Comparison Study of Alum and Coagulants (Ferric Chloride, and Poly Aluminum Chloride (PACL)) on Turbidity Elimination in Water Stations

Adawya Abdul-Kareem*(1) Kamal Nada(1) Abdul Kareem Al-Wazan(1) Shhad Riyadh Zaki(2) and Manal Malik Sadoon(3)

(1). Water and Environment Directorate, Ministry of science and technology, Iraq.
(2) Faculty of Woman Science, Iraq.
(3) Faculty of Education, Iraq.
(*Corresponding author: Dr. Adawya Abdul-Kareem. E-Mail:

Received: 04/02/2018                                          Accepted: 19/05/2018


This research focused on one of the stages of the conventional treatment of water in the purification stations, a process of coagulation, which enhanced by using alternatives to alum; such as Ferric Chloride and Poly Aluminum-chloride (PACl), which play an important role to reducing the turbidity of drinking water through the destabilization of colloids, which include organic and inorganic materials in order to increase the efficiency of sterilization and disposal of the side effects of sterilization (DBPS) and to minimize the problems of clogged sand filters due to an increase of the turbidity of water inside it. According to that, three types of coagulant agents were used for the purpose of comparison with each other to achieve the best efficiency in the process of reducing water turbidity through a process of coagulation improved by using (Jar-test). Different concentrations of coagulant agents of irrigation water were used depending on experiments. The results found that urinary chloride aluminum gave the highest efficiency in reducing turbidity by (84, 82 and 81%) according to the addition of concentration for coagulation (20 ppm, 10 ppm and 5ppm), respectively. The reduction rates in turbidity for Ferric chloride were (79, 78.2 and 78.1% ) by concentrations added, respectively, but for alum, the reduction rates in turbidity were (58, 56, and, 54%) by concentrations added, respectively.
Key words: Coagulants, Ferric Chloride, Turbidity, Water station.

Full paper in Arabic: PDF