Evaluation of Groundwater Quality and Effect of its Use for Irrigation on Surface Soil Salinity in South East of Syria (Alyaaroubiya Area)

Rami Kaba(1) and Ahmad Majar*(2)

(1). Alqamishli Research Center, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research GCSAR, Damascus, Syria.

(2). Administration of Natural Resources, GCSAR, Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Ahmad Majar. E-Mail: majar2000us@gmail.com, majar2000us@gcsar.gov.sy).

Received: 10/03/2019                                Accepted: 15/04/2019


Groundwater is considered the main irrigation resource in South-eastern of Syria (Syrian Jazeera). In order to guarantee its sustainable use, qualitative and quantitative evaluation is very much needed. Our study aimed to evaluate wells water quality, as main source for irrigation, and its effect on soil salinity. The study was conducted during 2012 and 2013 in Alyaaroubiya province. Field investigation was undertaken in two stages, where soil and water samples from 16 locations were collected, first and second stages included 7 and 9 locations respectively. pH, EC and TDS, cations and anions were determined, in addition, water quality indicators were calculated. Results showed that water salinity as well as use restrictions were varied from sever to medium levels at different wells, according to infiltration indicator there were no restrictions in the wells 1 and 2, slight ones in the wells 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7. According to chloride poisoning, no restriction noticed in the well 8 and slight to medium in the well 9, however rest of wells were suffered of high content of chloride where its concentrations varied between 12.9 and 97.2 mg/l. It was recognized that increasing of soil salinity was compatible with increasing of irrigated water salinity especially in the zone 2, where salinity of the soil, irrigated from the well 16 of highest salinity of water (14.5 dS/m), reached 8.4 dS/m. Dominated salts were chloride and sulfate of sodium, calcium and at lower rate magnesium, and less content of bicarbonate. 

 Keywords: Groundwater, Water salinity, Soil salinity.

Full Paper in Arabic: PDF

Designing a Computer Software to Calculate Plant Water Requirements

Mazen Dougouz(1) Mahammed Haqqoun(1) Ayman Hijazi*(1) and Hadi Nasr-Allah(1)

(1). Administration of Natural Resources, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research GCSAR, Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Eng. Ayman Hijazi. E-Mail: siraiman@yahoo.com).

Received: 18/08/2019                                Accepted: 02/10/2019


This research was carried out at the Administration of Natural Resources Research, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research GCSAR, in 2018; it is considered a computer software with the first version, which calculates the quantity of water requirement for optimal plant growth without water stress according to the climatic data which was calculated for the specific area, taking into consideration no water waste, according to the proper irrigation method of the plant based on the climate data which is included in the program database. The monthly modified crop coefficients were confirmed which depended on the phonological stages of crops and trees and the results of long term of researchs that were carried out at the irrigation research stations of GCSAR, which distributed to cover the seven water basins in Syria. This program calculates the monthly plant water requirements for crops, vegetables, and trees according to Penman Montieth equation which estimates the reference evapotranspiration taking into consideration the irrigation efficiency and coefficient of reduction according to the irrigation method. This program aimed to be a guide software for estimating plant water requirements and this software is considered as a result of a research project which was supported by (GCSAR) reflecting its efforts to rationalize uses of irrigation water and improving water use efficiency especially in arid and semi-arid regions, which already had scarce in its water resources.

Keywords: Software, Water requirement, Evapotranspiration, Crop coefficient. 

Full Paper in Arabic: PDF

Irrigation Scheduling of Maize Crop Under Different Levels of Sprinkler Irrigation and the Correlation with Some Productivity Traits

Ali Kinjo(1) Jamil Abbas(1) Rabee Zaina(2) andNeveen Hassoun*(1)

(1). Soil and Water Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University, Lattakia, Syria.                                                                                                                  

(2). Latakia Research Center, General Authority for Scientific Agricultural Research GCSAR, Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Eng. Neveen Hassoun. E.Mail: nevenhassoon80@gmail.com).

Received: 14/05/2019                                Accepted: 04/07/2019


The research was conducted at Sit Kheris Agricultural Station in Latakia Agriculture Center, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR) in Syria, during the season 2018. The maize variety (Gasper) was used. Three levels of irrigation were applied (70, 80 and 90%) of the total water requirements of plant in addition to the control (100%). The experiment was executed according to Randomized Complete Block Design (RCED) with three replicates. Evapotranspiration values (ETo) were calculated by (Eto calculator ) program and the evaporation values of Class A Basin which were periodically taken in order to study the efficiency of water use efficiency, water  consumption and scheduling crop irrigation, in addition to the study of correlation and regression of productivity, and the most important components of maize variety under the conditions of the Syrian coast. The results showed a positive and strong correlation between ETo values ​​calculated using ETo calculator program and evaporation ETo values that were calculated by Class A basin (r = 0.975). The largest quantity of the total consumption of water was at flowering stage where it ranged between 619.92 m3/ha at the level of (70%) to 885.69 m3/ha at (100%), while the lowest was at the seedling stage where it ranged between 103.32 m3/ha at the level of (70%) to 147.69 m3/ha at (100%). The results also showed that there was a positive correlation between the productivity of the individual plant with the weight of 100 grains (r = 0.963 **) and moderate positive correlation with single leaf area (r=0.605), leaf area (r=0.603*), harvesting index (r = 0.537), and ear length (r = 0.489). The regression showed that applied irrigation program can increase the weight of 100 grains which will lead to an increase in the individual productivity of plant by 92%.

Key words: Irrigation scheduling, Evapotranspiration, Maize, Correlation coefficient, Regression coefficient.

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The Effect of Water Deficit on Peanut Yield Using Drip Irrigation Method

Shaban Sulaiman*(1) Ayham Asbah(1) Hussam Almuhamad(1) Nidal Aljouni(2) and Ahmd Zleta(2)

(1). Tizen Station, Hama Agricultural Research Center, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research GCSAR, Damascus, Syria.

(2). Administration of Natural Resources, GCSAR, Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Eng. Shaban Sulaiman. E.mail: shaban7310@gmail.com).

Received: 05/09/2018                                Accepted: 25/10/2018


This search was carried out at Tizen Station, Hama Agriculture Research Center, during 2011 and 2012 seasons. The aim of this study is to improve water efficiency and to determine the critical stage for peanut under different levels of irrigation and to study the effect of irrigation levels on yield. Complete randomized block design with four replicates was used. Four treatments of irrigation were applied, the first level (A 100%) was applied when the soil humidity was 75 % of field capacity. At the second level (B) the irrigation was done at 75 % of level A, while at the level C the irrigation was done at 50% of level A, and at the level D the irrigation was done at 25 % of level A. Drip irrigation was used and the irrigation control depended on the differences  of soil moisture by using Neutron Brobe. The values of ETO were calculated depending on meteo data of climatic station. The results indicated that the level A was superior to other levels in yield (3.643 ton/ha), but the best level in water efficiency and yield was level B (0.72 kg/m3, and 2.153 ton/ha), also the water requirement of this level was 2639 m3/ha.

Key words: Peanut, Drip irrigation, KC, Water deficit.

Full Paper in Arabic: PDF

Hydrologic and Climatic Study of Al-Sanaober Watershed – Coastal Basin, Syria

Ammar Abbas*(1)

(1). Directorate of Natural Resources, Agricultural Rsearch Center in Latakia, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research GCSAR, Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Ammar Abbas. E-Mail: ammarabbas1984@hotmail.com).

Received: 27/05/2018                                Accepted: 16/09/2018


This research was conducted by the year of 2011 in Al-Sanobar watershed in Latakia province, with an area of ​​1336 km2, in order to study the hydrological status, climate factors and water budget for this watershed. A dam was built on the watercourse with a storage capacity of 98 million m3. Depending on the topographic maps 1: 50,000, geological maps 1: 200000, satellite images, climatic data of the dam station (precipitation, temperature and evaporation), runoff data from the Directorate of Water Resources in Latakia, and land use data of the watershed, the geometric features of the basin, and water budget were studied and the land use map was prepared. The results of geometric characteristics showed that the watershed was elongated and the shape factor value was greater than (1), so the flood hazard was low. The results of the water budget showed that more than 65% of precipitation is lost by evaporation, and the runoff reaches 30%. The land use map showed that about 55% of total area is cultivated with olive and citrus.

Key words: Watershed, Al-Sanaobar river, Al Thowra Dam, Water budget, Water losses.

Full Paper in Arabic: PDF

The Effect of Deficit Irrigation and Mulching on Cotton yield and Water Use Efficiency

The Effect of Deficit Irrigation and Mulching on Cotton yield and Water Use Efficiency

Galia Abdel Majeed*(1) Abdel Naser Aldarir(1) Mohamed.Ameen Alo(2) and

 Awedes Arslan(3)

(1). Rural Engineering Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Aleppo University, Aleppo, Syria.
(2). Al Qamishli Agricultural Research Center, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.
(3). High Organization of Scientific Research, Damascus, Syria.
(*Corresponding author: galiamajeed@yahoo.com).

Received: 28/04/2016                           Accepted: 16/05/2016


Drip irrigation is the best method for increasing cotton yield. A field experiment was implemented during 2011 season, at the Research Station of AL- Hasaka Agricultural Research Centre, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research Center (GCSAR)/Syria, using randomized complete block design arranged in split plots. Three levels of irrigation were used: The first treatment (A) is to add 100% of water requirement, when the soil moisture is 80% of field capacity, the treatment (B) is to be irrigated with 75% of the water requirement, and the treatment (C) is to be irrigated with half amount of (A). Also three methods of soil coverage were adopted, without mulching, cover with black plastic, and white film cover as mulch, with three replicates. The goal of study was to evaluate the response of cotton variety Aleppo 90, to different levels of drip irrigation, and different soil mulching, and to determine water requirement. The results showed a high significant superiority (P<0.005) of treatment (A) compared to (B) and (C) treatments, while according to mulching levels; the white plastic mulch surpassed the other treatments. The saving percentage of water in drip irrigation with white, and black plastic films were (25, and 18)%  respectively, compared with drip irrigation without cover.

Keywords: Cotton, Drip irrigation, Mulch, Water use efficiency.

Full paper in Arabic: The Effect of Deficit Irrigation and Mulching on Cotton yield and Water Use Efficiency