The prevalence of the predator Prolasioptera berlesiana (Diptera-Cecidomyiidae) and its relation to the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae and the olive rot disease Camarosporium dalmaticum    in Lattakia Governorate- Syria

Atia Arab(1), Faten Mraisha(1)*, Mouhamad Matar(2) and Ali Dibo(3)

(1). Scientific Agricultural Research Center in Lattakia, Syria.

(2). Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University, Syria.

(3). Faculty of Agriculture, Hamah University, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Faten Mraisha, E.ail  mob:0951740671)

Received: 8/11/2022           Accepted: 28/03/2023


This research aimed to investigate the prevalence of olive fruit midge Prolasioptera berlesiana and its relation to both the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (Gmel.) and the olive rot diseaseCamarosporium dalmaticum (Thüm.) and its population dynamics. Field survey was carried out on olive groves in Lattakia over the seasons 2015 and 2016. The results revealed presence of olive fruit midge correlated with the olive fly and olive rot disease on all survey sites. The highest percentage of fruits containing the predator was recorded in Qardaha22.5٪   while   it was 20٪   and 17.33٪  in Al-Haffah and Jableh respectively in 2016. In addition, the results showed that the olive fruit midge has three-generation compatible with the olive fruit fly generations, tow generations in the Sumer and  one in  the Fall.

Keywords: Olive fruit fly,Bactrocera oleae, infestation,  Prolassioptera berlesiana, , Camarosporium dalmaticum.

Full paper in Arabic: pdf

Some tomato plant hybrids react to fusarium oxysporum. f. sp. lycopersici causing vascular wilt disease under semi-fieldcultivation conditions

Dima Ali(1)*, Moussah Alsamarah(1), Ahmad Ahmad(2) and Bushra Rizk(2)

(1). Higher Institute for Environmental Research, Tishreen University, Lattakia, Syria

(2). Agricultural Scientific Research Center, Tartous, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dima Ali. E-Mail:

Received: 21/08/2022         Accepted: 29/03/2023


Fusarium oxysporum. f. sp. lycopersici is an economically important disease of the tomato crop, causing economic losses in severe cases up to 80%. The study aimed to isolate Fusarium oxysporum. f. sp. Lycopersici (FOL) from tomato plants grown in greenhouses in Tartous countryside, that showed wilt disease symptoms, and assessment its pathogenicity on some growth parameters against three hybrids of tomato. the research was carried out at the Center for Agricultural Scientific Research in Tartous during 2020-2021 season. A total of twelve isolates were identified as Fusarium oxysporum on the basis of their morphological, Among these, seven isolates (F1, F2, F3. F4, F5, F6, & F7) were test its pathogenicity on three hybrids (Sidra, Magdalena, Dumna). The colony appearance of isolates on PDA as highly variable. Indeed, white and yellowish white colony colors, and the result of pathogenicity were showed that the F1 isolate was the most virulent in an average 70. 33% while the isolate F6, and F7 were less virulent in an average 32 and 34.7% respectively.In another hand, the hybrid Dumna was the most sensitive for all isolates compared to the Sidra and Magdulen, also the isolate F1 showed a significant negative effect in the hybrid Dumna on plant height, number of leaves, fresh and dry weight of shoot and root compared with control

Keywords: Tomato, F. oxysoprum f. sp. lycopersici, Isolate, Growth, Hybrids.

Full paper in Arabic: pdf

Numerical Taxonomy of Erodium spp. distributed in Aleppo, Syria

Abdel Aleem Bello (1) and Aline Batch*(1)

(1). Plant Biology Department, Faculty of Science, University of Aleppo, Aleppo, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Aline Batch,  E-Mail:, Tel: 0944826295)

Received:  29/09/2022        Accepted: 22/02/2023


This study aimed to inventory and classify Erodium L’Herit species spread in Aleppo, and it relied on macro and micromorphological characteristics such as the general shape and characteristics of leaves, flowers, fruits, mericarps, seeds and pollen grains. The number of studied traits was 69, including 33 quantitative and 36 qualitative. Numerical cluster analysis was done using R software and K-means clustering algorithm. Seven species have been classified: E. cicutarium, E. acaule, E. moschatum, E. deserti, E. ciconium, E. malacoides, and E. subtrilobum, all of which belong to the subgenus. Barbata Boiss. The carpel foveoles were non-glandular in E. cicutarium and E. acaule, while it was clearly glandular in the other five species. The carpel foveoles were surrounded by furrows in all species except E. ciconium. The furrows were non-glandular in E. cicutarium, E. acaule and E. subtrilobum, and glandular in E. moschatum and E. deserti and E. malacoides. The study of pollen showed the similarity of the studied species in the shape of the grains and differences in the dimensions of the polar axis P and the equatorial diameter E. The seeds of the studied species were similar in dimensions and were all oblanceolate with a rounded apex, except for the seeds of E. ciconium which had the largest length of 3.9 mm and had Elliptical shape with truncate top. The results of the numerical analysis showed that the species separated into two clusters, the first included E. cicutarium and E. acaule, while the second separated into two sub-clusters, the first containing E. ciconium alone, and the second containing two groups, the first including E. moschatum and E. deserti, the second included E. malacoides and E. subtrilobum. The study showed that Aleppo is a natural and rich habitat of Erodium species.

Keywords: Erodium, Geraniaceae, Numerical taxonomy, Macromorphology, Micromorphology.

Full paper in Arabic: pdf

Comparing between Mechanical Harvesting and Manual Harvesting of Olive

Yahya Al Saleh (1)*

(1) . Dept. Faculty of Agriculture, Aleppo University, Aleppo, Syria

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Yahya al Saleh, E-mail:

Received:  1/09/2022          Accepted: 23/02/2023


The labor shortage during the harvest period and the high costs of manual harvesting are among the factors that cause an increase in production costs. Studies indicate that this problem can be solved through the use of simple harvesting machines that are suitable for most farmers, which are branch-end shakers. In this research, a comparison was made between the method of picking by hand, the method of harvest with combs, and the method of harvest using a shaking machine at the ends of the branches. The harvest took place in the 2020 season on 30-year-old olive trees, the Khalkhali variety, in a field in Aleppo. The trees were not treated with any type of fruit drop stimulant. The results showed that the harvesting efficiency was 97.4%, 95.2 and 82.8%, respectively, for the studied harvesting methods with highly significant differences. The productivity of the worker amounted to 6.9 kg/h, 11.7 kg/h, and 35.7 kg/h, respectively, and for the total affected fruits, which were 1.7%, 4.3%, and 9.6%, respectively. The readings of the ratio of fallen leaves, and small and large branches broken into fruits were not significant.

Keywords: Olive, Olive Harvest, Mechanical Olive Harvesting, Branches Shaker.

Full paper in Arabic: pdf

Effect of Organic and Mineral Fertilization on Some Parameters of Vegetative Growth and Productivity of Valencia Orange

Kinana Omran(1) , Ali Elkhateeb(2)  and Mohammad Battha(3)

(1) . Faculty of Science, Damascus University, Damascus, Syria.

(2) . Faculty of Agriculture, Damascus University, Damascus, Syria.

(3). General Commission Agriculture Scientific Research, Lattakia,  Syria.

(*Corresponding author:     

Received: 2/01/2023                  Accepted: 23/02/2023


This research was carried out in two consecutive seasons (2018/2019) on Valencia trees grown at the Siano Research Station of the General Authority for Agricultural Research. Organic fertilizers from different sources were used with mineral fertilizers, humic acids,and foliar spraying with some microelements(boron, zinc, manganese, iron), and their effect on production and some morphological traits was followed up. We had twelve treatments distributed on the basis of following up the effect of each type of fertilizer individually or in interaction with a mixture of organic fertilizers (dung of cows, sheep and poultry).The results showed alternating superiority between treatment F(a mixture of organic fertilizers)and treatment G(a mixture of organic fertilizers with NPK)) with regard to the studied indicators, where treatment (F) and treatment (G) were significantly superior in relation to the number of vegetative branches during the two growing seasons in the study period with an average of (8.3 branche),while treatment (G) was significantly superior in relation to the length of new developing branches and outwardly outperformed by primitive nodes (91 7 %),with an average productivity of (93.9 kg/tree), and an average fruit weight of (238.5 g), while it returned and significantly outperformed all treatments with regard to an average fruit diameter of (7.8 cm).Thus, fertilizer treatments had a significant positive effect compared to the control in most of the studied indicators.       

Keywords: Valencia Orange , Organic fertilizers ,mineral fertilizer ,vegetative growth , productivity.

Full paper in Arabic: pdf

Studying The Most Effecting Climatic Factors On Determining Water Requirement Of Maize Crop Using ET0 Calculator.

Ammar Abbas.(1)*

(1). General Commission for Scientific Agriculture Research (GCSAR). Center of Lattakia.

(*Corresponding author: mob. 0991978115)

Received: 26/12/2022                              Accepted:25/01/2023


This paper aims to study the most affecting climatic factors on the reference evapo-transpiration values ET0 during the phenological stages of maize crop using ET0calculator model, and the cultivar (Tango) was selected as one of the cultivars in the coastal region. The ET0calculator model allows obtaining higher accuracy values of the reference evapotranspiration according to Benman-Monteith modified equation, which is based on inputs of the climatic factors: maximum, minimum, and average temperatures, relative humidity, wind speed, and solar  radiation.  Obtaining daily data for these climatic factors is not easy, so the most important climatic factors were identified in the reference evapo-transpiration calculation by focusing on the simple correlations between climatic factors and ET0 values, and then multiple correlations were calculated between ET0 values and the input factors. It was found that the highest values of the simple correlation were between the reference evapotranspiration and wind speed during the two phases of cone formation and maturity. The multiple correlations also gave several high values during the different phenological stages, especially with wind speed input which had the strongest effect on correlation values when it was entered in multiple correlations in all phenological stages.

Keywords: ET0calculator – maize –Tango – climatic factors – multi-correlation.

Full paper in Arabic: pdf

Effect of Nitrogen Fertilizer in Some Productivity Indicators and Concentration of some Nutrient in Leaves of Two Cultivars of Maize Grown in Calcareous Soil

Shafika Mkhies(1)*, IssaKbibow(2) , Nadim Khalil (2)    and Mazen Ashram(1)

(1). General Commission of Agricultural Scientific Research, Research Center of Latakia, Latakia, Syria.  

(2). Department of Water and Soil Science- Faculty of Agricultural Engineering- Tishreen University- Lattakia- Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Shafika Mkhies, Email:, Mobile: 0996718934)

Received:5/12/2022                   Accepted:10/3/2023


The research was conducted at the Stekhers Research Station of the Agricultural Scientific Research Center in Lattakia in 2020, to study the effect of two types of nitrogen fertilizers (ammonium sulfate [(NH4)2SO4] 71.4 kg/d- potassium nitrate [KNO3] 107 kg/d) on growth and productivity parameters on the concentration of some nutrients for two types of Yellow maize cultivar Dina F1 (foreign) and Fayhaa cultivar (local) grown in calcareous soil in addition to the treatment of the control without adding nitrogen, at a rate of three replications for each treatment. The results also showed that the ammonium sulfate treatment increased the availability and absorption of some nutrients in corn plants through its effect on pH, and the two studied cultivars (Dina F1 and Fayhaa) are tolerant to high calcium carbonate levels. The treatment of cultivar Dina F1 with ammonium fertilization was superior to all treatments in all studied productive indicators: cob weight, cob length, number of grains per cob, and dry weight of 100 seeds.

Keywords: Zea Maize, Dina F1, Faihaa, nitrogen fertilizer, nutrient, Calcareous soil.                                               

Full paper in Arabic: pdf

Determination of Dichlorvos Pesticide Residues in the Soil in the Surrounding Environment of Al-Sin Lake

Deema Okdeh *(1) , Ibrahim Sakr(2) and Tareq ARRAJ(1)

(1). Department of Environmental Chemistry, Higher Institute for Environmental Research, Tishreen University,  Lattakia, Syria

(2). Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University,  Lattakia,  Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Deema Okdeh. E-Mail:

Received:10/12/2022                                       Accepted: 14/03/2023


The objective of the research was to determine the concentration of the synthetic organophosphate Dichlorvos pesticide (DDVP) in the soils of the surrounding environment of Al-Sin Lake during the year 2020/2021. Soil samples were taken from several sites surrounding Al-Sin Lake. The study lasted for seven months. The soil texture and organic matter were determined seasonally, and the pH-moisture was measured. The pesticide analysis was measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed the presence of DDVP residues in the studied soil samples with average concentrations ranging between (4-121)  Therefore, soil were contaminated by DDVP. The highest concentrations were in the north-east and west of the lake, this was due to the increase of greenhouses number, and the intensive use of  DDVP in these areas.

Keywords: Organophosphate pesticides, Dichlorvos, Al Sin spring basin, soil, HPLC.

Full paper in Arabic: pdf

Response of wheat cultivars (Triticum. spp) to organic and chemical fertilization under the conditions of Raqqa Governorate

Ahmed Al-Ali Al-Khalaf (1)*

(1). Raqqa Research Center, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research, Syria. Syria.
(*Corresponding author: Ahmed Al-Ali Al-Khalaf. E-Mail:, Tel:+963998017094).

Received:13/01/2022                                       Accepted: 23/03/2023


The research was carried out at the Agricultural Scientific Research Center in Raqqa /Al-Sabkha City/ of the General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research during the season 2020/2021 to study the response of varieties of durum (Triticum  durum Desf) and bread (Trticum  aestivum L.) wheat to different treatments of organic and chemical fertilization using a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with a split-plot design with three replications, where the first factor represents 4 fertilization treatments (100% organic, 100% chemical, 50% organic + 50% chemical, 75% organic + 25% chemical) and the second factor 4 wheat varieties: durum (Sham 9, Buhouth 11) and bread (Sham 10, Buhouth 8).  The following characteristics were studied: number of days from sowing to full maturity, number of grains/ main spike, weight of grain/spike (g), protein percentage, gluten percentage, and starch percentage.  The results showed the earliness of the cultivar Buhouth 8 with other treatments (50% organic + 50% chemical),  and the highest number of grains per spike and weight of grains per spike with an average of 155 days, 43.3 grains/spike  2.87 grams, respectively.  Sham9 cultivar with fertilization treatment (50% organic and 50% chemical) achieved the highest percentages of protein and gluten with an average of 16.5 and 32.8%, respectively.  The highest percentage of starch was recorded by fertilization treatment (75% organic + 25% chemical) with an average of 70.1%. The study suggests planting the wheat variety Buhouth 8 with the integrated use of mixed organic and chemical fertilizers mixed with 50%, which will significantly improve the weight of the grain/spike and the qualitative characteristics of wheat, reduce costs and preserve the environment.

Key words: Wheat, Organic Fertilization, Protein Percentage, Gluten Percentage, Starch Percentage.

Full paper in Arabic: pdf

Effect of Foliar Spraying of Bread Yeast Extract  on Yield and its Components of  Two Genotypes of Maize

Wafaa Suleiman Khedr(1)*

(1). Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Baath University, Homs, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr.Wafaa Khedr,

Received: 19/02/2023                          Accepted:12/03/2023


The research was conducted during 2021season at a field in Talkalakh region in Western Area-Homs to investigate the effect of foliar spraying of different concentrations of bread yeast extract (0, 5, 10, 15, 20 g. l-1)  on yield and its components of  two genotypes of maize( Bassel1 and Bassel2). Split-plot design with three replications was used. Results showed that Bassel2 genotype surpassed on Bassel1 in: ear length(16.47)cm, ear diameter(4.45)cm, number of rows per ear(14.37)rows, number of grains per row(28.04) grains, ear weight(90.48)g, grains weight per ear(75.81)g, weight 1000 grains(163.70)g, shelling percentage(83.74%) and grain yield(4120.85)kg/ha.. Spraying of yeast extract caused a significant increase in all studied parameters compared with control and 15g/l treatment exceeded in : ear length(16.47)cm, ear diameter(4.63)cm, number of rows per ear(12.57)rows, number of grains per row(28.72) grains, ear weight(88.20)g, grains weight per ear(74.13)g, weight 1000 grains(164.61)g, shelling percentage(83.94%) and grain yield(4181.17) kg/ha. The interaction between Bassel2 genotype  and spraying15g. l-1 of yeast extract gave the best results and highest grain yield(4318.17)kg/ha compared with other treatments.

Key words: Foliar spraying ,  maize, bread yeast , grain yield .

Full paper in Arabic: pdf