Morphological Characterization of Some Carob Certaonia siliqua L. Genotypes Naturally Dispersed in Al-Bassit Area (Latakia -Syria)

Samer Nasser*(1) Talal Ameen(1) and Hafez Mahfoud(2)

(1). Forestry and Environment Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University, Latakia, Syria.

(2). Directorate of Biotechnology, Latakia Research Center, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research GCSAR, Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Eng. Samer Nasser. E-Mail:

Received: 04/11/2018                                Accepted: 25/02/2018


The study was conducted on 27 species of Ceratonia siliqua L. in the years 2014 and 2015 in the northwestern region of Latakia Governorate, which is considered one of the most important natural spread areas in Syria, in order to survay its spread and characterization morphologically to develop a classification key. The carob genotypes were surveyed in four locations (Daqaqa, Wadi Qandil, Um Al-Toyoor, and Al-Basset), and characterized morphologically based on 21 characteristics of the vegetative, syphilis, fruit and seed parts. The variation of the fruit tree was only 56%, and the cultivars were divided into three independent groups, compared to 53%, which were obtained by the analysis of the studied traits which were divided into five groups. The classification keys and morphological identity were obtained for the carob genotypes in the studied area. T8 genotype in Um Al-Toyoor location was superior in its fruits characters compared with the other genotypes.

Key words: Carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.), Classification key, Morphological genotype, Cluster analysis.

Full Paper in Arabic: PDF

Screening of Some Syrian Wheat (Triticum Spp.) Varieties for Osmotic Stress Tolerance Using Tissue Culture Technique

Fahed Albiski*(1) Ramzi Murshed(3)  Nour Al Qabbani(1) Wasim Mohsen(2) Bassam Al Atalah(2) and Khouzama Al Kountar(2)

(1). General Organization of Biotechnology, Ministry of High Education, Damascus, Syria.

(2). Sweidaa Research Center, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.

(3). Horticulture Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Damascus University, Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Fahed Albiski. E-Mail:

Received: 23/08/2018                                Accepted: 01/10/2018


The experiment was conducted in order to study the effect of osmotic stress on some morphological parameters in eight Syrian wheat varieties (Triticum Spp.) using plant tissue culture technique. Osmotic stress was imposed by adding different concentrations of sorbitol to (C6H14O6) the culture medium (0, 110, 220,330 and 440 mM), which are equal to -0.82, -1.09, -1.44, -1.79 and -2.14 MPa, respectively on the osmotic potential basis. Plant length (cm), number of leaves, number and length (cm) of roots, plant fresh and dry weights (g), plant water and dry weight content (%) were measured. Results revealed a genetic variability in the response of the investigated varieties for osmotic stress based on the studied parameters. Progressive reduction in the studied parameters occurred as osmotic stress increased compared to the control. Cluster analysis, based on the relative values of all the growth parameters response to osmotic stress, showed three distinct groups: the osmotic stress tolerant group, which included four varieties (Doma1, Bohouth11, Bohouth8 and Guolan2); the moderately osmotic stress tolerant group, included three varieties (Doma4, Cham3 and Bohouth7) and the osmotic stress susceptible group, included one variety (Cham10).

Keywords: Screening, Wheat, Osmotic stress, Sorbitol, Tissue culture, Cluster analysis.

Full paper in Arabic: PDF

Analytical Study of Consumer Prices Indices Using Cluster Analysis, Syria

Safwan Mutha Abou -Assaf*(1) Remal Slman Saab(1) Maya Youssef Al-Abdala(1) and Samar Hossam Aldeen Al-Ashaoush(1)

 (1). Sewida Agricultural Research Center, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.
(*Corresponding author : Dr. Safwan  Abou Assaf. E-Mail:

Received: 23/07/2016                           Accepted: 12/08/2016


The aim of this research was performing an analytical comparison of consumer prices index in Syria, to determine the convergence and spacing among them, using the method of hierarchical cluster analysis, and creating a proximities matrix that rely on calculating squared Euclidean distance between the studied units, according to the provinces, months and main groups of goods and services during 2014 compared to 2010. It was found that there were 10 provinces formed the first cluster, and this refers that these figures are homogenous among these provinces, while months were distributed in four clusters, which indicates a lack of homogeneity of the indices of consumer prices between months. In addition, the results revealed that nine of goods and services were concentrated in one cluster, indicating the homogeneity of these groups. The study recommended to use recent years and to consider the base year in the estimation of indices of consumer prices, also the study advised the competent authorities to expand the use of database accounts indices, and putting more details in performing main groups of goods and services. In addition to that, domestic investment must be run at a faster scale, especially the local industrial sectors.

Keywords: Index numbers, Cluster analysis, Hierarchical cluster analysis, Squared Euclidean Distance, Inflation.

Full paper in Arabic: Analytical Study of Consumer Prices Indices Using Cluster Analysis, Syria