Response of Peanut (Arachis hypogea L.) to Different Types and Doses of Boron Fertilizer under Deficit Irrigation Conditions

Wael Fahme AL Rhman Al Shoummary(1) and Aiymen Ahmed AL-Abassi*(2)    

(1). Agriculture Directorate of Anbar. Ministry of Agriculture, Anbar, Iraq.

(2). Education Directorate of Diyala. Ministry of Education, Diyala, Iraq.

(*Corrsponding author: Dr. Aiymen Ahmed AL-Abassi. E-Mail:

Received: 02/05/2018                                Accepted: 01/10/2018


A field experiment was conducted during summer season 2013 at AL-Anbar Governorate to study the response of peanut (Arachis hypogea L.) to different concentrations and types of boron under deficit irrigation conditions. A split-split plot design was laid out in three replications. Three concentrations of boron (0، 150، and 300) mg/l were sprayed. The experiment also included three levels of irrigation (50, 75 and 100) % of depth of irrigation. The results showed that the concentration of 150 mg/l of sprayed boron caused an increase in dry root and plant weight, pod yield and dressing ratio (12.50 g/plant, 380.96 g/plant,320.08  g/plant, %74.9 and 1.170 Kg/m3 respectively. The level of 75% of depth of irrigation gave best indicators for both dry root and plant weight, pod yield and dressing ratio (48.17 cm, 14.83 g/plant, 452.23 g/plant, 357.25 g/plant and 87.6% respectively. The results also showed that the effect of triple interaction between types and concentrations of boron and levels of irrigation was insignificant for most of the traits except dry plant weight.

Keyword: Foliar spray. Boron. Irrigation levels, peanut.

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The Effect of Covering Rows with Polyethylene on Growth and Productivity of Two Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) Genotypes

Ahmad Jarjanazi*(1) and Safaa Arafa(2)

(1). Second Faculty of Agriculture, Aleppo University, Aleppo, Syria.

(2). Technical Agricultural Institute, Albaath University, Homs, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Ahmad Jarjanazi. E-Mail:  

Received: 22/08/2017                                Accepted: 14/10/2017


This research was conducted to determine the effect of covering rows with two types of transparent and black polyethylene on the growth and productivity of two genotypes of eggplant (Alwardi and Black) under the conditions of Bseren, Hama government, Syria during 2014 season. Split plots design was used in this experiment, with three replications. The results showed that covering rows with polyethylene has a positive effect on the vegetative growth of eggplant in comparison with the control. This was reflected positively on production and early maturity. Eggplants genotypes that were covered with transparent polyethylene exceeded significantly the other eggplants genotypes that were covered with black polyethylene in all the studied traits. The early maturity was clear for covering plants with both transparent and black polyethylene slices in comparison to the control during the first month of picking up fruits. Both treatments of covering exceeded the control in terms of productivity by 46.14% and 20.41%, respectively.

Key words: Eggplant, Soil covering, Polyethylene slices, Productivity.

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Effect of Plant Density and Phosphate Fertilizer on Some Chemical Characteristics of Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.)

Mohamead Abd ELAziz(1) and Hala Mohammad*(1)

(1). Crops Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University, Latakia, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Eng. Hala Mohammad. E-Mail:

Received: 04/09/2017                                Accepted: 07/11/2017


This study was carried out in the Syrian coastal in Tartous governorate, during the growing season 2014, to study the effect of four plant densities (10.00, 13.33, 20.00, and 33.33) plant/m 2, and three levels of phosphate fertilizations (107.2, 160.8, 214.4 kg/ha of super phosphate P2O5 46%), besides the control, on quality traits (nitrogen, crude protein, phosphorus and potassium) of the coriander plant. The experiment was designed in a Randomized Complete Block design (RCBD) with a split plot arrangement of treatments with three replications for each treatment. The results revealed significant differences between treatments for most of studied traits, in addition to an interaction effect between plant density and fertilization. Although, the densities (10, 13.33 .20 plant /m 2) varied in their effect, but it significantly outperformed the highest density (33.33 plant/m2). The treatment 10 plants/m2 was more importance in terms of increasing the plant content of N, P, K. On the other hand, most of the measured characters were increased as a result of the increasing rates of phosphate fertilization. The treatment (160.8 kg/ha of P2O5) had a significant superiority upon on the rest of the treatments in terms of its effect on phosphor, nitrogen and crude protein, whereas the treatment )214.4 kg/ha (increased each of the content of the seeds of both of nitrogen and phosphor. The interaction effect between the highest plant density (33.33/m2) and the highest level of phosphor fertilization (214.4 kg/ha) had the superiority upon the other treatments in term of increasing each of seed content of P, N, protein, and K content of vegetative growth.

Key words: Coriander, Plant density, Phosphate fertilization, Vegetative growth, Seeds.

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The Effect of Growth Regulator, Time Collection and Type of Cutting on Rooting of Kiwi (Actinidia chinensis) Male Tree Cutting

Imad Bilal*(1)

(1). Latakia Research Centre, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.

Received: 06/06/2018                                Accepted: 07/09/2018


The present investigation was carried out at Latakia Agricultural Research Center, during (2011-2013), to study the propagation of male kiwi trees by wooden cuttings at two collecting dates (January and February). NAA and IBA regulators were applied at two concentrations (5000, 6000 ppm). In addition, of four treatments of the mixture of both regulators. The cuttings were planted within a glasshouse for 60 days under sprinkle irrigation conditions in order to study the effect of some factors (collecting date, location of cuttings on shoot, type of regulator and its concentrations) on some characters of cuttings (rooting ratio%, weight and size of roots, and weight and size of shoots. The results showed that the first collecting date (January) was significantly better in terms of weight and number of roots and shoots and rooted cuttings number. The rooting ratio was 64.9%, 54.3% respectively. According to cutting location on the shoot, the middle and basal cuttings were exceeded significantly the typical one in term of roots weight (20.31, 19.81, 15.55 g respectively) and also according to root size (20.55, 20.06, 15.57 cm3 respectively). The NAA and IBA regulators; had different effects, where the regulator (NAA) was significantly superior to the regulator (IBA) and the mixture treatments in terms of the average number of roots / cuttings. While the shoot weight and size were higher at IBA and mixture treatments than NAA. The mixture treatment 3000 ppm of (IBA + NAA) gave high values of roots weight and size. The treatment of 1500 ppm of mixture (IBA+ NAA) was significantly superior compared to the other treatments in terms of the number of rooted cuttings (75%) comparing to the control (28%).

Keywords: Kiwi (actinidia chinensis ), Male trees, Wooden cuttings, Collecting dates, Plant growth regulators.

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Use of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Technique to Detect Sheep Meat Adulteration

Raghdaa Aslan(1) Naiem Al Hussein(2) Fateh Khatib(3) Mustafa Asaeed(4) and Asmaa Maaz*(1)

(1). Department of Biotechnology Engineering, Faculty of Technical Engineering, Aleppo University, Aleppo, Syria.

(2). Aleppo Research Center, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.

(3). Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Aleppo University, Aleppo, Syria.

(4). Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Technical Engineering, Aleppo University, Aleppo, Syria. (*Corresponding author: Asmaa Maaz. E-Mail:

Received: 16/09/2017                                Accepted: 24/10/2017


Consumers, especially in poor countries, suffer from many kinds of meat adulteration by substituting cheaper and less nutritious meat with costly ones. Traditional morphological analysis or others based on component analysis are usually applied to identify undeclared meats, but these methods often produce incorrect or unreliable results, Therefore, finding more precise and reliable methods is critical in food authentication. DNA-based techniques have been widely used in this field due to their sensitivity, speed and high accuracy. In this study, species- specific PCR technique was employed to analysis 18 sheep meat samples to detect substitutions with beef, goat, chicken, turkey or pork meat. The detection process was based on specific primers targeting cytochrome b coding gene. The results showed that all samples were mixed with one or more types of meat. The expected fragment of DNA was obtained from each pair of other used primers. Cheating with goat meat was the most frequent among samples with a ratio of 94.44%. while the lowest frequent was with turkey 16.66%, and finally, adulteration with pork meat was not recorded in any sample.

Key Words: Species specific PCR, Meat adulteration, Cytochrome b gene.

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Prevalence of Ringworm Infection in Camels under Release Breeding System in Syria

Abdul Naser Al-Omar*(1)

(1). Agricultural Research Center in Hama, General Commission for Scientific and Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Abdul Naser Al-omar. E-Mail:

Received: 20/08/2017                                Accepted: 01/11/2017


This research was carried out on 1639 heads of camels in two Syrian governorates, Homs and Deir- Ezzour during the period of March 2010 till February 2011 to recognize prevalence of Ringworm infection under the conditions of breeding release. Clinical symptoms of infection were recorded i.e. age of infected animals, sex, and general condition. The infections were listed according to the seasons of the year. The clinical symptoms appeared in the form of lesions and distinctive circular spots covered with dry dense white scurf, localized mainly in the head, neck, chest, front standings and sometimes in all over the body. Results showed sufficient difference (p<0.01) in the prevalence of infections among the ages of infected animals, where the infections were greater in small aged camels till three years old where the ratio was (31.87%), while it was (9.58%) in camels their ages within the range (3-10) years. Infection prevailed in both sexes, male and female, where the ratio of infection was greater in old female camels (10.05%) comparing to old males (6.01%), also it was greater in small females (35.4%) comparing to male animals (27.63%), but there is no significant difference between the two sexes. The ratio of prevalence infections varied according to the seasons of the year with significant difference (p<0.001). It was for old camels in winter, autumn, summer and spring (14.63%،, 10.95%،, 7.69%, 4.98%) respectively. While the ratio in small camels with significant difference (p<0.05) (40.94%, 33.60%, 29.26%, 23.84%) respectively. These results is considered important for charged people in the veterinary and health sectors, because it helps them in setting protective schedules programs that can reduce the ratio of prevalence the infection in animal.

Keys words: Ringworm, Breeding release, Camels, Syria.

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Effect of Different Levels of Dry Onion Powder in the Common Carp Cyprinus Carpio (L.1758) Fish Diets on Growth Rate and Food Conversion

Qusay Hamid Al-Hamadany*(1)

(1). Marine Science Center/Dept. Marine Vertebrate

(*Corresponding author: Qusay Hamid Al-Hamadany. E-mail:

Received: 02/10/2018                                Accepted: 06/11/2018


The current study aimed to study the effects of different levels of dry onions as additives to the diet of common carp fingerlings Cyprinus carpio L. on growth performance and food conversion rates. The initial average weight rate was 9.02±0.39 g. The results showed significant differences (p <0.05) in the final weight, daily weight gain, gain weight, relative growth rate, specific growth rate and food conversion ratio within fish groups. Treatment C, which fed on dry onion powder of 7% gave the best rate of final body weight, daily weight gain, gain weight, relative growth rate, specific growth rate and food conversion ratio. There were no differences (p >0.05) in the survival rate within fish groups. The results of the current study indicated that dry onion powder can be used in common carp fish at 7% to increase growth rates.

Key words: Cyprinus carpio, Dry onion powder, Growth rate, Food conversion.

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The Economic Estimation of Cost Functions in the Long Run and Scale Economies of Almonds in Homs Governorate

Khetam Idris*(1)

(1). Homs Research Center, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Khetam Idris. E-Mail:

Received: 22/09/2017                                Accepted: 08/11/2017


The objective of this research is to study costs structure of almonds production in Homs governorate for the agricultural season 2015. To achieve the targets, the research depended on the econometric and statistical analysis of the primary data which was collected by interviews with the farmers of the studied region. The results of the cost structure analysis of the almonds production showed that the variable costs accounted approximately (66.11) % of total costs, while the fixed costs accounted (33.89) % of the total costs. The quantitative analysis showed that the optimal size of production that decreases the costs was (12.9) tons, but the optimum area was (49.54) dunum. The estimated elasticity of costs, amounted (1) at the optimum level of production, and the minimum price was calculated as (148673.08) sp/tons, and the function supply in long term was derived. A positive relationship between quantity supplied of almonds and price, when price is greater than (148673.08) sp/tons. Also, the results showed that the average cost decreases until it reaches to optimal level of production, while proportion economies of scale reach the maximum value 100% at optimum level of production average cost.

Key Words: Almonds, Economies of scale, Function supply, Function of production costs in long-term.

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Measuring Technical Efficiency of Wheat, Barley and Lentil Production Farms at Al-Zerbeh Region in Aleppo

Abdullah Al-Youssef*(1) Ahmad Shams Aldien Shaaban(2) Jamila Dirbas(3) Abdulatef Al-Assaf(1) Isam Khalifeh(1) and Yasmeen Naal(1)

(1). Aleppo Research Center, General Commission for Scientific Agriculture Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.

(2). Aleppo University Center for Strategic Studies and Research, University of Aleppo, Aleppo, Syria.

(3). Cotton Research Administration, GCSAR, Damascus, Syria.

(* Corresponding author: Dr. Addullah Al-Youssef. Email:

Received: 20/04/2017                                Accepted: 24/09/2017


The aim of this research was to estimate production costs, and to compare technical efficiency levels and production gap of wheat, barley and lentil in the area within the project of enhancing food security in Arab Countries/Syria-Second Phase. The search conducted at Jabal Samaan region based upon 150 Questionnaires. The technical efficiency estimated by stochastic frontier analysis using Front 4.1 software. The results indicated an increase in the variable cost percentage of the total costs. The net profits were 650128, 458686 and 320021 S.P/ha for lentil, barley and wheat respectively. Averages technical efficiency were 81.5%, 67.3% and 82.9% for wheat, barley and lentil farmers respectively. Also, high significantly differences were found between actual and potential yield. Besides, lowest production gap was 340.3 (kg/ha) for lentil farmers, followed by wheat farmers (785.1 kg/ha), and finally barley farmers (1611 kg/ha).

Key Words: Production costs, Technical efficiency, Stochastic frontier analysis, Jabal Samaan.

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Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L.) Seedlings Response to Potassium and Foliar Spray of Methanol under Drought Conditions Induced by Poly Ethylene Glycol (PEG-6000)

Fadi Abbas *(1)  Entessar AL-Jbawi (2) and Mahmoud AlHamdan(3)

(1). Scientific Agriculture Research Center of Homs, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.

(2). Sugar beet Research Department, Crops Research Administration, GCSAR, Damascus, Syria.

(3). Natural Resources Directorate, Scientific Agriculture Research Center of Homs, GCSAR, Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Fadi Abbas. E-Mail:

Received: 24/09/2018                                Accepted: 14/11/2018


This experiment was conducted at Homs Agriculture Research Center Lab, during 2014, using two monogerm sugar beet varieties (Rival and Semper), to study the effects of drought induced by polyethylene glycol (PEG-6000) on seedling stage, and the role of potassium and foliar spray of methanol in reducing the negative effects of drought. Plants thinned to one plant per polyethylene sac which contains 10 kg of soil. Three osmotic solutions (0, -3, -6 bar) were applied, using three levels of potassium sulfate (0, 1.5, 3 g/plant), besides spraying 25% of methanol (four times), one week after emergence, then one-week interval between treatments. Results showed a significant effect of osmotic potential on growth stages, because of that, the time needed to complete each stage increased with decreasing osmotic potential level. Potassium had no significant effect on the early growth stages (germination, cotyledon pairs), while this factor affected the following stages (first, second and third true leaves pairs) significantly. Methanol had no significant effect on the early growth stages (germination, cotyledon pairs and first true leaves pairs), while it affected the following stages (second and third true leaves pairs) significantly. The values of leaves dry matter, leaves area and net assimilation rate decreased with the reduction of osmotic potential, and the differences were significant. Also, potassium and methanol enhanced growth, and had a positive effect on these attributes significantly. Rival variety surpassed Semper in all of studied attributes.

Key Words: Drought stress, Potassium, Methanol, Seedling, Sugar beet.

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