Livelihood Diversification and its Impact on Food Security Status for Farm Households Case Study: The Coastal Area

Leen Almukaddem*(1)  Jamal Alali(2), and Wael Habib(3)

(1) Tartus Center for Scientific Agricultural Research, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Syria.

(2) Department of Agricultural Economy. Faculty of Agriculture, Albaath University, Homes, Syria.

(3) Latakia Center for Scientific Agricultural Research, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Leen Almukaddem. E-Mail:

Received:6/01/2021            Accepted:29/11/2021


Although agriculture is considered the dominant economic activity in rural areas, rural households participate in various other livelihood activities to improve their income and achieve food security. The study aimed to analyze the rural households’ livelihoods in the coastal area and their impact on food security status. The research relied on collected preliminary field data using a questionnaire form during the months of (October and November) of 2019, the research was conducted on a random sample of 382 farm households distributed between Lattakia and Tartous governorates based on their percentage of the total number of households. The impact of the Livelihood Diversity Index and other variables on the Food Security indicator (Food Expenditure Share FES) were studied, using descriptive analysis methods and a multi-linear regression model. The results showed that besides agriculture, 94% of households work in other activities, and the average contribution of non-agricultural activities to total household income was about 67.8%. The household food security indicator showed that about 53.6% of households were food insecure. The results showed a positive impact on the number of family members, the age of the head of household, and the dependency ratio, while the Livelihood diversification index, Income and the number of owned machines have had a negative impact on the food security indicator. The study recommended the necessity of improving farm income, and working to develop non-agricultural activities because of their importance in improving food security status of rural households, without adversely affecting agricultural production.

Keywords: Livelihoods, Food Security, Income Diversification, Income, Farm Households.

Full paper in Arabic: pdf