Econometrical Estimate of Cost and Production Functions of Non-Irrigated Apple in Suwayda Government, Syria

Alaa Al Zagout*(1) Safwan Abo Assaf(2) Amgad Badr(2) and Yehya Sharaf(3)

(1). Extension and Social Studies Department, Agricultural Extension Directorate, Ministry of Agriculture and Agrarian Reform (MOAAR), Swayda, Syria.
(2). Economic and Social Studies Department, Agriculture Research Center in Swayda, General Commission for Scientific and Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Swayda, Syria.
(3). Extension Programs Division, Extension Department, Agricultural Extension Directorate, (MOAAR), Swayda, Syria.

(*Correspoding author: Dr. Alaa Al Zagout. E-Mail:

Received: 04/05/ 2015                                     Accepted: 01/07/ 2015


Apple production is an important agricultural productive activity in Suwayda, Syria, therefore this research aimed to estimate some measurements of the financial analysis, and costs and production functions of the available resources. The primary data was collected from Suwayda governorate using random sample of (268) observations during 2012. The main results of the study were as follow: Land rent, control, and pruning costs were the highest production costs of about 25%, 18%, 9% respectively. All farms within all scales were working in the first stage of the diminishing return law. The optimum size of the apple farm is about 9.5 hectares. The most important factors affecting apple production were: altitude, age of tree, phosphate fertilizer, potassium fertilizer, framer’s job, labor, invested capital, and summer tillage.

Keywords: Apple, Cost function, Production function, Optimum production size.

Full paper in Arabic: التقدير القياسي لدوال تكاليف وإنتاج التفاح البعل في محافظة السويداء

Economic Comparison Between Autumn and Summer Sowing of Sugar Beet in Al Raqqa Governorate, Syria

Smaan Al Atwan(1) Entessar Al-Jbawi(2) Eyad Al-khaled*(3) and Alaa Jaafar(4)

(1). Economic Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Damascus University, Damascus, Syria.
(2). Sugar Beet Research Department, Crops Research Administration, General Commission for Scientific and Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.
(3). General Organization of Remote Sensing (GORS), Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Eyad Al Khaled. E-Mail:

Received: 09/07/ 2015                                     Accepted: 06/08/ 2015


This research aims to study the actual cultivation and production of sugar beet in Al Raqqa governorate, Syria, in summer and autumn times, during 2011/2012 season, the study depended on the data collected, using a questionnaire covering the goal. 12 villages were selected representing the region of the study, 24 fields for summer time, and 26 for autumn time, thereby, total sample individuals were 50 fields. The study showed that the total economic efficiency in summer time (1.4) was higher than autumn time (1.2), indicating the profitability of production of the new promising -summer time sugar beet- which is recently recommended for north and eastern area of Syria (Al Raqqa and Der Al Zur).

Key words: Sugar beet, Total economic efficiency, Production costs, Farm income.

Full paper in Arabic:

مقارنة اقتصادية بين العروتين الخريفية والصيفية لمحصول الشوندر السكري بمحافظة الرقة في سورية


The Effect of Some Genetic and Non-Genetic Factors on Birth Weight and Weaning in Syrian Calves Buffalo (Bubalus Bubalis)

Nader Drbas*(1) and Mohammed Ayman Daba(2)

(1). Shatha Research Station, Agriculturual Research Center in Al Ghab, General commission for Scientoific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Al Ghab, Syria.
(2). Animal Breeding Research Department, Animal Wealth Research Administration, GCSAR, Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Eng. Nader Drbas. E-Mail:

Received: 05/07/ 2015                                     Accepted: 21/08/ 2015


The study was conducted at the Shatha Buffalo Research Station in Hama/Syria during 2011, to determine the effect of some factors affecting birth weight, weaning, and growth rate of born buffalo such as the father, season of birth and month of birth, sex and year of study.
The available station records were used for this purpose from 1997 up to 2008. The results showed a significant effect (p ≤ 0.01) for each of the year, season of birth, the father, and month of birth on birth weight, it was noticed that males were heavier than females at birth with a significant effect (p≤ 0.05), and weaning weight of 90 days influenced significantly (p≤ 0.01) by the year and month of birth, also the effects of father and sex were significant (p≤ 0.05), but no effect in terms of the number of the season. Considering the growth rate during breastfeeding period the impacts of year, father, and month of birth were significant (p≤ 0.01), also and the impact of sex was significant (p≤0.05), but no effect of the season number. The genetic heritability was estimated by the variance components of the parents, which was for birth weight 0.360 ± 0.03, and was for weaning weight 0.406 ± 0.06, while it was for growth rate 0.390 ± 0.02, this shows that there are several factors affect birth weight, and weaning, and growth rate in the Syrian calves buffalo during breastfeeding, therefore it is necessary to focus on improving the environment where the animal is besides the genetic improvement in breeding programs to get the required genetic gain.

Keywords: Buffalo, Birth weight, Weaning weight, Rate of daily growth, Heritability.

Full paper in Arabic:تأثير بعض العوامل الوراثية وغير الوراثية على وزن الميلاد والفطام في مواليد الجاموس السوري

The Effect of Supplementing Saccharomyces cerevisiae Live Yeast on Milk Production and Body Weight of Awassi Sheep

Mansur M Ahmad(1)  Muhannad Muna*(2)   Abdu Allah Nouh(1)   Osman Kahel(1)   Faesal Hanafi(1) and  Mohammad Toama(1).

(1).Animal Wealth Research Administration, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.
(2). Latakia Research Center , GCSAR, Latakia, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Muhannad Muna, Latakia. E. mail:

Received: 08/03/ 2015                                     Accepted: 18/06/ 2015


This study was carried out at sheep section – Shami Camels Research Station, Damascus country side. Twenty-four lactating Awassi ewes homogenous in terms of age (5 years) and production season (fourth) and milk yield in the previous season. The ewes were divided randomly into three groups. All housing and management conditions were similar for all sheep throughout experiment period (105 day post-weaning). The first group T (control) was fed on basic ration (concentrate feed, barley-vetch hay, fresh forage), while the second T1 and the third T2 groups were fed on basic ration supplemented by yeast (3 and 5 g/head/day, respectively). The results showed that the average total gain was higher in T2 (P≤0.05) as compared with control (6.25 vs. 4.89). Milk yield amounted 65.82±2.47, 71.57±3.86, and 70.27±7.81 kg for T, T1 and T2, respectively. T1 milk yield was higher (P≤0.05) by 8.7% than that of T. There was no significant differences between the three groups for milk components (fat, protein, lactose and total solids), while amount of total fat was significantly (P≤0.05) more than 16.1 and 13.7%, respectively for T1 and T2. It can be concluded that the addition of live yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae at a rate of 3 g/head/day to the diets of dairy ewes gives the highest milk production vs 5 g/head/day for better gain in body weight.

Keywords: Awassi sheep, Yeast culture, Milk yield, Fat.

Full paper in Arabic: تأثير خميرة السكرومايسيس سرفيسيا الحية على إنتاج الحليب والوزن الحي في أغنام العواس

Diseases Survey of Pure and Hybrid (1/2 Mountain, 1/2 Shami) Mountain Goats at Aura Goats Research Station, Syria

Abdul Naser Al-Omar*(1) Huseen Alsulaiman(2) Mohamed Zuheir Salam(3)and Ayman Debba(3)  

(1). Hama Research Center, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GSCAR), Hama, Syria.
(2). Department of Animal Health/ Ministry of Agriculture, Damascus, Syria.
(3). Animal Wealth Administration, GSCAR, Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Abdul Naser Al-Omar. PO Box 682, Hama, Syria. E-Mail:

Received: 08/03/ 2015                                     Accepted: 18/06/ 2015


This research was carried out aiming to survey diseases of Mountain and Hybrid goats (1/2Mountain, 1/2Shami) and to assess disease infections and their rates at Aura Goats Research Station in Al-Sweida, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GSAR), Syria, during 2006-2011. The most important repeated infections at the station were recorded by using phytosanitary records, and observing goats closely, in addition of making serum laboratory exams for Toxoplasm gondii by using Toxo –Hat Fumouze test, and Chlamydia Psittaci by using  (ELISA) test. These infections were classified according to their positions in the animal’s body systems. Results showed that Mountain and Hybrid goats at the station were infected with several diseases, where the infection rates varied from race to race. The infections with alimentary and respiratory systems diseases were higher, where infection rates with alimentary system diseases at Mountain and Hybrid goats were (46.36,  33.36)% respectively, whereas infection rates with respiratory system diseases were (21.51, 24.31)% respectively. Mastitis, nervous system diseases, metabolic diseases, urinary system diseases, skin diseases, abscesses, foot infectious, eyes diseases, general weakness and frailness had related rates in Mountain and Hybrid goats, but Enterotoxaemia spread in Mountain goats only. The statistical analysis showed that there is no significant difference in most diseases between Mountain and Hybrid goats except alimentary system, metabolic, urinary system diseases (p<0.05). Serological tests showed infection prevalence with Toxoplasma  gondii, Chlamydia Psittaci in both races, but with different rates, where the serum spread rates of Toxoplasm gondii were 13.04%, 16.66% in Mountain and Hybrid goats respectively, whereas the spread rate of Chlamydia Psittaci was 4.16% in Hybrid goats, without any infection in Mountain goats. Chi square test showed insignificant difference of diseases rates between Mountain and Hybrid goats for both diseases, where chi square value was (1.148) (P≥0.05).

Key words: Disease infections, Mountain goats, Hybrid goats.

Full paper in Arabic:

تقصي الإصابات المرضية لدى الماعز الجبلي النقي والهجين (2/1 جبلي, 2/1 شامي) في محطة بحوث عرى، سورية

Heterosis for Seed Yield and its Components Seed Characters and its Quality of Squash Cucurbita pepo L.

Abdulmohsen Khaleel Murie*(1) Mohammad Yahya Muaalla(2) Mitiadi George Burass(3) Bollous Khouri(2) and Antoen Antoen(1)

(1). Hurticulture Research Administration, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.
(2). Crops Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University, Lattakia, Syria.
(3). Hurticulture Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University, Lattakia, Syria.

(*Correponding author: Dr. Abdulmohsen Khaleel Murie. E-Mail:

Received: 08/04/ 2015                                     Accepted: 22/06/ 2015


The study was conducted at Altyba Research Station of the  General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Syria,  during 2008-2009 seasons, using nine parental lines and their 36 F1 hybrids, which were obtained by half diallel crossing,  to study the charateristics of the mature friuts, seed yield and its components, seed charateristics and their quality, also to estimate hetrerosis, to determine the superior hybrids that to be invested in the agricultural production. Randomized complete block design with three replications was applicated. Results showed that most of the crosses recorded a positive and high significant of heterosis, in most characters, the heterosis ranged from 2.92% to 141.06% compared to mid parents, and ranged from 0.19% to 134.83% compared to the better parent.  Hybrids of (5×6، 4×7، 4×6) exhibited higher heterosis values (102.74%، 89.48%،77.23%) for seed yield, modrate heterosis values for 100 seed weight (14.06%، 16.80%، 19.63%), and for fat content (7.48%، 8.90%، 5.44%), respectively. Hybrids )5×6، 4×7، 4×6) are considered promissing to be invested for seed production purpose, and supporting raw medical material to extract vitamin E.

Key words: Cucurbita pepo, Heterosis, Seed yield components, Seed characters, Quality characters,

Full paper in Arabic:

قوة الهجين للإنتاجية البذرية ومكوناتها، صفات البذور وخصائصها النوعية في قرع الكوسا Cucurbita pepo

Evaluation and Selection of Wild Olive (Olea sylvestris) Phenotypes Spread in Hama Governorate, Syria

Reem Abdelhamid *(1)

(1). Horticulture Research Administration, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Reem Abdelhamid. E-Mail:

Received: 08/10/ 2014                                     Accepted: 16/06/ 2015


This research was carried outduring the period 2009-2012to identify locations of wild olive (Oleasylvestris) distribution in Hama governorate in Syria. The most important three locations of wild olive were chosen i.e. Sigata, Tal Aafar, and Ain Al Nabed. 20 morphotypes were selected and characterized from the three main regions, depending on IOC application; also the fruits were characterized depending on the oil content. The results indicated wide diversity within wild olive genotypes at the same location and between all locations. Wild olive is a collection of genotypes rather than ecotypes. Genotypes wa6, wt8, and ws2 were selected as double purpose (oil and pickling), wa4 and wt4 for oil, while wt6 was selected as pickling genotype. The results exhibited the efficiency of the characterization of wild olive phenotypes methods, and it is recommended to be used in olive biodiversity studies.

Key word: Wild olive, Phenotypes, Evaluation, Selection, Oil content.

Full paper in Arabic:

 تقييم وانتخاب طرز مورفولوجية من الزيتون البري (Olea sylvestris) المنتشرة في محافظة حماه السّورية

Toxicity Estimation of Dimethoate Insecticide on Sf9 Insect Cell Line in Vitro

Manal Saleh*(1) Jamal Hajjar(2) and Abdul kader Rahmo(1)

(1). General Organization of Biotechnology, Damascus, Syria.
(2). Department of Arid Area Cultivation, King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia.
(3). Faculty of Agriculture, Damascus University, Damacus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Eng. Manal Saleh. E-Mail: 

Received: 10/05/ 2015                                     Accepted: 07/07/ 2015


Chemical insecticides have a major role in insect pest control, especially organophosphates insecticides; their non-selective mode of action may cause devastating environmental problems. In vitro assays with cultured insect cells were used as the first step in toxicity studies and to achieve a simple, low cost and rapid system that allows testing of insecticides. In this study, the effect of the organophosphorus pesticide “Dimethoate” was evaluated in vitro on cultured Sf9 cell line.  Cell viability was estimated using Trypan blue stain. Analysis of regression was used to estimate the 50% inhibition of cell growth (IC50), resulting in: IC50 =75µM. Deformation of treated cells was observed, as cells became larger and included cavities; number of deformed cells was positively correlated with concentration of Dimethoate. This research presents an important example of applying in vitro insect cell culture as a useful tool in the prescreening of insecticides’ effect and mode of action, especially newly introduced ones.

Key words: Insect cell lines, In vitro test, Dimethoate, IC50.

Full paper in Arabic:

 تقدير سمية مبيد دايمثوات باستخدام خط الخلايا الحشرية Sf9 المزروعة مخبرياً


Preliminary Survey of Some Causal Agents of Tomato Stem Rot and Pith Necrosis in Greenhouses of the Coastal Region in Syria

Abd Al-lateef Al-Ghazzawi*(1) Mahmood Abu Ghoura(2) Nabil Al-Beig(1) and Ragda Al-Baghdadi(1)

(1). Administration Research of Plant Protection, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.
(2). Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Damascus University, Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Abdullatif  Al Ghazawi. E-mail: Mobile phone: +963 0991187894).


Tomato stem pith necrosis disease has been observed in the greenhouses in Syria since the beginning of nineties in northern west of Aleppo, but recent surveys confirmed the existence of the disease in the coastal region (Tartous and Lattakia governorates), where tomato is cultivated intensively in greenhouses. The results of the survey showed that percentage of greenhouses infected with the disease in Tartous governorate during 2010 and  2011 were 17.7 % and 24.4% respectively, and the disease averages of spread were 0.19% and 0.28% respectively, where infected plants percentages were 0.72% and 0.97% respectively. The percentages of greenhouses infected with the disease in Lattakia governorate during the 2010 and 2011 were 23.20 and 24.86% respectively, and the disease averages of spread were 0.32 and 0.35% respectively, where infected plants percentages were 0.65% and 0.85% respectively. 60 isolates out of 100 isolates resulted from the survey, were characterized morphologically, physiologically and biochemically as Pseudomonas corrugate, where 12 isolates were identified as Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. Carotovorum, and PCR was used to identify 4 isolates resulted from (pcc) with the aid of specific primers.

Key words: Tomato. Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, Pith necrosis, Pseudomonas corrugate. Lattakkia, Tartous.

Full paper in Arabic:حصر أولي لمسببات موت لب ساق البندورة في الزراعة المحمية في المنطقة الساحلية من سورية

Study Population Dynamic of Citrus Rust Mite Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashmead) (Acari: Eriophidae), and Test the Effect of Some Acaricides for Control and Record New Natural Enemy in Syrian Coast

Rafeek Abboud*(1)  Majeda Mofleh(1) Raeed Sbaih(1) and Mohamad Ahmad(2)

(1). Agriculture Research Center in Lattakia, General Commission for Scientific and Agricultural Research, (GCSAR), Lattakia, Syria.
(2).Plant Protection Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University, Lattakia, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Rafeek Abboud. E-mail:


Citrus Rust Mite (CRM) continues to be a major pest on citrus in the Syrian coast, and other regions of the world. This study aimed to monitor the densities of CRM population dynamic, and survey its natural enemies and study the effect of some acaricides for control CRM on Valencia trees in the Syrian coast. The experiment was conducted in Vlencia trees field in Ciano Research Station, Latakia Agricultural Research Center, Syria. Four acaricides treatments (Fenbutatin-oxid 550 sc, Fenbutatin-oxid 500sc, sulfur 80% and Abamectin 1.8) according to the recommended rates were used, with four replicates per treatment and two trees per replicate, and untreated one as control. The percentage of rusting on fruit surface was estimated. A sample of 20 fruits of each tree was taken to count the mobile stages of CRM using manual microscope (20x) on an area of 1 cm2 of each fruit. Also the natural enemies of CRM were detected. The mobile stages of CRM appeared in mid of July 2013, but in 2014 the appearance was late until mid of august, because of that the Population densities of CRM were lower in 2014 than 2013. This study recorded a new predator belongs to Cecidomyiidae, which feeding on CRM. Densities of CRM decreased significantly in all treatments with acaricides after one week of application during the two seasons. The maximum densities of CRM were achieved in the control treatment after two and five weeks in 2013 and 2014 respectively. In terms of number of the mobile stages of CRM after three weeks of acaricised application, no significant differences were noticed between the treated plots with acaricides, but they differed significantly with the control. Fenbutatin-oxid recorded the lowest number of damaged fruits in 2013, but in 2014 no damaged fruits were recorded in all acaricide treatments, damage in the control treatment. The results shows that all the tested acaricides were affective for controlling CRM on citrus when the application is at early time.

Keywords: Citrus rust mite, Natural enemies, Acaricides.

Full paper in Arabic: دراسة تغيرات كثافة مجتمع حلم صدأ الحمضيات  واختبار مجموعة من المبيدات في مكافحته وتسجيل عدو حيوي جديد له في الساحل السوري