Effect of Mineral Fertilizers Application on Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Soils and Tomato Plant 

Naseer Abdul-Jabbar AlSaadie(1) Adnan Shibar falih(1) and Raghaa Mouhamad*(1)

(1). Agriculture Research Directorate, Ministry of Science and Technology, Baghdad, Iraq.
(*Corresponding author: Raghaa Mouhamad. Email: naseeralsaadie61@gmail.com).

Received: 14/04/2019                                Accepted: 01/06/2019


Several samples were collected from the mineral fertilizers i.e. phosphate, nitrogen and potash that commonly used in Iraq, as well as samples of different soils with different chemical and physical properties, and tomato plants which were grown in it, in two regions i.e. Abu Ghraib and Jadriya. These two regions represent most of the soils of Iraq, with different periods of culture. The results of statistical analysis showed high significant differences present among accumulation of heavy metals rates in soils and tomato fruits according to varying culture dates and soil type. The overall average soil content of elements (Pb, Cd, Co, Ni) for a chemical fertilizer use periods 5, 10 and 25 years, were 7.6, 9.6 and 12.7 mg.kg-1 f respectively. The results showed that the average concentration of heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Co, Ni) for all periods of mineral fertilizer addition in Abu Ghraib (clay) and Jadriya (loam) were 11.0 and 8.9 mg kg-1 respectively. Overall mean of all heavy elements content in tomato fruits for the studied time periods were 0.733, 0.919 and 1.49 mg.kg-1 respectively, while the concentration of these elements in tomato fruits that grown in the two soil regions for all periods of fertilization were 1.18 and 0.909 mg.kg-1 respectively. Results also showed the existence of a positive significant correlation at 1% level of probability between soil content of heavy metals and culture periods, and heavy metals concentration in tomato fruits that grown in those soils. The average percentage of the cumulative increase of heavy metals (Ni, Co, Cd and Pb) as accompaniment impurities in the mineral fertilizers in soils amounted to 65.8, 29.8, 0.35 and 37.4% per year, while the increase percentage in tomato fruits were 15.6, 1.9, 0.15 and 2.4% for each of the above element respectively. Results also showed the presence of a significant effect between the fertilizer type and the content of heavy metals contaminated values. In general, depending fertilizer’s content of contaminated heavy metals, the fertilizer can be arranged as follows: Urea U < MAP fertilizer < NPK fertilizer < DAP fertilizer < Triple Super Phosphate TSP.

Key words: Mineral fertilizers, Heavy metals, Soil properties, Tomato.

Full Paper in Arabic: PDF

The Effect of Different Levels of Nitrogen Fertilizer and Manure Biogas on the Productivity of Maize and Some Soil Properties

Lina Maydaa(1) Zuhair Zaher(1) Nabila Kridi*(1) and Haitham Eid(2)

(1). Natural Resources Administration, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.
(2). Tartous Agricultural Research Center, Damascus, Syria.
(*Corresponding author: Eng. Nabila Kridi. E-Mail: nabilakridi@hotmail.com).

Received: 18/12/2015                           Accepted: 20/04/2016


This study aimed to assess the impact of nitrogen fertilizer, and biogas manure on the productivity of hybrid maize crop (cv. Merritt), and some soil properties, at Western Zahid Research Station, Agricultural Research Center of Tartous, GCSAR/Syria, during the seasons 2011, 2012, and 2013. Complete Randomized Block Design (CRBD) was adopted with three replicates. The treatments were 12 (3 levels of nitrogen fertilizer i.e., 0, 12, and 24 kg/ha, and 4 levels of biogas manure i.e., 0, 6, 8, and 10 l/ m2). The results showed a significant increase in the productivity of maize by increasing the addition of manure biogas and mineral nitrogen fertilizer. The best treatment was fertilized by 24 kg N/ ha, and 10 l/m2 of biogas manure in all three seasons (15.82, ton /ha, respectively). Soil organic matter was increased in most treatments which fertilized with biogas manure. It was observed a gradual increase in the soil organic matter with the increment in manure biogas in the absence of N fertilizers compared with the control. Total nitrogen increased in the soil gradually by increasing the addition of manure biogas. As well as the available phosphorus and potassium in soil increased in all treatments of manure biogas.

Key words: Manure biogas, N fertilizers, Organic matter, Soil properties, Maize.

Full paper in Arabic: The Effect of Different Levels of Nitrogen Fertilizer and Manure Biogas on the Productivity of Maize and Some Soil Properties

The Effects of N and P Fertilization Rates on Wheat Yield and some Soil Properties under Conservative Agriculture System in the First Establishment Zone

Rami Kaba*(2) Awhadis Arsaln(1)MohamadKher Saadon(2)Nabeel Mohamad(2)Mohamad Hamo(2) & Sherzad Yosef(2)

(1). General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR). Damascus, Syria.
(2). General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Al-Qamishli Agricultural Research Center, Al-Qamishli, Syria.
(*Corresponding author: Dr. Rami Kaba, Al-Qamishli, Syria. E-mail:kaba.rami@gmail.com).

Received: 14/07/ 2014                                    Accepted: 12/2/ 2015


This research was conducted at the General commission for Scientific and Agricultural Research (GCSAR), AL Qamishli Scientific Agricultural Research Center, AL Qamishli , Syria. in the first establishment zone, according to the split plot design, where agricultural system (zero tillage, and traditional tillage) represented the main treatments and fertilizations the split treatments, with three replications. Four levels of nitrogen fertilizer (N0 , N1 100 kg/ha , N2 150 kg/ha , and N3 200 kg/ha) as Urea 46%, and three levels of phosphoric fertilizers (P0 , P1 100 kg/ha, and P2 150 kg/ha) were used. Results of the three seasons 2008- 2011 showed that zero tillage treatments significantly over yielded traditional ones by 8-20 % , that can be attributed to different fertilization levels of N and P in addition to rain. Results also clarified that increasing of N fertilization at (P0), has given significant increase in production on direct proportion with the increase of nitrogen fertilizing level (N1, N2, N3) and reached in comparison with the control (110, 178, 217 kg/ha) in the traditional tillage, but in zero tillage the productivity at the tow levels (N1, N2) increased by (118-147 kg/ha) respectively. The increase has reduced at the level N3 to(113 kg/ha), but at (P1) fertilizing level of zero tillage the yield increase of (N1) reached (336) kg/ha, which significantly over yielded the (N1,N2) by (313, 247 kg/ha). While under traditional tillage the highest increase reached (313 kg/ha) under N2 and the yield decreased 147 kg/ha under N3.  At (P2) level and (N0) level the increase in yield under zero tillage was(147 kg/ha),to become at N1 level up to (216 kg/ha) and to reach at (N2) to (376 kg/ha). Consequently, zero tillage significantly over yielded the traditional tillage. We recommend using zero tillage with (N2, P2) fertilization levels.

Keywords: Zero tillage ZT, Traditional tillage TT, Nitrogen fertilization N, Phosphor fertilization P, Wheat, Soil properties .

Full paper in Arabic : تأثير معدلات التسميد الآزوتي والفوسفوري في إنتاجية القمح وفي عدد من خصائص التربة تحت نظام الزراعة الحافظة في منطقة الاستقرار الأولى