Strategic and Descriptive Analysis of the Reality of Agricultural Extension by Applying the SWOT and Attitudes Methods in Syria

Tayseer Hatem(1)*, Fayez Al Mekdad(1), K.Kamal deen(1), Khetam Edress(1), Yehya Sharaf (2), Safwan Abo Assaf(1), Reeman Shaleesh(1)

(1). Administration of Socio-economics Research General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research, Damascus, Syria
(2). Extension Programs Division, Extension Department, Agricultural Extension Directorate, Swayda, Syria.
(Corresponding author: Dr.Tayseer Hatem. E-Mail:

Received: 29/11/2021         Accepted:13/03/2022


The research mainly aimed to characterize the weakness, strengths, opportunities and threats in the agricultural extension process through many viewpoints, starting with the farmers and passing through official levels that have a direct and indirect relationship with agricultural extension. Data were collected according to the written and oral descriptive methods, through Face to Face interviews, and the discussion groups. In addition to the directed questionnaire to the extension staff’s various categories working during 2020 -2021 to estimate the attitudes about the effectiveness of the agricultural extension on them and on farmers in Syria. The SWOT and the five-point Likert scale were conducted. The results identified four strategic factors that directly affect agricultural extension activities, which are, technological progress, the integrated relationship between establishments that related to agricultural extension, the application of the competition within an extension, and the participation of farmers in preparing and implementing extension activities. The effect of these factors together represented about72%. The study recommended to give the agricultural extension the main role as a as the main junction and complementary situation between all establishments that concern directly or indirectly with agricultural activities.
Full paper in Arabic: pdf