Residual Effect of Some Heavy Elements in Propolis and Bees ‎Wax as an Indicator of Pollution in Latakia Governorate, ‎Syria

Vienna Hammoud*(1) Khalil Moukayess(2) and Liena salama(3)

(1). Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Tartous University, Tartous, Syria.

(2). Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University, Latakia, Syria.

(3). Department of Basic Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University, Latakia, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Vienna Hammoud.

Received: 19/03/2019                               Accepted: 07/05/2019


The concentrations of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) in propolis and bees wax were determined by using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The samples were collected from five different locations of Latakia; Qardahah (Asitamo), Haffeh (Dabba), Jableh (Snouper), Latakia city (Al-Ramel Al-Shamali\ Autostrade of Al-Jomhouria) and Eastern Entryway to Latakia, during the spring and autumn in 2014. The results showed that there were significant differences in the concentrations of all tested elements between the locations, it was also demonstrated significant differences between the mean concentrations of all elements in propolis and  bee wax except cadmium. The concentration of nickel, zinc and lead were significantly higher in propolis than bees wax, except the concentration of copper which was high  in  bees wax. The concentration of copper, zinc, nickel and lead was similar in both spring and autumn, unlike the concentration of cadmium in autumn (0.019 ppm) which was higher than in spring (0.009 ppm).

Key words: Bee, Propolis,  Bees wax,  Copper, Zinc, Nickel, Lead, Cadmium.

Full paper in Arabic: PDF