Study the Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of ‎Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) Pulp and Seed

Shamaail A. Saewan*(1) Rawdhah M. Ali(1) Saher S. George(1) and Lina S. Mohammed(1)  

(1).Department of Food science, College of Agriculture, University of Basrah, Iraq.

(*Corresponding author: Dr.  Shamaail A. Saewan. E-Mail:

Received: 12/01/2020                               Accepted: 12/03/2020


The current study was conducted from November, 2017 to May, 2018. Tamarindus indica L. was purchased from commercial markets in Basrah city, southern Iraq. The pulp and seeds were isolated and dried separately at 40° C for 72 hours. The chemical composition was estimated. High significant differences (P<0.05) were observed for moisture, ash and carbohydrate contents between pulp and seeds. No significant differences (P<0.05) were observed for protein and lipids. 50% of ethanol solution extracts of pulp and seeds were prepared with different concentrations of (5, 25, 50, 75 and 100) mg/ml. Antioxidant activity, reducing power and FRAP (Ferric reducing/antioxidant power) were measured. Significant differences (P<0.05) were found between the concentrations mentioned above and tamarind extracts (pulp and seed). High significant differences (P<0.05) were found for the concentration of 100 mg/ml of pulp extracts, while low significant differences for the concentration of 5 mg/ml of seed extract for all the mentioned tests in comparison with the standard compounds.

Key words: Tamarindus indica, Antioxidant activity, Chemical composition, Reducing power.

Full paper in Arabic: PDF

Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity of Cactus (Aloe vera) Leaves Extract Against Pathogenic Bacteria

Alya Jameel Ali Al-Saad*(1) and Nada Fawzi Abdulkareem(2)

(1). Department of food Science/  college of Agriculture/ University of Basra.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Alya J.A. Al-Saad. E-Mail:

Received: 08/06/2017                                 Accepted: 15/09/2017


The study included the preparation of two types of cactus (Aloe vera) leaves extracts, which are an aqueous extract, and alcohol extract. The research was conducted at Department of Food Science, College of Agriculture, University of Basra, Iraq, in April. The active compounds were detected in these extracts i.e., altanin, Alcocseid, reducing sugars, saponins and flavonoids, which all gave a positive result, then the antioxidant activity of water and alcohol extracts were estimated in different concentrations ranged (1-5) mg/ml, and were compared with BHT compound, which gave the highest antioxidant activity reached 88% at the concentration of 5 mg/ml, followed by alcoholic extract 78%, and the least achieved by the aqueous extract of 65% at the same concentration. The micrological tests were estimated for different concentrations of extracts and different isolates from the pathogenic bacteria )Klebsiellapneumonia ,Micrococcus roseus, Staphylococcus aereus and Escherichia coli(. The alcohol extract gave the highest inhibitory effect on E.coli then Staphylococcus aereus. The highest inhibitory effect of the water extract was on E. coli, then Micrococcus roseus. The performance values ​​of antioxidants in the beef meat product were evaluated by the estimation of peroxide value of product stored at a temperature of 4˚C and treated with different concentrations of alcoholic extract, which accounted 0.912 m equivalent/kg oil, at the highest concentration, and after 10 days of cool storage.

Key Words: Antioxidant activity, Microbiological tests, Cactus Aloe vera.

Full paper in Arabic: PDF

Chemical and Manufacturing Study on Rosa Damascene

Khuloud A. AL-Mubarak*(1) Faten .M. B. Hamed(1) and Lina A. Al-Maghrabi(2)

(1). Food Technology Department, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.
(2). Food Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Damascus University, Damascus, Syria.
(*Corresponding author: Eng. Khuloud Al-Mubarak. Technology Department, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria).

Received: 31/01/2016                           Accepted: 02/03/2016


The present investigation was carried out to study the chemical, sensory, and microbial characteristics of Rosa Damascene jam during processing and storage. Rosa damascene Jam samples were prepared with different sweeteners i.e. .sucrose, fructose, and aspartame, and the samples were stored at room temperature for 6 months. The results showed a reduction in the sensory characteristics of aspartam jam after processing, but an increment in the total and reducing sugars, and a reduction in anthocyanins, phenolics, and antioxidant activity were detected in the other treatments (sucrose and fructose) during storage. Jam that processed with sucrose was preferred at the end of storage period. Subsequently, microbial tests showed that all products were accepted at the end of the storage period.

Key words: Rosa damascene, Jam,  Anthocyanins, Antioxidant activity, Storage.

Full paper in Arabic: Chemical and Manufacturing Study on Rosa Damascene