were divided into eight homogenous groups, four groups (T1, T3, T5 and T7) were healthy. One of these groups was chosen as a negative control group (T1). The rats in negative control group fed on basal while the three remaining groups of rats, fed on basal diet with different levels of tiger nut oil (5, 10 and 15%) for 4 weeks. While the other four groups (T2, T4, T6 and T8) considered as hypercholesterolemia. One of these groups was chosen as a positive control group (T2), where T2 group fed on basal diet enriched with 1% cholesterol and 0.5% colic acid. The three remaining groups of rats fed on basal diet enriched cholesterol with different levels of tiger nut oil (5, 10 and 15%) for 4 weeks. The results revealed that all hypercholesterolemia groups which feed on 5%, 10%, and 15% of tiger nut oil resulted a varied increase in body weight gain, good intake and growth rate. Results declared that there was a significant difference (P≤0.05) between the positive control group and cholesterol emic group treated with 10% and 15% tiger nut oil in internal organ weights. Whereas, data showed that there was no significant difference (P≥0.05) between the negative control group, and healthy rat groups. The results declared a significant decrease in GOT, GPT enzymes activity, creatinine, blood urea and uric acid for treated groups as compared with healthy rat groups or hypercholesterolemia rats group. Results indicated that hypercholesterolemia rat groups, which treated with 10 or 15% tiger nut oil resulted in a significant decrease (P≤0.05) in the values of serum total lipids, total cholesterol, T.G, LDL-cholesterol, vLDL. LDL-cholesterol and atherogenic index (AI), but showed a significant increase (P≤0.05) in the values of serum HDL-cholesterol. Fatty acid composition of tiger nut oil made it ideally suited as a nutritional defense against lipid oxidation. Hence, the study recommended using tiger nut oil meal-based diets to overcome the problem of hypercholesterolemia beside improving the liver and kidney functions.

Key words: Biological properties, Chemical composition, Cyperus esulentus oil, Hypercholesterolemia.

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Effect of Soya Bean Meal Substitution with Animal Protein Sources on The Production Performance of Laying Hens

Saifaddin A. Zangana(1) and Shekhmous H. Hussen*(1)

(1). Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Duhok University, Iraq.

(*Correspondence author: Dr. Shekhmous Hussen. E-Mail: sheikhmous68@gmail.com).

Received: 09/02/2017                       Accepted: 08/07/2017


A total of 288 pullets, at the age of 18 weeks, were used to investigate the effect of replacement soya bean protein (SP) in ration, with animal protein (AP) on laying eggs performance of pullets up to age 34 weeks, and the economic efficiency. Pullets were distributed randomly to four diet treatments with four replicates. The treatments were, T1: Normal protein sources (AP and SP), it was considered as control; T2: 25% of normal ration replaces with SP source; T3: 50% of normal ration replaces with SP source; and T4: 100% SP (vegetable ration). The results showed that vegetable treatment (100% SP), recorded significantly the lowest values of live body weight (LBW), egg weight (EW), egg number (EN), hen day percentage (HD) and feed conversion ratio (FCR). The economic analysis showed that control treatment surpassed all other treatments.

Key words: Laying hens, Egg production, Vegetable protein.

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Mohammad Al-Allan*(1) Adel Almanofi(1) Nouredeen Zaher Hjej(1) Gaidaa Al Ameer(2)

(1). Department of Entomology, Administration of Plant Protection, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.

(2) Department of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Administration of Horticulture Research, GCSAR, Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Mohammad Al Allan. E-Mail: allanmhd@gmail.com).

Received: 09/07/2016                       Accepted: 10/10/2016


The experiment was carried out in the laboratory conditions at General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research, Damascus, Syria, in 2013, to test the effect of some plants oils i.e., mustard Sinapis arvensis, Camphor Cinnamomum camphora, Peppermint Mentha varidis, Cinnamon Cinnamomum zeylanicum, clove Syzygium aromaticum, and ginger Zingiber officinale on Pupa vitality of Mediterranean Flour Moth Ephestia kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Ten 10 virgins of Mediterranean flour moth were placed in a Petri dish, and a piece of cotton wet with 0.1 ml of one of the tested oils, with three replicates. Petri dishes left under laboratory room conditions until the emergence of adult insects, then the rate of dead larvae and the effectiveness of oils used were calculated. The results showed that the mortality rate of virgins was higher when using mustard oil followed by Camphor, Peppermint with no significant differences (p≤0.01) (26.67, 23.33, 20% respectively), while there were no significant differences among each of cinnamon, clove, ginger and control (6.67, 6.67, 3.33, 6.67%, respectively). It was noticed that there were no significant differences between peppermint, cinnamon, clove and control, whereas the differences were significant between mustard and camphor, and cinnamon, clove, ginger and control with the superiority of mustard and camphor oils. In respect of the effectiveness, mustard had the highest value (21.43%), followed by camphor and peppermint, but cinnamon and clove had no effectiveness. Ginger oil had a negative effectiveness, because it enhanced the activity of the pupa. The study recommends to use mustered oil as the best treatment to control the Pupa vitality of Mediterranean Flour Moth.

Key words: Essential oils, Mediterranean flour moth, Syria.

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Efficacy of Betanal Expert Herbicide and Application Time of Phosphorus and Potassium Fertilizers on the Productivity and Quality Traits of Sugar Beet

Abd Ul-Karim Al-Hmmad(1) Bahaa ALRahban*(2) and Isood Al-Mihaymeed(1)

 (1). Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Furat University , Der Ezzur, Syria.

(2). Plant Protection Administration, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research GCSAR, Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Bahaa AlRahban. E-Mail: bahaarahban@gmail.com).

Received: 28/07/2016                           Accepted: 31/08/2016


The experiment was conducted on sugar beet crop, using Cawyinterpoly new, a multigerm cultivar, during the fall season of 2013\2014 at Halta village in Der- Ezzur governorate. Betanal expert herbicide, (75g/L Phenmedipham+25 g/L Desmedipham+ 151g/L Ethofumesat) was used as post-emergence treatment with an average of 2 L/ha for one application, manual weeding control for three times and non-weeded as a check. Phosphorus and potassium fertilizers were added by two ways: (1st) whole quantities were added before planting; (2nd) the quantities were divided and added in three times: one third before planting, one third after thinning, and one third after a month from thinning, besides the check without fertilization .The experiment was laid according to split plot design with three replicates. Broad-leaved weeds were dominated. Results showed that manually weeded treatment effectiveness was (100%), sugar yield (6.53 ton/ha ) and root yield (46.72 ton/ha) while Betanal expert herbicide treatment effectiveness resulted (89.78%, 6.27 ton/ha and 44.39 ton/ha) respectively. The un-weeded treatment surpassed significantly Betanal expert and manual weeding treatments in root sugar contents (17.18%), whereas there were no significant differences between manual weeding and Betanal expert herbicide in this trait. Splitting the quantity of fertilizer into three increased root yield  (41.11 ton/ha) significantly as compared with adding the whole quantity before planting (38.56 ton/ha). However, there were no significant differences in sugar yield in terms of fertilizer methods. With respect of sugar content, adding whole quantity of fertilizer before planting gave higher root sugar content (16.67%) significantly compared with splitting the fertilizer to three (16.39%). The interaction between fertilization and weed control treatments affected only root sugar content significantly.

Key words: Sugar beet, Herbicide, Fertilization.

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The Combining Ability for Grain Yield and Some Secondary Traits of Some Maize Crosses under Water Stress Conditions

Majeda AL- Rwaily*(1) Ayman Shehada AL-Ouda(2) Samir AL-Ahmad(1) and Rshad ALobaid(1)

(1). Crops Research Administration, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.

(2). Crops Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Damascus University, Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Majeda Al-Rwaily. E-Mail: r.majeda@gmail.com).

Received: 09/07/2016                       Accepted: 10/10/2016


Half diallel cross among six inbred lines was conducted at the Scientific Agricultural Research Center in Deir Ezzor, during the growing season 2010. The fifteen crosses and the two local checks Ghoota82 and Basel-1 were evaluated during the growing season 2011, after being exposed to water stress during flowering and grain filling stages, in order to study the genetic behavior through estimating the general and specific combining ability of some secondary traits determining the grain yield i.e., anthesis silking interval, number of ears and per plant, number of grains per ear, 100 grain weight and harvest index, and to determine the response of maize genotypes for water stress through flowering and grain filling stages. The trial was conducted according to randomized block design, with tree replications. Results showed that GCA and SCA mean square of both lines and crosses were highly significant for most of the investigated traits indicating that inbred lines had variation and genetic diversity. The ratio σ2 GCA /σ2 SCA indicated the importance of the non-additive gene action for grain yield under water stress conditions during flowering and grain filling stages, while the non-additive gene action dominated of all other traits under water stress during the grain filling stage and full irrigation. The two lines p3 (IL344T.C-2007) and p2 (IL1081T.C-2009) revealed the best GCA. The hybrids p2×p3 (IL1081-2009×IL344-2007), and p1×p3 (IL441-2009×IL344-2007) showed the best SGA for grain yield trait.

Keywords: Maize. Combining ability, Water stress, Grain yield, Half diallel cross.

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Hydrological Study and Monitoring of Some Pollution Indexes of Nahr Al-Kabir Al-Shamali Basin

Hussam H. Husein*(1) Mustafa Beda(2) Eissa F. Ali(3) Ibrahem Zaghteti(1) and Abeer Karbouj(2)

(1). General Commission for Scientific Agriculture Research, Administration of Natural Resources Research, Damascus, Syria.

(2). General Commission for Scientific Agriculture Research, Administration of Natural Resources Research, Department of Drainage and Water Quality, Damascus, Syria.

(3). General Commission for Remote Sensing, Lattkia Branch, Lattakia, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Hussam Haj Husien. E-Mail: hussam_syr1@yahoo.com).

Received: 24/07/2016                           Accepted: 05/10/2016


The study was carried out to assess water pollution of Nahral-Kabir Al-Shamali according to the Syrian National Standard (SNS), because of that the following thematic maps of water streams, water catchments, Water bodies, concentration and draining points were developed. Those thematic were carried out using ArcHydro extension of GIS in order to select sampling sites along the river course. Water samples were taken from 9 permanent measurement points along the river during two seasons 2009 and 2010. The locations were: Estuary, Souq al-Hal, Jisr Ata Allah, Al-Saffkoun, Kafrya, Khan Al- Jouz, Wadi Al- Sheikhan, Marj Al-Zhour and Ein Al-Ashra. However, The changes in elements concentration i.e. NO3, NO2, SO4-2, Ca+2, Mg+2, Na+, K+, pH, TDS, EC and TOC were studied. The findings showed a variation in pH values by the changes in the studied observation points, but they had almost similar behavior for the observation point itself. The pH value exceeded the permissible limits of the Syrian National Standard (SNS) in the observation points of Souq Al-Hal, Jisr Ata Allah, Al-Saffkoun and Ein Al-Ashra in all the studied months. The highest pH value was 9.52 in June at Al-Saffkoun, while the lowest one was 7.83 in February at Marj Al-Zhour. According to the study findings, the same behavior was for EC values and total dissolved salts (TDS). Most of the observation points didn’t exceed the permissible EC values and total dissolved salts (TDS), except for the observation points of the Estuary and Souq Al-Hal, where the value exceeded the permissible limits in all the studied months, and the lowest EC value for both observation points were 0.803 and 0.93 in March, respectively, and for total dissolved salts (TDS) the lowest values were 372 and 386 mg/L. The highest values of EC were 1.33 and 1.745dS/m in January, respectively, and for total dissolved salts (TDS) the highest values for both points were 630 and 860 mg/l. In terms of Na, the study showed that the obtained values of the studied samples had no excess of permissible limits in SNS i.e. 69 mg/l except for the Estuary, where the value exceeded the permissible limits in most of the studied months, and the highest value was 117.4 mg/l in January. Mg concentration exceeded the permissible limits of SNS i.e. 60.8 mg/l in the Estuary and Souq Al-Hal in June and November, so the highest value was in the Estuary in November i.e. 69.31 mg/l. K values exceeded the permissible limits of SNS in all sites and months with the highest value of 19.3 in the Estuary in November and the lowest value of 2.3 mg/l in February at Kafrya site. TOC values exceeded the permissible limits of SNS in all months and for most sites, so the highest value was 14.85 mg/l in August at Souq Al-Hal, and the lowest value was 2.26mg/l in November at Kafrya. On the other hand, NO2, and NO3have had different behavior, where the nitrite values exceeded the permissible limits of SNS in most of the studied months except for March and August, which didn’t exceed these limits at any point of observation points. On the contrary, the nitrate values didn’t exceed the permissible limits of SNS at most observation points in most months, thus the highest value of nitrite was 0.8mg/l in February at Wadi Al- Sheikhan. The highest nitrate value was 80.76mg/l in June at the Estuary point. This is attributed to the untreated industrial wastewater of some factories (iron rolling and mineral oils) at Estuary point.

Keywords: Nahr al-Kabir al-Shamalli, Thematic maps.

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A Study of Inhibition Activity of Lactobacillus spp. Against Fungi and Aflatoxin B1 in Vitro

Keethar Rashid Majeed(1), Amal Khazem Ghadban(1) and Faleh Mehdi Saleh*(1)

(1). Food technology Department, Factual of Agriculture, Al Basra University, Al Basra, Iraq.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Faleh Mehdi Saleh. E-Mail: husienforever1@gmail.com).

Received: 27/07/2017                       Accepted: 18/08/2017


This study was conducted in April 2015 to August 2016, to investigate the inhibition activity of Lactobacillus spp. in vitro against fungi and aflatoxin using local isolates i.e., L. casi (AKF 1), L. plantarum (AKF2), L. casi (AKF 3), L. plantarum (AKF 4) and L. Jonsonii (AKF 5). The results of the statistical analyses showed that AKF4 exhibited the highest inhibition activity (97, 62.33 and 97%) among all isolates using live bacteria, thermally killed bacteria, and its metabolic compounds, respectively. In contrasts, the inhibition activity of AKF3 were (59, 14.33 and 59%) using live bacteria, thermally killed bacteria, and its metabolic compounds, respectively. Furthermore, aflatoxin binding was studied in vitro using the isolates (AKF 1,2,3,4,5) in MRS media containing 200 ppb of aflatoxin B1. The results revealed that using live bacteria of AKF4 at concentration 1×108 cfu/ml for 48 h showed highest binding percentage 99.9 %, while thermally killed bacteria of AKF1,2,5 at concentration 500 ppb for 48 h gave the highest binding percentage 100 % at 37 °C and pH 6.5. In addition, AKF 4 had the highest binding percentage 100% for both 24 h and 48 h at the same conditions. Binding efficiency results of thermally killed bacteria was 100 %, while binding efficiency of live bacteria ranged between (99.87-100%) when the bacteria was washed with water, acetonitrile and phosphate buffer saline.

Keywords: Wheat, Lactobacillus, Aflatoxin Binding B1, Fungal growth inhibition.

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Phytochemical Screening of Arum dioscorides L. Leaves

Ahmad Mohieddin Abdulaziz AlAyoubi*(1) Khalil Ibrahim Kurdi(1)  Abdullah Ibrahim Kataa(1) and Saleh Tarif Trefi(2)

(1). Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Aleppo University, Aleppo, Syria.

(2). Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Drug Control Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Aleppo University, Aleppo, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Mr. Ahmad Mohieddin Abdulaziz Ayoubi. E-mail: Ayoubi2Ahmad@Gmail.com).

Received: 24/05/2016                           Accepted: 10/08/2016


In this study, the active ingredients contents of Arum dioscorides syriacum Blume variety leaves were studied. Calcium oxalate needles (raphides) were detected, besides protein percentage was of 4.72%. Qualitative phytochemical screening of the methanolic extract of the leaves of A. dioscorides L. has shown the presence of active phytochemicals: Flavonoids, coumarines, tannins, sterols, triterpenoids, saponins, amino acids, and alkaloids; while the cardiac glycosides, and anthranoids were absent. It was concluded that the extraction of A. dioscorides L. leaves by methanol with sonication for 20 minutes gave better yields than the extraction with steeping for 24 hours. The extraction yields were 8.86% and 7.64% respectively. Also the total phenolics content (TPC) of the methanolic extract of the leaves was 13.29 mg Gallic Acid Equivalent/g dry plant, and the total flavonoids content (TFC) was 7.32 mg Rutin Equivalent/g dry plant.

Key words: Arum dioscorides L., Calcium oxalate (raphides), Active ingredients, Total Phenolics Content (TPC), Total flavonoids content (TFC).

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Economics of Rainfed Olive Production in Homs Governorate

Moammar Dayoub*(1) Khetam Edrees(2) and Nisreen Edrees(2)

(1). Salamieh Agricultural Research Centre, General Commission for scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.

(2). Socio Economic Studies Directorate, Homs Agricultural Research Center, GCSR, Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Moammar Dayoub. E-Mail: m-dayoub@hotmail.com).

Received: 20/07/2016                     Accepted: 20/08/2016


The main objective of this research was the descriptive economic and econometric analysis of cost functions of rain fed olive in Homs Governorate/Syria. In addition, this study aimed to determent the economic efficiency that maximize profit. Primary data was collected in 2012 and 2013 through interviews with the farmers. The farms were divided according to stability zones to zone 1 and 2. According to the descriptive economic analysis of costs and returns of olive production, the highest average of production cost per kilogram of olives was (120.98) SP for zone (1) in 2013, and the lowest value was (76.76) SP for zone (2) in 2012. In general, an obvious increment in production costs was appeared; this is due to the increase in production supplies prices, and labor wages in 2013 when compare with 2012. Also, a significant increase in the cost of olive oil production in 2013 as compared with 2012. The olive oil cost of 1 Kg in zones 1 and 2 for the season 2012 were (436.58, 388.52), and (528.66, 522.83) in 2013, respectively, this is due to the influence of high temperature, and the fall of flowers, which led to a significant decrease in fruition, in addition to other reasons because of the crisis, included the rising in oil production costs, starting from labor wages, ending with the wages of wills and transportation. Using the econometric models of cost functions, the economic efficient size was computed. The optimal production, and area in zone 1 were in 2011 (3533.33 kg, 3.00 Ha), respectively, while in 2013 were (4021.74 kg 4.4 Ha), but in zone (2) the optimal production, and area were (3783.78 kg, 3.59 Ha) in 2012, while in 2013 were (4500 kg, 3.93 Ha), respectively. This increment in production, and area in 2013 due to the alternate fruit bearing phenomenon in olive trees, besides the increase in production costs. The study concluded the need to support production requirements, especially for rainfed olive, because it is considered an important income source for the families of the region, and contribute to the stability and sustainability of agricultural production.

Keywords: Econometric analysis, Costs of olive production, Rainfed, Economic efficiency.

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