Response of Oat (Avena sativa L.) Varieties to Mineral and Bio ‎Fertilizers

Lamiaa. M. Al-Freeh*(1) Kadhim H. Huthily(1) and Sundus.  A. Alabdulla(1)

(1). Crops Department, Facultu of Agriculture, Basrah University, Iraq.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Lamiaa. M. Al-freeh. E-Mail:

Received: 16/01/2020                               Accepted: 22/03/2020


A field experiment was carried out during the growing seasons of 2016/2017 and 2017/2018 at Al-Zubair district, Basra Province, to study the response of three varieties of oats (Ganzania, Shafaa and Carrolup) to mineral and bio fertilizer, nitrogen-fixing bacteria (Azotobacter chroococcum), phosphorus solubilizing bacteria (Pantoea agglomerans) and potassium solubilizing bacteria (Bacillus subtits and Bacillus mucilaginosus) were used in seven levels: (B0 = control, B1 = mineral NPK, B2= NPK bio fertilizer, B3 = N bio. + mineral PK, B4 = NP bio. + mineral K, B5 = NK bio. + mineral P and B6 = PK bio. + mineral N) on yield components, grain yield and  the concentration of NPK nutrients in grains and vegetative parts. Randomized complete block design RCBD was used which arranged according to split-plot design with three replicates, the fertilizers were placed on the main plots, while varieties were at the sub-plots. The results showed that fertilization with bio-fertilizer NPK (B2) increased significantly the studied traits (NPK% concentration in grains and vegetative part, panicles/m2, grains/panicle, 1000 grain weight, grain yield, biological yield and protein yield). For the two seasons, while treatment B2 gave an increase in grain yield of 189.96 and 197.3%, and the biological yield 112.92 and 137.36% compared with control treatment for the two seasons respectively. Varieties differed in most of the studied traits, Ganzania resulted in highest grain yield in the first season (5.774 t/ha) while Shafaa gave the highest yield in the second season (8.691 t/ha). The interaction of Ganzania with B2 and gave the highest grain yield (8.429 t/ha) in the first season, while in the second season all varieties showed significant superiority with B2 and produced the highest grain yield, biological yield and protein yield without significant difference between them. The study recommends the use of bio-fertilization that containing various microorganisms (nitrogen-fixing and phosphorous  potassium solubilizing bacteria) and it is preferable to grow Ganzania or the Shafaa variety.

Key words: Oat, Varieties, Bio fertilizers, Mineral, Yield.

Full paper in Arabic: PDF

Preparation of Formulations of Weaning Food from Black and Brown Rice and Study its Different Properties

Nagham Abdul Razzaq Mshemesh*(1) Waafa Hasson(1) Khamees Habeeb Mutlag(1) Rasha  Mussa(1) and Ahamed Hussien(1)

(1). Agricultural Research Directorate, Ministry of Science and Technology, Baghdad, Iraq.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Nagham Abdul Razzaq Mshemesh. E-Mail:

Received: 13/11/2017                              Accepted: 09/02/2018


This study has been performed in Agriculture Research Directorated Labs, Ministry of Science and Technology/Iraq, aimed to use different formulations of weaning food contained different concentrations of black rice flour, brown rice, peas and oat chips. Some physical treatments like cleaning, peeling and milling to rice and and germination, chard, peeling, drying and milling to peas were used to make these four  formulations, which were chosed depended on chemical analysis (moisture, protein, ash, fiber, carbohydrate, fat and energy) in addition the estimation of some minerals (Ca, Fe and Zn) comparing with recommendation of FAO weaning food and functional properties; like bulk density (BD), foam capacity (FC) and swelling power (SP). Sensory evaluation was also conducted. Results showed that the treatment  F4 (25% black rice, 40% peas, 20% oat  and 15% dry milk) was the best formula comparing with the other formulations, which recorded high protein (19.50%), oil (7.50%), fiber (3.33%), ash (2.0%), carbohydrate (63.67%) and energy 400.18 kcal. The minerals estimations percentages of Fe, Zn of the treatment F4 were 7.43 mg/100g  and 8.21mg/100g repectively. These results was within FAO recommendations for weaning food.  Regarding the functional properties of the formula F3 (50% bron rice, 25% peas, 10% oat and 15% dry milk) was sperior in bulk density (0.63g/cm3), while formula F4 was superior in foam capacity which recorded 33.53%, while F2 (30% blak rice, 30% peas, 30% oat and 10% dry milk) recorded the highest value in swelling power (1.84%). In terms of sensory evaluation, which was conducted by 10 evaluators, the formula F1 (30% brown rice, 30% peas, 30% oat and dry milk) obtained the highest degree of color rating, its value was 9 degrees. The formula F2 got the lowest grade of color, it reached 4 degrees (brown color), but for taste description all the formulas were low in sweetness, and the formula F4 got the highest degree of taste amounted to 7 degrees, while texture and solubility F3 got the highest degree which reached 8 degrees. Solubility was good for all formulas. F1 formula in general was acceptable.

Key words: Weaning food, Legumes, Black rice, Brown rice, Oat.

Full paper in Arabic: PDF