Selection of Wheat Genotypes of Triticum Durum Desf. ‎Tolerant to Drought under Rainfed Condition Using Carbon ‎Isotope Discrimination Technique‎

Abdulwahid A Saif*(1) Aref alshamiri(1)  and Ammar Wahbi(2)

(1). Agricultural Research and Extension Authority (AREA), Yemen. 

(2). Seibersdorf Laboratory, Vienna, Austria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Abdulwahid A Saif. E-Mail:

Received: 07/03/2020                               Accepted: 20/04/2020


Five genotypes of local wheat: var. Alass24 (Shara No. 2, var. Alass25 (Shara No. 154), Advanced line No. 35, Advanced line No. 42, Advanced line No. 12 and the Arabi variety were planted at Bani Matar region, Al-Qalis site in Yemen, between 18-7/24  of  the years 2014 and 2015 under rainfed conditions. The results showed a significant variation among  genotypes in grain yield, biological yield, weight of 1000 grains, plant height, spike length, number of grains per spike, number of days to maturity, and harvest index. The variety Arabi and the two genotypes., Alass25 (Shara No.154) and Advanced line No.35 attained good yield compared to Alass24 genotype (Shara No.2), and the  averages were 2033, 2016, 1965 and 1514 kg/ha respectively. The genotype Alass25 (Shara No.154) gave higher biological yield of 6891 kg/ha, and higher spike length (8.6 cm) with increased seeds number per spike (48.8), while the harvest index was lower (29.3.%), on the other hand Arabi variety gave lower values in terms of biological yield (4914 kg/ ha), length of spike (6.3 cm) and number of seeds per spike (17.4), while the harvest index was the highest (41.4), although both variety/genotype gave high grain yields. A positive correlation was found between grain yield and 1000 kernel weight, while correlation between yield, plant height and number of days to maturity was negative. A 1000 kernel weight positively correlated with both spike length  and number of grain per spike. The length of spike was positively correlated with number of seeds per spike and number of days to maturity. Significant differences were found among genotypes for Δ13C in grain and Δ13C in leaves, the variety Arabic and Alass25 genotype (Shara No.154) attained higher values of Δ13C grain and Δ13C leaves compared with others, the values were 14.24 and 13.66 for grains and 18.33 and 17.99% for leaves. Both genotypes attained also the highest values of grain yield with highest harvest index. This is as indicator of an effectiveness of Carbon Isotope Discrimination (CID) as an efficient tool selection for high yielding variety combined with drought tolerance for both rainfed system and areas where irrigation water is limited. Grain yield of a variety is an important trait when selection for drought condition is requested, it correlated positively and significantly with  number of seeds per spike and biological yield, while it correlated negatively with plant height and number of days to maturity. It was found also a positive correlation with Δ13C grain, while correlation was negative with Δ13C leaves. This means, breeders can select the genotype that has a higher Δ13C grain for drought conditions.

Key words: Δ13C, Wheat genotypes, Rainfed condition.  

Full paper in Arabic: PDF