Residual Effect of Some Heavy Elements in Propolis and Bees ‎Wax as an Indicator of Pollution in Latakia Governorate, ‎Syria

Vienna Hammoud*(1) Khalil Moukayess(2) and Liena salama(3)

(1). Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Tartous University, Tartous, Syria.

(2). Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University, Latakia, Syria.

(3). Department of Basic Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University, Latakia, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Vienna Hammoud.

Received: 19/03/2019                               Accepted: 07/05/2019


The concentrations of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) in propolis and bees wax were determined by using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The samples were collected from five different locations of Latakia; Qardahah (Asitamo), Haffeh (Dabba), Jableh (Snouper), Latakia city (Al-Ramel Al-Shamali\ Autostrade of Al-Jomhouria) and Eastern Entryway to Latakia, during the spring and autumn in 2014. The results showed that there were significant differences in the concentrations of all tested elements between the locations, it was also demonstrated significant differences between the mean concentrations of all elements in propolis and  bee wax except cadmium. The concentration of nickel, zinc and lead were significantly higher in propolis than bees wax, except the concentration of copper which was high  in  bees wax. The concentration of copper, zinc, nickel and lead was similar in both spring and autumn, unlike the concentration of cadmium in autumn (0.019 ppm) which was higher than in spring (0.009 ppm).

Key words: Bee, Propolis,  Bees wax,  Copper, Zinc, Nickel, Lead, Cadmium.

Full paper in Arabic: PDF

Estimation of Daily Intake of Lead and Cadmium from Chicken Luncheon Meat Consumed in Damascus

Abdulkarim Husen*(1)

(1). Syrian Arab Standardization and Metrology Organization, Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Eng. Abdulkarim Husen. E-Mail:

Received: 12/04/ 2015                                     Accepted: 03/07/ 2015


The research which was conducted in the laboratories of Syrian Arab Standardization and Metrology Organization (SASMO) aimed to estimate the daily intake of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) for adult person of 70 Kg weight when he consumed 100 g/day of canned chicken luncheon meat of 5 different brands samples, three of them were locally processed (A, B, and C), while two of them were imported (D, and E), and all brands were sold in the markets. The results revealed that lead levels of the samples differed significantly and ranged between 0.351 and 0.73 mg/Kg (p≤0.05). The samples A and E exceeded the permissible limit which is mentioned in the Syrian Standardization and Metrology number (2719) (>0.5 mg/Kg) in 2008. Regarding cadmium levels, it ranged between 9.37 and 15.22 µg/Kg, and all samples were within the permissible limit according to FAO, (1980) (>100 µg/Kg), and according to ECR, (2006) (>50 µg/Kg).  The daily intake (DI) from elements was compared with acceptable daily intake (ADI), which is recommended by Syrian Standardization and Metrology number (575) in 2009 (250 µg/day/person of lead and 70 µg/day/person of cadmium). The results exhibited that the daily intake of lead ranged between 35.1 and 73 µg/day/person, with a contribution percentage ranged between 14.04 and 29.2% of the daily intake, on the other hand cadmium daily intake ranged between 0.937 and 1.522 µg/day/person with a contribution percentage ranged between 1.33 and 2.17% of the daily intake. We conclude that the consumed canned chicken luncheon meat of different studied brands constitutes an important source for lead and cadmium, with the possibility of exceeding the permissible limits for some brands.

Key words: Cadmium, Lead, Accepted daily intake, Chicken luncheon meat.

Full paper in Arabic:

تقدير المدخول اليومي من الرصاص والكادميوم الناتج من استهلاك لحم لانشون الدجاج في مدينة دمشق