Effect of Dates of Foliar Application by Micronutrients on ‎Some Growth and Productivity Characteristics of Olive Tree ‎‎(Kaisi cv.)‎

Amani Berawi*(1) Abd Al-Gani Khorchid(2) Mahammad Manhal Al-Zoubi(3) Ayham Asbah(1) and Saher Al-Bakeer(4)

(1). Scientific Agricultural Research Center in Hama, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR). Damascus, Syria

(2). Department of soil science, Faculty of Agriculture, Aleppo University, Aleppo, Syria.

(3). General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR). Damascus, Syria.

(4). Scientific Agricultural Research Center in Hama, (GCSAR). Damascus, Syria.

(5). Department of horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Aleppo University, Aleppo, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Eng. Amani Berawi. E-Mail: eng.amani199001@gmail.com).

Received: 16/12/2018                               Accepted: 08/02/2019


The experiment was carried out in an olive orchard, Hama Research Center, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), during 2016 and 2017 seasons in order to study the effect of foliar application dates by micronutrients on some vegetative, floral and productivity characteristics of olive tree (Kaisi cv.). The trees of the experiment were selected to be homogeneous in growth and age as possible. The foliar fertilizer contained all the necessary minor elements, and was sprayed in a constant concentration to all treatments (0.5 g/L) in different dates: one spray F1 (Before inflorescence), twice spray applications F2 (Before inflorescence and after fruit set) or three times F3 (Before inflorescence, after fruit set and one month before harvest date), in addition to the control without spraying (for comparison). The experiment was designed according to complete randomized block design, with three replicates for each treatment. The results showed that F2 treatment was significantly superior compared to other treatments except F 3 treatment, in term of vegetative growth traits. Thus, the effect of the foliar fertilizer on fruit set ratio and production had been obvious. The treatment F2 gave the highest productivity (34.27 kg) whereas F0 and F3 treatments gave (24.11 and 33.16 kg/tree respectively).

Key words: Olive, Micro-elements, Dates of foliar spray, Kaisi cultivar.

Full paper in Arabic: PDF

The Effect of Organic Farming System on Some Soil Characteristics and Productivity Indicators of Olive Variety Doebli

Ghada Kattmah* (1) Georges Makhoul(2) Soheel Makhool(1)  Mohamad Al Naddaf(2) Mohamad Ahmad(2) Nizar Hamoud(1) Wisam Massa(3)  and Mahmoud Dawood(4)

(1). Horticulture Research Administration, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research GCSAR, Damascus, Syria.

(2). Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University Latakia, Syria.

(3). Barshen Research Station, Hamah Research Center, GCSAR, Damascus, Syria.

(4). Beit Kamouna Research Station, Tartous Research Center, GCSAR, Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Ghada Kattmah. E-Mail: ghada978@gmail.com).

Received: 18/03/2018                                Accepted: 04/08/2018


This research was conducted during the period (2015-2017) as a part of project included in the Cooperation Agreement between the Ministry of High Education and the General Commission of Agricultural Scientific Research (GCSAR) and was funded equally by two participating sides, in order to study the impact of the organic production system on soil properties and productivity indicators of olive variety “Doebli” in two sites: Moseif and Safita, the orchard in each site was divided into two plots with an area of 1 dunum. The first one is managed under the organic system according to Syrian Organic Law (sheep manure fertilizer: 2 tone/dunum, green manure grass pea: barley 9:1 in rate of 15 kg/dunum, excessive pruning in the year of heavy production and 3 tillages per year), while the second part was managed under the conventional practices used by farmer (chemical fertilizer NPK, Urea 46%: 500g/tree in two patches in March and April, potassium sulfate 50%: 300g/tree in March, superphosphate 45%: 300g/tree in November, balanced pruning, 5 tillages per year), and the two plots were separated by two lines of trees. The soil analysis was carried out before and after the organic and conventional treatments, as well as some indicators of productivity (the length of recent vegetative shoots, sex ratio and fruit set ratio). The results of soil analysis at the two sites showed that the organic treatment was significantly higher than its conventional counterparts in terms of organic matter, total nitrogen, phosphorus and potash. The effect of the experimental treatments appeared increasingly at the end of the second season, these elements were gradually released as a result of the fermentation of manure and green manure, and the release of organic acids in the soil. It was observed that the organic treatments were superior to the conventional ones in term of the length of recent vegetative growths (7.32, 3.39 cm, respectively), and the number of flowers per inflorescence which was 14.73 in the organic treatment compared to 12.53 in the conventional one, so the difference between the two treatments was significant, the superior revealed also in the sex ratio (2.74 and 2.11, respectively) and fruit set ratio (4.71 and 3.8%, respectively). This study confirmed the positive effect of the organic production system in improving the olive farm environment and the soil, in order to achieve more yield and production sustainability in farm by using safe and healthy environmental methods.

Key words: Olive, Organic treatment, Conventional treatment, Soil character, Productivity.

Full paper in Arabic: PDF

Self-sterility in Some Olive Cultivars and its Influence on Parthenocarpic Fruits  “Shotberries” Formation

Mohammad Mhnna*(1) Faisal Douay(2) and Fadel Al-Qaiem(3)

(1). Siano Research Station, Scientific Agricultural Research Center of Lattakia, (GCSAR), Lattakia, Syria.
(2). Horticulture Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University, Lattakia, Syria.
(3). Scientific Agricultural Research Center of Lattakia, (GCSAR), Lattakia, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Eng. Mohammad Mhanna, Siano Research Station, Scientific Agricultural Research Center of Lattakia, (GCSAR), Lattakia, Syria.
E-Mail: Agrihort@yahoo.com. Mobile: +963 0999160267).

Received: 15/02/2015                         Accepted: 12/03/2015


The research was conducted in 2013 and 2014 at Bouqa region- Latakia governorate, Syria, to study the self-sterility on olive cultivars i.e.  “Khodeiri”,  “Frantoio”  and french  “Picholine, and its influence on commercially useless fruits” Shotberries “by evaluating self-incompatibility and  “shotberries”  ratios which are developed after self- vs.- open- pollination, also anatomical studies of fruits were conducted to estimate the fertilization if so. The results showed that the pollen viability was adequate and over 64% for all cultivars. All studied cultivars were suffering from self-incompatibility in different degrees (ISIkhodeiri=0.21-0.24, ISIpicholine=0-0.09, ISIfrantoio=0.12-0.19). Self-pollination produced high ratios of commercially useless fruits “Shotberries” and their ratios increased in 2014 season due to drought. Anatomical study showed that all “Shotberries” were seedless and were produced from un-fertilized flowers, which caused this an irregular development. Shotberries were completely dropped before harvesting time. The results confirmed the importance of planting a mixture of cultivars in olive fields to improve production and reduce the ratio of unwanted commercially useless fruits.

Key words: Olive, Parthenocarpic fruits, ISI.

Full paper in Arabic:  العقم الذاتي في بعض أصناف الزيتون وتأثيره في تشكل الثمار البكرية