The Role of Slow Rust in Limit Wheat Leaf Rust Damage in Syria

Mohammed Kassem* (1) and Amar Bayaa(1)


(1). Laboratory of molecular markers of fungal plant diseases, Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Aleppo

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Mohammed Kassem. E-Mail:

Received: 08/05/2017                                Accepted: 12/09/2017


The aim of this study is to determine the percentage of loss in yield of some durum wheat varieties against wheat leaf rust, and to identify whether the slow rusting has a positive effect in limiting yield loss. The study was carried out in the fields of experiments at Faculty of Agriculture, Aleppo University, Aleppo, Syria, 2015, included six durum wheat varieties (Cham1, Cham5, Douma1, Cham9, Beltagy and Massine), according split plot design, the first treatment of the main factor was infected by virulent races of p. trichina, where the second treatment was treated by the systematic fungicide (Bayfidan 250). Average coefficient of infection, area under the disease progress curve, average weight of a thousand grains, average productivity and the percentage of loss in both plots were calculated. Results were statistically analyzed according to Duncan distribution. The results showed a difference in the reaction of the studied cultivars against the pathogen in the seedling stage and the mature plant. The highest severity was in Doma 1 (90S), while Cham 9 and Beltagy were resistant. P.triticina reduced the WTG, and the highest reduction rate was 19% in Doma 1, and the loss of production was 30%, 7% in Douma 1, and Massine, respectively.  No losses in the two resistant varieties (Cham 9 and Beltagy), they considered as the vertical resistance model that prevent damage of wheat leaf rust. The most important result is that Massine as the model of slow rusting reduced productivity in order to become more productive than the susceptible productive variety (Doma 1), and can be used in epidemic zone in rust.

Key words: Wheat leaf rust, Puccinia triticina, Slow rusting, Vertical resistance, Syria.

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Classification Study of the Sub-family Conocephalinae and Phaneropterinae (Tettigoniidae:Orthoptera) in Syrian Coast

Ali Ramadan(1) and Rami Hasan*(1)

(1). Plant Protection Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University, Latakia, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Eng. Rami Hasan. E-Mail: 

Received: 21/09/2017                                Accepted: 21/02/2018


In this study, 200 Tittigoniids specimens were collected from 32 locations in Syrian coast during 2012 and 2013 seasons. Morphological and taxonomical aspects of collected specimens have been studied. Identification keys of families, genera, and species were recorded according to the most important taxonomic features. A total of eighth genera recorded and classified, and these were: Phaneroptera nana, Phaneroptera sparsa, Acrometopa syriaca, Tylopsis lilifolia, Conocephalus conocephalus, Conocephalus maculatus, Conocephalus concolor. The species Isopya savigny was considered the first record in Syria.                                

Keywords: Insects, Classification, Orthoptera, Tittigonidae, Syria.

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Effect of Early Exposure of Dimethoate on Reproductive Potential in Swiss Male Mice

Samira Mousa Sasi*(1) Nagiah Mousa Al-Ghoul(1) and FtemaMohammad Al-Shakshouki(1)

(1). Department od Animal Science, Faculty of Science, Tripoli University, Tripoli, Libya.

(*Corresponding author: Samira Mousa Sasi. E.Mail:

Received: 22/02/2018                                Accepted: 17/05/2018


This study was done to evaluate reproductive potential of male mice following early exposure to dimethoate. Thirty-six Swiss albino male mice were divided into three groups of twelve mice each: first group injected intraperitoneally with distilled water, and used as a control group, while second and third groups injected with dimethoate at doses of 0.1 and 0.2 ml dimethoate/100 ml distilled water, respectively for 7 days. At the end of experiment, the mice were weighed and then were killed. Testis and epididymis weights were recorded, sperm parameters were evaluated. The results revealed a decrease in body and testis weights in second group treated with dimethoate, while epididymis weights did not affect, also the statistical analysis showed a significant decrease in sperm motility and increase of abnormal sperm in dimethoate treated mice compared to control group, while sperm count did not show any effect, also marked alterations in microstructure of testicular tissues observed. In addition, there was a significant increase in mean percentage of dead embryos and deformed embryos of untreated females mating with dimethoate treated males compared to control, there was no effect of pesticide on the mean weight of embryos. This study emphasized that the dimethoate has harmful effect on testis, sperm parameters and the embryos. Therefore, more efforts should be exerted to protect our environment and health from seriously harmful effects of this insecticide.

 Key words: Male mice, Dimethoate, Testis, Reproduction.

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Toxicity of Pruning Residue Ash for Apple, Grape and Olive Against Cowpea Seed Beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) under Laboratory Conditions

Rehab Esber(1), Ziad Chikh-Khamis(1) and Ebraheem Al-Jouri*(2)

(1). Plant Protection Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Baath University, Homs, Syria.

(2). Insect Research Department, Plant Protection Research Administration, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Ebraheem Al-Jouri. E-mail:;                                                                                                              

Received: 21/11/2017                                Accepted: 07/02/2018


Ash toxicity of burning pruning residues of three plant species i.e. apple, grape and olive was tested against adults of cowpea seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera, Bruchidae) using the following concentrations: (5, 10, 20, 40 and 80) g/kg of cowpea seed. The study was carried out in incubator at fixed temperature and humidity at Biotechnology Research Center, Al-baath University. Readings were taken after (24, 48 and 72) h of treatment, and corrected mortality rates were calculated and values of LC50, LC90, LT50 and LT90. Results showed that mean of corrected mortality rate after 24 hours was (18.47, 36.45, 44.60, 49.64, 53.71) % at concentrations of (5, 10, 20, 40 and 80) g/kg respectively with significant difference (P≥0.01), and (45.04, 40.29 and 36.40)% for apple, grape and olive ashes, respectively with significant difference. The values of LC50 and LC90 were (1.251 and 11.520) g/kg for apple ash, (2.154 and 12.490) g/kg for grape ash and (2.631 and 18.492) g/kg for olive ash after 48h. The values of LT50 and LT90 were (22.941 and 35.262) h for apple ash, (24.377 and 37.306) h for grape ash and (26.305 and 40.242) h for olive ash when the concentration 40 g/kg. As a result, apple ash showed higher toxicity and minimal mortality time.

Key words: Toxicity, Ash, Pruning residue, Apple, Grape, Olive, Cowpea seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus.

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Effect of Selenium, Sulfur and Phosphor fertilization on Shoot Dry Weight of Maize (Zea mays L.)  Grown in Two Different Soils

Hayfaa Al-Tameemi(1) Najla Al–Amiri*(1)  Mohammed Hassan(1)

(1). Dept. of Soil Science and Water Resources, College of Agriculture, Univ.of Basrah, Iraq.

(*Correponding author: Dr.Najla Al–Amiri. E_Mail:  

Received: 25/12/2017                                Accepted: 13/04/2018


An experiment was conducted on maize crop (Zea mays L.) in plastic pots in two different soils (Qurna soil, which is poor organic matter and the other soil from Maysan marshes, which is rich in organic matter), to study the effect of selenium, sulfur and phosphate and their interaction on dry weight of shoot of maize crop. Selenium was added at four levels (0, 10, 20 and 40 g Se ha), sulfur at three levels (0, 30 and 60 kg S ha), and phosphorus at three levels (0, 60 and 120 kg P ha). Results indicated that the dry weight values ​​increased significantly, where it increased from14.79 to15.79 gm dry matter/5 plants  in Qurna soil, and from16.91 to18.01 gm dry matter/5 plants in marshes soil with increasing the quantity of selenium from 0 to 40 g Se ha, and from 14.54 to 16.00 gm dry matter/5 plants in Qurna soil, and from 16.90 to 18.05 gm dry matter/5 plants in marshes soil with increasing the quantity of phosphate from 0 to 120 kg P ha. While increase the quantity of added sulfur gave a significant increase in the dry weight of shoot of maize crop grown in the Qurna soil, where it increased from14.94 to 15.86 gm dry matter/5 plants with increasing the quantity of sulfur from 0 to 60 kg S/ha, but in the soil of marshes the increase was not significant. The results also showed that the binary interaction between selenium and sulfur and the binary interaction between selenium and phosphorus as well as the triangular interaction between selenium, sulfur and phosphorus had no significant effect on the dry weight of shoot for maize crop. The highest values ​​of Se4S3 treatment were (16.20 and 18.00 gm dry matter/5 plants), and Se4P3 (16.27 and 18.48 gm dry matter/5 plants) and Se4S3P3 (16.90 and 18.70 gm dry matter/5 plants) in the Qurna and Marshlands, respectively.

Keywords: Selenium, Sulfur, Phosphate, Maize crop.

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Use of Non-Conventional Water in the Production of Safe Fodder Crops

Mahammad Manhal Al-Zubi*(1) Moaammar Dayyoub(1) Wasim Adla(1) Rabiaa Al-Hayek(1) Mostafa Badda(1) Nada Ghaiba(1) Omar Jezdan(2) and Ilham Taameh(2)


(1). General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSR), Damascus, Syria.

(2). Arab Center for the Studies of Arid Zones and Dry Lands (ACSAD), Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Mahammad Manhal Al-Zubi. E-Mail: 

Received: 19/07/2017                                Accepted: 30/11/2017


An experiment was conducted for two seasons 2015 -2016, to study the effect of treated waste water (TWW) on some fodder crops productivity at Salamieh Research Center (GCSAR), on triticale and sesbania crops within crop rotation. This experiment was conducted with collaboration between (ACSAD) and (GCSAR). The experimental design was split plot design with three replicates, using drip irrigation (DI) and surface irrigation (SI) systems with two treatments namely fresh water (FW) and (TWW).  Soil and water were analyzed before cultivation. The results showed significant differences in the productivity of triticale grain yield of the treatments irrigated with (TWW) (2.06 ton/ha) compared to the treatments irrigated with (FW) (1.39 ton/ha). Also, significant differences in the productivity of sesbania green fodder yield of the treatments irrigated with (TWW) (39.18 ton/ha) compared to the treatments irrigated with (FW) (35.25 ton/ha). The increasing of triticale grain and straw yields were not significant in the treatments irrigated with (DI) (7.2 and 1.88 ton/ha, respectively) compared to the treatments irrigated with (SI) (1.57 and 6.71 ton/ha, respectively). Furthermore, results showed significant differences in productivity of sesbania green fodder yield in the treatments irrigated with (DI) (42.3 ton/ha) compared to the treatments irrigated with SI (32.13 ton/ha). Also, the differences in productivity of sesbania grain yield was significant in the treatments irrigated with (DI) (1.1 ton/ha) compared to the treatments irrigated with (SI) (0.74 ton/ha). No significant differences in soil heavy metals results when treatments irrigated with (TWW) or (FW), as well as treatments irrigated with DI or SI. It was noticed that there were no significant differences in plant heavy metals results in triticale crop, whereas, significant differences were noticed in heavy metals (Pb ,Cr, Co, Cd) in green fodder when treatments irrigated with (TWW) (5.38, 16.67, 5.73, and 0.14 mg/kg, respectively) compared to the treatments irrigated with (FW) (3.63, 12.5, 3.4, 0.11 mg/kg, respectively), taking into consideration that heavy metals accumulated in soil and plant were within acceptable limits.

Key words: Treated wastewater, Irrigation methods, Water quality, Heavy metals, Triticale, Sesbania.   

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Effect of NPK, Biofertilizers (Bacillus Subtilis) and (Glomus Mosseae) Additions on Yield and Growth of Maize (Zea mays L.)

Abdallah Karim Jabar(1) Ghanim Bahlul Nuni(1) and Mahmoud Radwan Mahmoud*(1)

(1). Department of desertification combat, Faculty of Agriculture, Muthanna University, Iraq.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Mahmoud Radwan Mahmoud. E-Mail:

Received: 27/11/2017                                Accepted: 26/03/2018


Field experiment was carried out at Research Station of the Faculty of Agriculture, Muthanna University, Iraq, during 2014/2015 season, to study the effect of adding NPK, biofertilizers Bacillus Subtilis and Glomus Mosseae on the growth and yield of maize (Zea may L.). The treatments were i.e control (zero: no vaccine), biofertilizers Bacillus subtilis treatments, Glomus mosseae, both biofertilizers (F0, F1, F2 and F3),  respectively, Three levels of NPK liquid fertilizer i.e. 0, 5000, 7500 mg )C0, C1, and C2 respectively). The experiment design was RCBD with three replications arranged according to split plot. The results showed that the addition of the biofertilizers had a significant effect on the following traits: Plant height of (209.41 cm), and weight of 500 seeds (156.08 g) and yield seeds (6.96 kg/h). NPK fertilizer spraying showed a significant increase, C2 treatment had higher effect more than the other treatments on the following traits: Plant height (210.39 cm), plant nitrogen (22.20%), plant phosphorus (4.24%), plant potassium (17.99%), weight of 500 seeds (157.06 g), biological yield (373.39 kg/ha) and yield of seeds (6.91 kg).

Keywords: Zea mays L., Biofertilizers, Bacillus Subtilis, NPK, Mycorrhiza.

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The Effect of Natural Zeolite Addition on Wheat productivity and Some Soil Fertility Characteristics under Rain-fed Conditions

Rami Kaba*(1) Hilal Ghayerly(2) and Mohammad Khair Saadoun(1)


(1). Al-Qamishli Research Center, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria. of

(2). Administration of Natural Resources, GCSAR. Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Rami Kaba. E-Mail:

Received: 04/05/2017                                Accepted: 31/05/2017


The research was carried out at Al-Qamishli Agricultural Research Center, GSAR, Syira, during the seasons 2011, 2012 and 2013, in order to estimate the effect of adding different levels of a crude Zeolite (T2-20 tons/ha, T3- 40 tons/ha, in addition to the control (without adding Zeolite T1), on wheat productivity within a bilateral crop rotation was followed, consisted of wheat and chickpea, and on the content of  nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in the surface layer of the soil .The research was conducted  using Complete Randomized Block Design with three replicates. The results showed that the addition of zeolite to the soil led to an increase in productivity more than control amounted to 326.4 kg/ha for T2 which represents 12.57% , and to 410 kg/ha for T3 which represents 15.8%. Regarding productivity of straw, it is found that the addition of zeolite to the soil led to an increase in the amount of straw, it was 403 kg/ha for T2, which represents 10% and 538 kg/ha for T3 which represents 12 %. Also, it increased the amount of the available nitrogen and phosphorus by increasing the addition of the raw zeolite rates, and the highest value of the two indicators were reached at the level of 40 tons/ha. The statistical analysis confirmed the significant differences. As for potassium which, is able to be utilized by the plant has been increased by 10% and 17.5% with the increasing of zeolite addition at level 20 and 40 tons/ha, respectively. The highest increase in potassium was achieved at the add level 40 tons/ha.

Keywords: Natural zeolite, Wheat, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium.

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Evaluation the Performance of Promising Settlement Population (SBR) of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) at Ain Malilah Sebkha in Algeria

Yacine Boubazine*(1) Ammar Ouffroukh(1)

(1). Research Unit in Qasantina, National Algerian Institute of Agricultre Research, Qasantina, Algeria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Yacine Boubazine. E-Mail:

Received: 24/10/2017                                Accepted: 20/04/2018


A population of soft wheat which lives naturally on the edges of saline Ain Malilah’s Sebkha, located to the southeast of Qasantina from the east of Algeria, and four varieties i.e. HD1220, ARZ, AS and ANF, to evaluate their performance under several abiotic stresses conditions, and to study their response to fertilization, based on some phenological, morphological, chemical characteristics such as: Life cycle (from cultivation until the appearance of 1/4 spikes), germination potentiality, tellering, leaf area, total chlorophyll content, relative water content, carbohydrates content. The studied population (SBR) was characterized by some morphological traits such as: Short length of plants, reduced leaf area, no awn, very late life cycle which record delayed up to 35, 28, 19, and 17 compared to ARZ, HD1220, ANF and AS respectively. The population and the studied varieties showed significant variation in their response to abiotic stress conditions. Relative water content in leaves, leaf area and plant high declined significantly under severe water stress (25% of field capacity). The studied population showed high adaptability and low fertilizer requirements under conditions of salt stress and fertilization. The results recommend that the SBR population should be used in future selection programs, to improve some characteristics of wheat varieties to face various environmental stresses.

Key words: Soft wheat, Ain Malilah Sebkha, salty stress, water stress, fertilization.

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Screening Sorghum Varieties Under Different Climatic Conditions in the Central Highlands of Yemen

Mohammed Dows*(1) Ahmad AL-Mowlem(2) Rashad Basha (1)

(1). Central Highlands Regional Agricultural Research Station, Yemen.

(2). Northern Highlands Agricultural Research Station. Yemen. 

(* Corresponding author: Mohammed M. Dows. Email:

Received: 13/11/2017                                Accepted: 18/03/2018


The study was carried out at Central Highlands Research Farm, in Yemen, during 2014 and 2015 seasons, to study the adaptation of five sorghum varieties introduced from (ICBA) and local variety (white sorghum) against climate changes, to obtain good quantity and high forage yield varieties. RCBD design with three replications was used. Results revealed a significant effect at p≤0.01 and p≤0.05 among varieties, years and interaction between varieties and years. High significant effect for introduced varieties over local variety in number of days to 50% of flowering, nodes height, plant height, green and dry matter yields, with percentages of 13.26, 34.47, 35.19, 173.69 and 200.72% respectively. While, local variety has superiority in stem diameter with 80.57%. Years recorded high significant effect on forage morphological and productivity features. Since, 2014 year has superiority in stem diameter and nodes height with 18.41 and 87.4% respectively over 2015 which recorded majority in green and dry matter forage yields 58.9 and 14.72 t/ha respectively, comparing with 2014 which gave 38.52 and 10.41 t/ha respectively, of range 51.58 and 40% for 2015 respectively. Interaction between varieties and years affected all studied traits except number of leaves/plant. Sweit Jumbo and Supine Dan sorghum varieties had highest green yield over two years 61.19 and 60.40 t/ha, respectively. These two introduced varieties could be recommended to be grown in Yemen for high yield and quality of forage.

Key words: Forage green yield, Forage sorghum, Yemen.

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