Variability, Correlation and Path Coefficient Analysis for ‎Agro-Morphological Traits in Lentil (Lens culinaris) ‎Genotypes

Dinesh Ghimire*(1) Aatish Gurung(1) Sushmita Kunwar(1) Archana Paudel(1) Rajendra Prasad Poudel(1) and Ganga Ram Kohar(2)

(1). Institute of Agriculture and Animal Sciences, Tribhuvan University, Paklihawa Campus,    Rupandehi, Nepal.

(2). Andhra University, Institute of Agriculture Sciences, Varanasi – 221 005, India.           

(*Corresponding author: Dinesh Ghimire. E-Mail:

Received: 19/04/2020                               Accepted: 13/05/2020


Assessing variability and correlations for agro-morphological traits of lentil are the important aspects in the development of lentil varieties. Six lentil genotypes were evaluated in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications at Agronomy Research Farm of Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science (IAAS), Paklihawa, Rupandehi, Nepal during winter season of 2018/19 to assess the genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance for agro-morphological traits. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences for all traits. The values of Phenotypic Coefficient of Variance (PCV) were higher than Genotypic Coefficient of Variance (GCV) for all the characters, and the number of pods per plant exhibited high estimates of both PCV and GCV indicating substantial scope of improvement through selection. The number of secondary branches showed the highest PCV (0.89) and GCV (0.50) whereas the lowest PCV (0.02) and GCV (0.00) were recorded for date to 50% maturity. High heritability (0.62) coupled with high genetic advance (192.63) as percent mean was observed for the grain yield. Grain yield showed positive and significant phenotypic correlation with number of pods per plant (r=0.424) and plant height (r=0.420). The highest positive direct effects were observed in plant height followed by number of grains per pods, number of secondary branches and number of pods per plant; suggesting the importance of these characters and the necessity of adopting them as selection criteria for grain yield improvement.

Key words: Lentil, Grain yield, Heritability, Correlation, Path analysis.

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Evaluation Production, Quality and Morphological Traits of ‎Summer Fodder Beet (Beta vulgaris L. sub Crassa) Under ‎Different Levels of Nitrogen Fertilizer

Entessar Al Jbawi*(1) Ahmad AlAli(2) and Ahmad Fahd AlRaei(2)

(1). Sugar Beet Research Department, Crops Research Administration, GCSAR, Damascus, Syria.

(2). Hama Agricultural Research Center, GCSAR, Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Entessar Al JBawi. E-Mail:

Received: 10/03/2020                               Accepted: 01/04/2020


A field experiment was conducted at Hama Research Station, General Commission for Scientific Agriculture Research (GCSAR), during 2016/2017 and 2017/2018 seasons, to compare production, quality and morphological characteristics of monogerm fodder beet variety, i.e. Jamon under four levels of nitrogen fertilizer (20, 80, 120 and 180 pure units of N, urea 46%/ha). The experiment was sown in summer during September. A randomized complete block design (RCBD) was used with three replications. The statistical analysis of both seasons exhibited a significant effect of the nitrogen fertilizer (N) on all of the production traits (shoot yield (ton/ha)) and morphological traits (shoot weight per plant (g), and root length and diameter (cm)). Also, there were no significant differences in quality traits (dry matter in root and shoot (%) and sucrose (%)). The least significant difference test (LDS0.05) showed the possibility of adding 80 pure units of Urea/ha to get the best production, quality and morphological traits.

Key words: Fodder beet, Nitrogen fertilizer, Production traits, Quality traits, Morphological traits.

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The Effect of Potassium Fertilization on the Tolerance of ‎Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum var. Sham 6) to Water Stress

Bothena Omran(1) and  Ghiath A. Alloush*(1)

(1). Department of Soil and Water Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University, Latakia, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Ghiath A. Alloush. Email:

Received: 21/11/2019                               Accepted: 11/01/2020


A pot experiment was conducted at a greenhouse during the growing season 2016/2017 to study the effect of water stress (FC=65 and 75%) on growth and productivity in the presence and absent of K fertilization (0 and 100 mg K/kg soil). Two control treatments at (0 and 100 mg K/kg soil) watered to 100% of FC were also included. Water stress was implemented during the whole life cycle of wheat crop and at three different wheat phonological stages: up to ending of tillering, up to beginning of spike heading, and up to beginning of grain filling. Water stress was then relieved and plants were watered to 100% of FC. Regardless of K application, water stress at 65 and 75% of FC decreased total number of tillers which mostly remained weak and unfertile compared to the control plants. The application of K to plants grown at 100% of FC increased the number of fertile tillers. Wheat plants subjected to 65 and 75% of FC water stress up to grain filling were unable to compensate for the lost fertile tillers after the stress was relieved. Whereas, stressed plants at tillering and spike emerging stages were able to compensate and increased number of fertile spikes not only similar, but even higher than those obtained for control plants. The decrease in grain weight per spike of main stem and tillers less apparent at 75% of FC, and that K application had no significant effect among treatments of the different water stress stages. The effect of water stress at different growth stages and K fertilization on the number of fertile tillers and weight of grain in spikes influenced grain productivity. Imposing continuous water stress led to decrease grain yield from 11.78 to 4.28 and 7.44 ton/ha at 65 and 75% of FC, respectively, in case of no K application. The decrease in grain yield for the same treatments were from 11.94 to 4.89 and 7.75 ton/ha in the presence of K application. In treatments subjected to water stress up to spike emerging stage yielded 7.44 and 8.58 ton/ha at 65 and 75% of FC  and no K application, and 7.77 and 9.16 ton/ha for the same treatments receiving K application. Water stress at 65 and 75% of FC at tillering stage had small reducing effect on grain yield and produced as much as 90 and 97% of the grain yield of the control plants without K application. Grain yield was 91 and 99% of the yield in the control treatments receiving K application.

Key words: Bead wheat,Water stress, Potassium, Grain yield, Grain protein

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Effect of Drainage Water on Some Soil Properties and Production of Quinoa, Study of Water and Fertilizers Requirements

Mohammad Manhal Al-Zubi *(1) Haitham Eid(2) Mohammad Hakkoun(1) Mahmoud Barhoum(2) Razan Karfoul(2) Mahmoud Asaad(2) Khattar Darwish(2) Nawar Al Jrdi(2) and Yamen Ahmad(2)

(1). Administration of Water Resources, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research GCSAR, Damascus, Syria.

(2). Tartous Agricultural Research Center, GCSAR, Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Mohammad Manhal Al-Zubi. E-Mail:

Received: 01/02/2018                                Accepted: 14/04/2018


The effect of irrigation with drainage water on the productivity of quinoa variety (NSL-106398), and determination of fertilizer and water requirements were studied. A field experiment was conducted at Zahed Research Station, Tartous Research Center for two growing seasons 2016 and 2017. The experiment was laid out in Split Plot Design with three replications. Tow water quality treatments were applied [drainage water (DW) and fresh water (FW)], and three fertilizer levels were used NPK1 (80 kg N/ha, 30 kg P2O5/ha, 30 kg K2O /ha), NPK2 (100 kg N/ha, 40 kg P2O5/ha, 40 kg K2O /ha), and NPK3 (120 kg N/ha, 50 kg P2O5/ha, 50 kg K2O/ha). The results showed a significant increasing in the soil conductivity EC under drainage treatments DW (1.15 dS/m) compared to the fresh water FW treatment (0.68 dS/m) in the first season, whereas the differences were not significant in the second season. Soil was analyzed at the end of the two seasons, the results showed significant increasing in total nitrogen when treatments irrigated with DW (0.153%) compared to the treatments irrigated with FW (0. 132%) in the first season. While phosphorus and potassium were not significantly increased when fertilization of these two elements was increased within the treatments of water quality and mineral fertilization treatments, but the difference in available potassium in the second season, was significant within water quality treatments. The grain yield regarding DW treatment was significantly increased (2.65 ton/ha) compared to the FW (2.055 ton/ha), also the grain yield significantly increased by mineral fertilization treatments (2.04, 2.347, 2.67 ton/ha respectively). Whereas in the second season DW increased the grain yield (2.22 ton/ha) compared to the FW (2 ton/ha). The grain yield increased significantly in treatment NPK3 (2.56) compared to the treatments NPK1 and NPK2 (2.023, 1.745 ton/ha respectively). Straw productivity was increased in mineral fertilization treatments (10, 9.83, 10.42 ton/ha) in the first season. Furthermore, results showed that water use efficiency in the treatment NPK3 was the best for both water types DW, and FW (1.3 and 1 kg/m3, respectively). Therefore, the study recommends that the water requirement of quinoa under the conditions of Tartous Governorate was 2000 m3/ha, and the fertilizer recommendation was (120 kg N/ha, 50 kg P2O5/ha, 50 kg K2O /ha)

Key wards: Drainage water, Quinoa, Water requirement, Mineral fertilizers.

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Effect of NPK Fertilization on the Productivity of Black Seed and Nutritional Balance Determination by Applying Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS)

Abd Al-ghani Khurshid(1) Wasem Adla(2) Ahmad Kattaa(3) and Obaydah AlKatib*(1)

(1). Department of Soil and Land Reclamation, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Aleppo

(2). Natural Resources Research Administration, General Commission for Agriculture Research GCSAR, Damascus, Syria.

(3). Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Aleppo, Aleppo, Syria.

(*Corresponding author : Eng. Obaydah AlKatib. E-Mail:

Received: 18/03/2018                                Accepted: 12/05/2018


A field experiment was conducted at the Agricultural Scientific Research Center in Hama (Syria) during 2015/2016 season to study the effect of adding levels of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium on the production of black seed according to the experimental design of complete randomized block design, with three replicates. With the addition of nitrogen levels 0-60-120 kg N/ha in the form of urea (46% N) and phosphorus levels 0-30-60 kg P2O5 /ha in the form of triple superphosphate (46% P2O5) and potassium levels 0-30-60 kg K2O/ha, in order to study and diagnose the nutritional status of black seed crop and determine the data of the integrated diagnostic system (DRIS). The DRIS data of the black seed crop was identified in the Syrian Arab Republic for the first time depending on the content of NPK in the leaves after 90 days of sowing according to the laws of Beaufils and Sumner. As well as to study of the effect of NPK factors on seed production of black seed (kg/ha). The results showed that there is a clear correlation between DRIS indicators and the physiological equilibrium of the three elements (NPK) in the leaves on the one hand, and with the seed production on the other hand. The best physiological equilibrium of (NPK) paralyzed with N120P30K30 treatment (1630 kg/ha), which were statistically similar with N120P30K60, that gave the highest yield (1609 kg/ha). The standard values ​​of black bean plant were determined by n/p, n/k and k/p (6.19, 1.40 and 4.47) respectively.

Key words: NPK, Diagnosis and recommendation integrated system DRIS, Black seed.

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Effect of Biofertilizer, Humus Spraying and Magnesium Fertilization on Quantitative and Qualitative Characteristics of Volatile Oil of Parsley (Petroselinum crispum Mill)

Mazin Mossa Abid Ameen(1) and Jamal Ahmed Abbass*(1)

(1). Department of Horticulture and Landscape Gardening, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Kufa, Republic of Iraq.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Jamal Ahmed Abbass. E-Mail:

Received: 11/02/2019                                Accepted: 18/05/2019


A field experiment was conducted in private farms, at Najaf province, Republic of Iraq, during 2014/2015 and 2015/2016 seasons, with Randomized Complete Block Design (R.C.B.D) as factorial experiment with three replicates and three factors. Means were compared by using Duncan Multiple Range Test at probability of 0.05. The first factor was seed bacterial inoculation with biofertilizer (Azotobacte chrooccum bacterial) with two levels (inoculation and non-inoculation), seeds were inoculated before sowing, and added second time as activated dose on soil surface with water irrigation after 90 days of sowing. the second factor was humus fertilizers (super humic) in three concentrations i.e. (0, 3 and 6 m.L-1) with two sprayers, first at 3 – 4 true leaves on plant, and second after 20 days from the first spraying. The third factor was Hydrated magnesium sulfate fertilizer (MgSO4.7H2O Mg 10.5%) with three levels i.e. (0, 160 and 320 kg. D-1), two doses were added, first half dose was added during seed sowing and the second half was added after 60 days from the first dose. Results showed that treatment inoculation with biofertilizer gave a significant increase in the total soluble carbohydrates in leaves, and volute oil quantity characteristics (oil yield and the percentage of volute oil), compared with control treatment which gave the lowest values for the above characteristics. Spraying with humus in a concentration of 3 m.L-1 significantly increased the total soluble carbohydrates in leaves, oil yield and the percentage of volute oil compared with two concentrations for the two seasons, meanwhile the percentage of volute oil which non significantly difference with control treatment in the second seasons. Meanwhile spraying in concentration of 6 m. L-1 significantly increased the physical characteristics of volute oil (Specific gravity, density and refractive index) compared with control treatment which gave the lowest values in the second season. Meanwhile there are no significant difference for spraying humus fertilizer on these characteristics in the first season. Also, fertilizer level of 320 kg.h-1 of magnesium sulfate significantly supervised to control treatment and the level 160 kg.h-1 gave the highest content of total soluble carbohydrates and all the quantity and physical characteristics of volute oil for two seasons, compared with control treatment which gave the highest values. Also, the interaction between the two and three factors gave significant effects on all studied characteristics. Also, the results showed that inoculation with biofertilizer, spraying with Humus in a concentration of 3 m.L-1 and fertilization with magnesium sulfate at a level of 320 kg.h-1 significantly increased the total soluble carbohydrates in leaves, volute oil yield, specific gravity, density and refractive index of volute oil for the two seasons, and the content of total phenol in the seed for the second season only.

Key words: Parsley, Bacterial inoculation, Humus fertilizers, Magnesium sulfate.

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Effect of Mineral Fertilizers Application on Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Soils and Tomato Plant 

Naseer Abdul-Jabbar AlSaadie(1) Adnan Shibar falih(1) and Raghaa Mouhamad*(1)

(1). Agriculture Research Directorate, Ministry of Science and Technology, Baghdad, Iraq.
(*Corresponding author: Raghaa Mouhamad. Email:

Received: 14/04/2019                                Accepted: 01/06/2019


Several samples were collected from the mineral fertilizers i.e. phosphate, nitrogen and potash that commonly used in Iraq, as well as samples of different soils with different chemical and physical properties, and tomato plants which were grown in it, in two regions i.e. Abu Ghraib and Jadriya. These two regions represent most of the soils of Iraq, with different periods of culture. The results of statistical analysis showed high significant differences present among accumulation of heavy metals rates in soils and tomato fruits according to varying culture dates and soil type. The overall average soil content of elements (Pb, Cd, Co, Ni) for a chemical fertilizer use periods 5, 10 and 25 years, were 7.6, 9.6 and 12.7 f respectively. The results showed that the average concentration of heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Co, Ni) for all periods of mineral fertilizer addition in Abu Ghraib (clay) and Jadriya (loam) were 11.0 and 8.9 mg kg-1 respectively. Overall mean of all heavy elements content in tomato fruits for the studied time periods were 0.733, 0.919 and 1.49 respectively, while the concentration of these elements in tomato fruits that grown in the two soil regions for all periods of fertilization were 1.18 and 0.909 respectively. Results also showed the existence of a positive significant correlation at 1% level of probability between soil content of heavy metals and culture periods, and heavy metals concentration in tomato fruits that grown in those soils. The average percentage of the cumulative increase of heavy metals (Ni, Co, Cd and Pb) as accompaniment impurities in the mineral fertilizers in soils amounted to 65.8, 29.8, 0.35 and 37.4% per year, while the increase percentage in tomato fruits were 15.6, 1.9, 0.15 and 2.4% for each of the above element respectively. Results also showed the presence of a significant effect between the fertilizer type and the content of heavy metals contaminated values. In general, depending fertilizer’s content of contaminated heavy metals, the fertilizer can be arranged as follows: Urea U < MAP fertilizer < NPK fertilizer < DAP fertilizer < Triple Super Phosphate TSP.

Key words: Mineral fertilizers, Heavy metals, Soil properties, Tomato.

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Influence of Number of Boron Foliar Spray on the Productivity and Qualitative Traits and Leaves Content of Boron in Golden Delicious Apple Cultivar in Sweida

Sami Hennawi (1) Adnan Skaker (1) Talaat Amer (1) and Samer Kiwan*(1)

(1). Sweida Agricultural Research Center, General Commission for Scientific Agriculture Research (GCSAR), Damasucs, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Samer Kiwan. Email:

Received: 17/04/2018                                Accepted: 30/05/2018


This research was carried out at the Agricultural Scientific Research Center in Sweida, GCSAR during the growing seasons of 2015 and 2016 to study the effect of number of foliar sprays of boron on the productivity and qualitative characters of Golden delicious apple cultivar. Boric acid foliar spray (1 g.l-1) was added for once, twice or three times besides the control (without addition). The results showed that, the average of productivity increased significantly when spraying three times of the boric acid, in the two seasons (69.35 kg/tree and 125.1 kg/tree respectively), while the average yield in the control treatment was the lowest compared to other treatments (43.53 kg/tree and 59.73 kg/tree respectively). The average grading of the fruit were; excellent, first, second, and third under the addition of foliar spray for three times with boric acid and soil fertilizer addition (6.06%, 60.74, 32.54%, and 0.66% respectively), but the grading percentage  under the addition of foliar spray for twice with the soil addition of fertilizer were 4.56%, 57% , 37.61% and 0.83%, respectively, while  under the control treatment the grading percentages were 0.79%, 26.23%, 57.76% and 15.22%, respectively. It was concluded that the application of these factors contributed in the increase of the average productivity and improved the quality of the fruits.

Keywords: Apples, Golden delicious, Boric acid, Productivity, Foliar spray.

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Response of Some Spectral Vegetation Indices (Broad and Narrow Band) of Wheat Crop under Irrigation and Nitrogen Fertilization Factors

Eyad Al-Khaled* (1) Yousef Nemr (2) and Iman Alhumaer(3)

(1). General Organization of Remote Sensing (GORS), Damascus, Syria.

(2). Crops Field Department, Damascus University, Damascus, Syria.

(3). Planning and International Cooperation, Ministry of Agriculture and Agrarian Reform (MAAR), Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Eyad Al-Khaled. E.Mail.

Received: 09/09/2016                                 Accepted: 16/10/2016


A field experiment was conducted at the General Organization of Remote Sensing (GORS), Damascus countryside, Syria, during 2013/2014 season, using some spectral indices i.e. NDVI, SRI, EVI, NDVI705, mSR705, mNDVI705, to determine the spectral response of wheat plant throughout its different developing stages under the effect of irrigation and nitrogen fertilization, also using spectral indices in predicting yield, and study the correlation between the spectral indices, and some vegetative and productivity characteristics. The FieldSpecPro RS3 was used to record the radiometric characteristics, each 15 days, also some vegetation indices were recorded (Leaf Area Index LAI, fresh and dry weight, and chlorophyll content in leaves), starting from the beginning to the end of plant growth, besides the yield and yield components at harvest. It was noticed that the performance of all spectral indices was similar, they were low at the beginning of plant growth, then increased to reach their maximum values at the vegetative stage, then decreased again with the development of plant growth and harvest. Nitrogen fertilizer showed a significant effect on spectral indices at the first plant stages, N0 gave the lowest values, while N1, N2, and N3 gave a highest value. In terms of irrigation levels (I1, I2, and I3), a very low difference in spectral indices was noticed at the first plant stages, but the differences began to appear after 97 days from sowing, because of the addition of irrigation during tillering stage. The results showed high significant correlation between the different indices and LAI and fresh weight, it was positive with EVI, at 0.05% level of significance. It was noticed that all three spectral indices had a relation with water content, but the dry weight showed a positive correlation but not significant. It has been found a high significant correlation between the indices and grain yield at each radiometric measurement except after 62 and 208 days after sowing, which are accompany with the first and last stages of growth plant, respectively. It is also noticed that NDVI, recorded the highest correlation values after 145 days from sowing, but the other indices mNDVI705, mSR705, NDVI705, EVI, and SR recorded the highest correlation values after 165 days from sowing, which coincides with the maximum vegetation growth. With respect to yield prediction, it has been found that the best linear model was with the SRI index after 145 from sowing, besides the spectral indices SRI and mSR705 which also gave a good prediction linear model after 165 days from sowing.

Keys Words: Vegetation indices, Broad band, Narrow band, Yield Prediction, Wheat.

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Effect of Mineral, Organic Fertilization, and Application Depth of Phosphate Fertilizer on Phenological Phases of Grapevine Cultivar, Al-Helwani

Mahmoud Al-Shihadat*(1)

(1). Administration of Horticulture Research, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Mahmoud Al-Shihadat. E-Mail:

Received: 31/05/2016                           Accepted: 19/06/2016


The experiment was carried out on vineyard with 10 years old grapevines of cultivar Al-Helwani (Vitis vinifera L.), which grown in Daraa governorate, during three seasons (2008, 2009 and 2010) to study the effect of organic, mineral fertilization rates and the application depth of triple superphosphate (T.S.P) on the phenological phases of grapes. Three mineral fertilizer rates of (N. P. K) were used, i.e., 75-25-50, 150-50-100, and 300-100-200 Kg/ha. The triple super-phosphate was added by broadcast on the soil surface, and in depth of 30 cm, in three replications, in addition to a control without fertilization. Besides the addition of dried granulated manure in January. The results showed that there was no significant effect to the addition of compost and depth phosphate fertilization on the length of flowering stage, and there were no significant differences among the treatments that used. While a significant decrease was achieved in the length of the flowering stage with the addition of NPK fertilization, with the rates of 1.1, 1.08, and 1.05% for the first, second, and third rates, respectively. The results also clarified a delay in maturity with the addition of compost as compared with control (P≥0.05), while in terms of phosphate depth addition, there were significant differences between the treatments on maturity. The maturity was earlier (70 days) when superphosphate was broadcasted, and the maturity took more days (73 days) when was added in depth of 30 cm. The maturity took more time (74 days) with the addition of the third rate of superphosphate significantly. The maturity took (68 days) with the addition of the first rate of superphosphate, while the length of maturity was about (71) days in control.

Key words: Grapevine, Al-Helwani, Phenological phases, Phosphate fertilizer, Organic fertilization.

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