Evaluation of the Chemical Composition, Physical, Rheological, and Sensory Properties of some New Improved Bread Wheat Cultivars Cultivated in Yemen

Yaser Aljwafi*(1) , Muneer Alsayadi (2), Hazem Al ashwal(1), Khaled Al-rahi(1), Aref Al shamiri(1)

(1). Agricultural Research and Extension Authority. Northern highlands regional research station Sana’a, Yemen

(2). faculty of Agriculture, Ibb University – Ibb-Yemen

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Yaser Aljwafi  E-Mail: ymj2010@gmail.com)

Received:8/06/2022            Accepted: 26/10/2022


The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition, physical, and rheological properties of newly improved bread wheat varieties. The varieties were planted in the agricultural research farm in the Sana’a region, and the harvest was carried out and the analyzes were carried out in the year 2021. Physical and chemical tests were conducted on samples of whole grain flour, and the rheological and baking tests were performed on the extracted flour and dough samples, the resulting news was evaluated sensually for all studied varieties. The results showed that the moisture content ranged between 7.3% in Sakhaa19 cultivar and 8.3% in Jeza40 cultivar. The highest protein content was 13.9% in Ejhad13 cultivar and the lowest 10% in Jeza 40 cultivar, and the highest fat content was found in both Sakaha19 and Giza 40, 2.1%, and the lowest percentage in Al-Wadi’i cultivar was 1.6%. The total ash content ranged between 1.49% in the Mubashir26 cultivar and 1.67% in the Giza40 cultivar. The weight of 1000 grains ranged between 37.7g in cultivar Giza40 and 42.5gm in cultivar Sakha19, and the specific weight ranged between 78.1 kg/hectoliter and 82.5 kg/hectoliter, and the percentage of wet gluten ranged between 21.7% in Giza40 cultivar and 38% in Ejhad13, while amylase activity ranged from 179s in the Sakha19cultivar to the highest activity of 313s in the Mubashir 26 cultivar. Farinograph results also indicated the superiority of Ejhad13 in the degree of water absorption (14%) with 65, while the lowest absorption degree was 53.2 in Sakaha19. The highest dough development time was found in Ejhad13 and the lowest time in Sakaha19, 4.3 and 1.8 minutes respectively. The classification of all flour samples was of medium strength in the stability of dough, with the superiority of Ejhad13and Al-Wadi’i. Ejhad13had the highest valoremetric number and the lowest degree of weakness, while the opposite for Giza 40. The results of the extensograph showed that Al-Wadi’i cultivar was the best in tensile strength, and Giza40 was the weakest, Mubashir26 had the highest value of maximum tensile and elastic resistance, and Sakha19 was the lowest, the opposite for flexibility. The results of the sensory evaluation showed the superiority of the strain Ejhad13in all sensory properties, while the cultivar Giza40 got the lowest value in the uniformity of shape, color and the pulpregularity, and the variety Sakha19 was the lowest in color. It is concluded from the study that all the new improved bread wheat varieties have good nutritional value and good and promising rheological and sensory properties for the bread industry in varying degrees according to the variety.

Keywords: Improved Wheat, Chemical Composition, Rheological Properties,Farinograph.

Full paper in Arabic: pdf