Influence of Plant Density and cucumber mosaic virus Infection on the Productivity Traits of Beans Vicia faba L.

Yousef Mohamad(1) Emad Daoud Ismail(2) and Khaled Farid Al-Janad*(1)

(1). Department of Field Crops, Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University, Lattakia, Syria.

(2). Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University, Lattakia, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Eng. Khaled Farid Al-Janad. E-Mail:

Received: 06/12/2018                                Accepted: 16/02/2019


The research was carried out during 2017/2018 growing season at Buqa Farm, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering, Tishreen University in Lattakia, to study the effect of plant density and infection with mosaic cucumber virus on the productivity of beans (Vicia faba L.). The local bean variety was used with three plant densities (5, 10 and 20 plants/m2). Virus infection was made when the length of the plant reached 15 cm. The design of the experiment was carried out according to the Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with the arrange of split plot with three replicates. The treatments of infection were distributed to the main plots while the sub plots included the density treatments. Results showed that the plant density of (5 plants/m 2) surpassed the plant densities of (10, 20 plants/m2) in number of branches per plant and fresh green weight of the plant at pods formation stage and the number of pods per plant. The plant density of (20 Plants/m 2) surpassed the other densities (5 and10 plants/m2) in seed yield and weight of 100 seeds, and the height of the plant. The infected plants (E0) when planted at high density (20 plant/m2) had the highest seed yield and weight of 100 seeds. The infection with mosaic virus did not affect the height of the plant, and the healthy plants (E1) were superior to infected plants (E0) in all studied traits (The plant height had declined by 10.23- 12.17% and fresh green weigh for each plant by 0.76- 1.77% and the number of pods per plant had declined by 14.08- 31.76 % and  the seed yield by 13.80 – 19.84 % and weight of 100 seeds by 1.77-5.50 % in the infected plants by mosaic cucumber virus compared to the healthy plants )  

Key words: Normal bean, Plant density, Mosaic virus option, Productivity characteristics.

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Host Susceptibility of Some Eggplant Cultivars Planting in Syria to Root-Knot Nematode Meloidogyne incognita

Maimounh Almasri *(1) Sobhia Alarabi(1) and Roudaina Albaka(1)

(1). General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Maimounh Almasri. E-Mail:

Received: 29/09/2018                                Accepted: 19/01/2019


Six eggplant cultivars (Ramses, Rayan, Yakut, Black beaty, Aydin siyoahi and Toros) were evaluated for their host suitability to Meloidogyne incognita in a completely randomized design experiment, with five replicates, for tow growing seasons 2015 and 2016 in outdoor pot experiments at the General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research, Syria. 40 days after planting, seedlings were inoculated with 5,000 eggs and freshly hatched J2 /plant of M. incognita. Results showed that all cultivars were damaged by root-knot nematode infection (Gall index=5) and were supportive for nematode reproduction (RF> 1), ranging from susceptible to highly susceptible to the M. incognita. Cultivar Toros was the most supportive for multiplication of nematodes (RF = 4.7; 198.6 egg bags / 1 g root), while Aydin siyoahi was the lowest (RF = 1.3; 198.6 egg bags / 1 g root). A positive correlation was noticed between the nematode reproduction factor and both the number of root gall and egg masses/root (r = 0.55 and 0.99, respectively). There was also a significant decrease in plant height and vegetative weight compared to the control.

Key words:  Cultivar, Eggplant, Reproduction factor, Gall index, Meloidogyne incognita.

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First Report of Fusarium torulosum Associated with Root and Crown Rot of Wheat in Syria

Laila Zidan(1) Walid Naffaa*(2) and Dana Jawdat(3)

(1). Second Faculty of Agriculture, Damascus University, Seiwda, Syria.

(2). Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Damascus University, Damascus, Syria.

(3). Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Atomic Energy Commission, Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Naffaa Walid. E-Mail: or

Received: 21/12/2019                                Accepted: 21/01/2020


Fusarium root and crown rot and head blight are the most important diseases limiting wheat production. Although there are many studies related to these two diseases in the world, few studies were conducted in Syria, where many species have been identified from different regions, based on morphological characteristics and some molecular methods. However, this study is the first report of F. torulosum associated with root and crown rot on wheat in Syria. The morphological characteristics of two isolates were accurately described on potato dextrose agar (PDA) and carnation leaf agar (CLA) medium. Partial TEF-1α gene sequence was amplified using primers ef1 / ef2. Successful PCR amplification of TEF-1α, showing a single band of ~ 700 bp, was obtained. Amplified products were subjected to automated DNA sequencing, and the sequence was compared with the sequences published on the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) website, where our isolate FH3 showed 98.04% similarity with the isolate KY659169 of F. torulosum.

Key words: Fusarium torulosum, Wheat, TEF1- α, Root and crown rot, Syria.

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The Effect of Feeding Chrysoperla carnea Steph Adults with Some Nutritional Diets on Some of its Life and Reproduction Characteristics

Ammar Jloud*(1) Nawal Kakeh(2) Nayef Alsalti(2) and Munir Alnabhan(3)

(1). Hama Center for Rearing Natural Enemies, Directorate of Agriculture, Hama, Syria.

(2). Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Aleppo, Aleppo, Syria.

(3). Agricultural Scientific Research Center in Hama, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research GCSAR, Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Ammar Jloud. E-Mail:

Received: 02/11/2019                                Accepted: 18/12/2019


Green lacewing predator(Chrysoperla carnea) is polyphagous predator. It is currently mass-reared and used in biological control of insect pests. The experiment was carried out under laboratory conditions at 25±2°C and 65±5% RH at Hama Biological Control Center, during 2017, to find out a better and high efficiency nutritional diet for mass-rearing of adult of C. carnea. Four adult diets were tested under the laboratory conditions. Fertility, larval period, pupal period and adult longevity were studied. The results showed that the 1st diet that contained of water, honey, yeast and pollen in a ratio of (9:3:1:1) respectively was better than all other diets, that contain a ratio of (1:1:1/ 6:2:1/ 9:3:1) of water, honey and yeast respectively. When the adults fed on 1st diet the fertility of females was 409.33 eggs, larval period was 9.92 days, pupal period was 7.92 days and longevity of female and male were 51.5, 38.5 days.

Key words: Nutritional diets, Adult, Chrysoperla carnea.

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Application of Different Isotherm Models on Phosphorus Sorption in Selective Soils of Homs Governorate

Sameer Shamsham(1) Reem Nassra*(1) and Rawaa Ayoush(1)

(1). Department of Soil Sciences and Land Reclamation, Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Baath University, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Reem Nassra. E- Mail:

Received: 28/02/2018                                Accepted: 10/06/2018


Phosphorus adsorption from aqueous solution on soils of Homs governorate has been studied by adsorption isotherms applications. The experimental data have been analyzed using Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin models. According to (R2) values, the results showed the ability of Frendlish model to predict phosphorus adsorption more than Langmuir and Temkin models. The maximum monolayer coverage (qmax) calculated from Langmuir model was 0.529 mg/g in Al-Mastora. Adsorption intensity (n) calculated from Freundlich model, was between (1.056-2.725) indicated favorable adsorption between phosphorus and adsorbent surface. Heat of adsorption process was estimated by Temkin model ranged between (0.058 and 0.212) J/mol. Analysis of correlation coefficient between adsorption maximum value and soil characteristics revealed that adsorption is positively correlated with clay content and cation exchange capacity.

Key words: Adsorption, Isotherm, Phosphorus, Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin.

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Plant Extracts Use Importance in Controling Tetranychus urticae Koch on Eggplant Solanum melongena L. Under Protected Farming Conditions

Ibrahim Aziz Sakr(1) and Usama Sagee Sheban*(1)

(1). Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University, Lattakia, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Usama Sagee Sheban. E. Mail:

Received: 01/05/2018                                Accepted: 10/07/2018


Within the efforts to control the harmful mites using environmentally safe methods, a study was carried out at a greenhouse planted with eggplant in Al-Bassa area , in Latakia governorate during the agricultural season 2016/2017 to evaluate the effectiveness of a number of plant extracts on Tetranychus urticae Koch 1836 (Acari: Tetranychidae) worldwide and very harmful to many hosts in greenhouse and field. The study included the seeds and leaves of Chinaberry, seeds and leaves of Cypress Lemon, seeds and fruits of River Red Gum, flowers and leaves of Oleander, and corms and leaves of Wild Arum. The Vaseline rings method was adopted and criteria: the average of mortality for the treated stage and fertility were calculated. The results showed that the highest efficacy was found when using the extract of the seeds of Chinaberry on adult females and on the first nymphs (65.4 and 69.3%, respectively). The lowest fertility was recorded with the extract of Oleander leaves (8.17%), which had the most effect on egg hatching (87.4%). It is worth to mention that the extracts of seeds, fruits and corams gave higher efficiency than the leaves extracts, and leaves extracts were higher than the efficiency of floral extracts against T. urticae phases.

Key words: Two-spotted red spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, Eggplant, Vaseline rings, Plant extracts.

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Controlling the Population of Tetranychus urticae Koch on Tomato under the Greenhouse Conditions Using some Chemical and Biological Treatments

Ibrahem Azez Sakr(1) Majeda Mhamed Mofleh(2) and Randa Ahmed Suliman*(1)

(1). Department of Plant protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University, Lattakia, Syria.

(2). General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Rsearch GCSAR, Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Randa Ahmed Suliman. E-Mail:

Received: 05/09/2019                                Accepted: 27/10/2019


Research was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of integration between using the pesticides Acetamiprid, Abamectin and Pyridaben and the aqueous extracts of both   Melia azedarach L. and Sytrax officinalis L. then releasing the predator Stethorus glivifrons Mulsant with to manage the population of Tetranychus urticae Koch on Tomato Lycoersicon esculantmin at the greenhouse in 2018. The Experiment was conducted using the complete randomized block design, where the results of the research showed that the extracts of both M. azedarach L. and S.officinalis L. had efficacy recorded 62.29 and 50.93 % respectively in the first week. The efficacy decreased in the first and the second week after releasing the predator, then it raised again in the third and the fourth weeks to record 62.54, 54.72 % for each of them. Thus, it could be stated that the extracts efficacy coincided with the release of the predator S. glivifrons. A decrease in the influence of the specialized insecticide Acetamiprid was recorded, while it reached its top after the release of the predator in the fourth week 33.77 % due to the negative influence of the pesticide on the predator and the population was incapable to be adequate to control the harmful population of T. Urticae. The specialized acaricide Pyridaben was superior and recorded an efficacy exceeded 84% in the first week  before the application  and decreased in the first, the second and  the third weeks after the release of the predator without a significant difference between them, then increased in the fourth week after the releasing where it reached 73.72 % with a significant difference in all the times of the readings. Mortality percentage when acaricide Abamectin was used, recorded 61.14 % after 24 hours of the treatment, then highly increased to 70.72 % in the first week after the release of the predator. The efficacy decreased in the first and the second weeks after the release which recorded 70.72 and 65.21 % respectively with a significant difference between them. Then it increased again in the third and the fourth weeks after the release to reach 79.62 and 80.70% without significant differences between them. Thus, the predator was capable to re-raise the mortality percentage after falling in the first and the second weeks after the release to get it back to where it was when the predator efficacy reached the highest influence in the first week.

Key words: Plant extracts, Chemical pesticides, Tetranychus urticae, Stethorus glivifrons, Lycoersicon esculantmin, Syria.

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Evaluation the Efficiency of the Predator Serangium parcesetosum Sicard (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in Controlling Bemisia tabaci Genn. (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) on Cucumber and Tomato Plants

Rafik Abboud*(1) Majedah Mofleh(2) and Ahmad Mohammad(3)

(1). Latakia Agriculture Research Center, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research GCSAR, Damascus, Syria.

(2). Plant Protection Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University, Latakia, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Rafik Abboud. E-Mail:

Received: 17/07/2019                                Accepted: 08/12/2019


The study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the predator Serangium parcesetosum Sicard (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in controlling Bemisia tabaci Genn. on tomato and cucumber plants in cages. The experiment included four treatments and 12 replications. The first and third treatments were conducted on cucumber plants and second and fourth treatments were experienced on tomato plants. Adults of B. tabaci were introduced in cages on plants that have six true leaves. Two weeks later, adults of S. parcesetosum were introduced in the first and second treatments at a rate of two adult predators/plant. The release was done three times at weekly intervals. The third and fourth treatments remained predator-free. Leaves were examined weekly, the population of immature stages were recorded (eggs, L1, L2, L3, L4\ 1 cm2 leaf) which were taken randomly from the top, middle and bottom of the plants. The predator was not recorded on tomato. The number of whitefly stages increased in treated cages until the sixth week, and then began to decrease from about 20 eggs and 39 nymphs/1 cm2 of leaf surface to 11 eggs and 3 nymphs after ten weeks. Population density of the whitefly in the control increased to 219 eggs and 145 nymphs/1 cm2 of leaf surface during the same period. Mortality rates of old nymphs were 93.3 and 4.1% after nine weeks for the predator treatment and control, respectively. Results indicated that, S. parcesetosum could be recommended for the control of B. tabaci on cucumber in protected cultivation in Syria.

Keywords: Biological control, Bemisia tabaci, Cucumber, Tomato, Protected cultivation, Syria.

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Testing the Efficiency of Mixing Natural Plant Extracts with Some Synthetic   Organic Pesticides on the Female Adults of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) Under Lab Conditions

Ibraheem Saqr(1) and Suhair Ghalia*(1)

(1). Department of plant protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University, Latakia, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Eng. Suhair Ghalia. Email:

Received: 30/05/2018                                Accepted: 3/10/2018


Biological experiments were done under the conditions of Plant Protection Laboratory, Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University, to show the possibility of increasing the efficacy of the natural plant extracts on the T.urticae by mixing them with a half dose of synthesis pesticide which recommended, to decrease of the amount of pesticides which are used and spread in the environment, and to decrease the economic cost and the environmental pollution. A mixed mother extracts were used of leaves of six plant species viz. Melia azedarach, Smilax aspera, Styrax officinalis, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Ecbalium elaterium and Lantana camara, with half dose which were recommended of six synthesis pesticides viz. Neoron, Ortus, Nissorun Vertimec, Talastar and Magister. Demodulations of extracts were done by dipping the phaseuloues leaves disk in the mixed solutions to treat the individuals. The mixed Neoron, Talastar, Vertimec and Magister had achieved a good effect to the efficiency of the extracts and the maximum value reached 100% or close to max in many cases particularly with Smilax aspera, Styrax officinalis and Melia azedarach extracts. The differences between mortality ratio had become high between most of the mixed solutions and the mother solution extracts, and also between most of the tested compounds and mixed extracts with Ortus compound which had low impact with the plant extracts.

Key words:  Plant extracts, Pesticides, T. urticae,  Leaf disk.

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Study of Distribution of Penicillium spp. Mold on Citrus Fruits Varieties after Postharvest and Cold Storage and Evaluation their Damages in Latakia Governorate

Abd Alrahman Khafta*(1)

(1). Plant Protection Department, Tishreen University, Latakia, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Abd Alrahman Khafta. E-Mail:

Received: 25/11/2018                                Accepted: 02/12/2018


Citrus cultivation is increasing globally, the production exceeded 123 million tons in 2013, in Syria the production reached 1.5 million tons in 2015 in Latakia and Tartous governorates. Although citrus fruits have a long marketing and storage life but it suffers significant physiological losses after harvest in case it is not stored and treated well. The experiment was conducted in 2016 and 2017 during postharvest and cold storage period of citrus fruit varieties to study the spread of molds of the genus Penicillium spp. on citrus fruits varieties after postharvest and cold storage and evaluation their damages in latakia governorate.  The results showed that green and blue molds caused by Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum were the most damaging after post-harvest. Satsuma variety then clementine, navel orange, eureka and grip fruit were the most influenced of these diseases, where the rate of incidence was 9.3% and severity 3.1 for green mold in Satsuma variety, while the intensity reached 5.1% and severity was 1.9 for green mold on Satsuma variety in the sorting center after 30 days of stora, then the other citrus were followed with less percentages. The other fungus associated and less spread on citrus fruits were: Guingnardis citricarpa-colletotrichum Gloeosporioidespenz- Botrytis cinerea – Cercospora angolense-Phytophthora citrophtoraof

Key words: Citrus, Mold citrus fruit, Penicillium digitatum, Penicillium italicum.

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