A Survey of Wheat Rust Diseases in Al- Hassakeh Governorate

Alan Remo*(1)

(1). Al Qamishly Agriculture Research Center, General Commission for Scientific Agriculture Research GCSAR, Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Alan Remo. E-mail: alanremo123@hotmail.com).

Received: 12/08/2018                                Accepted: 15/10/2018


Field survey have been conducted on 120 fields in 2017 and 110 fields in 2018 in zone1 and zone2 in Al- Hassakeh governorate, to identification the distribution of three wheat rust diseases (stripe, leaf and stem rusts) which caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, Puccinia triticina and Puccinia graminis. Diseased leaves samples were collected from farmers’ fields in Al- Hassakeh governorate. It was noticed the infection did not appear on durum wheat during 2017 and 2018, while all infections were recorded on soft wheat. The results of survey showed distributing of rust diseases (stripe, leaf and stem rusts) in a percent of 31.66%, 19.16% and 0% respectively in 2017. While the infected fields percentages were 14.54%, 10% and 7.27% respectively in 2018. The highest severity of stripe and leaf rusts were 70S and 50S respectively. Stem rust disease did not appear in 2017. While the highest severity of stripe, leaf and stem rusts were 40S, 20S and 40S respectively in 2018.

 Key words: Rust, Wheat, Survey, Al- Hassakeh, Syria.

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The Development of Peacock Eye Disease Caused by Spilocaea oleagina on Khadairy Olive Variety in Latakia Governorate

Samer Ghanem*(1) Mohamed Tawil(1) and  Sabah Al-Maghribi(1)

(1). Plant Protection Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University, Latakia, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Eng. Samer Ghanem. E-Mail: samer.gh85@hotmail.com).

Received: 25/02/2018                                Accepted: 26/04/2018


The development of peacock eye disease on olive trees of Khadairy variety was studied during 2016 and 2017 in five orchards, located at Baksa in Latakia governorate, in order to identify the disease development during these two years. The disease development was observed during spring and autumn compared to summer and winter. The disease incidence was during spring of 2016 (March, and May), also between 20.22 – 24.17% and ranged between 23.34 – 28.19% in 2017. The disease severity ranged between 12.76 and 17.80% in 2016 and ranged between 15.75 and 19.14% in 2017. In autumn, the disease incidence was medium, where it ranged between 13.23 – 20.13% in autumn 2016 (September, October and November) and between 11.09 – 22.72% in the autumn of 2017. While the disease severity was between 6.89 – 12.45% in autumn 2016, and between 5.17 – 14.69% in 2017. The disease incidence was low in summer and winter, where the incidence rate was only 11.19% in summer of 2016 and 10.25% in 2017. The severity did not exceed 5.13% in 2016 and 5.05% in 2017. The incidence did not exceed 16.35% in winter 2016 and 16.07% in 2017. The severity was not more than 7.64% in 2016 and 8.35% in 2017. It was also observed different development of the disease, when comparing the lower part (1-2 m) of the tree with the upper part (2-4 m). The incidence and severity were high at the lower parts, and it was low at the upper parts of the tree over all of the studied traits.

Key words: Khdairy variety of Olive, Peacock eye disease, Spilocaea oleagina, Latakia, Syria.

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The First Record in Syria of the Heart Shaped Soft Scale Insect Protopulvinaria pyriformis (Cockerell) Homoptera: Coccidae and Recording its Predator Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant (Coleopteran: Coccinellidae)

Rafeek Abboud*(1) Majedah Mofleh(2) Raeed Sbaih(3) and Mohammad Ahmad(3)

(1). Latakia Research Center, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research GCSAR, Damascus, Syria.

(2). GCSAR, Damascus, Syria.

(3). Plant Protection Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Latakia, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Rafeek Abboud. E-Mail: abboud.rafeek@hotmail.com).

Received: 11/07/2019                                Accepted: 15/08/2019


Pyriform scale Protopulvinaria pyriformis (Cockerell) (Homoptera: Coccidae) is a global spread in tropical and subtropical regions of Africa, the Mediterranean and the Americas. This study showed the first record of its presence in Syria in Jableh region in Latakia governorate on four different plant hosts: Laureus nobilis (Lauraceae), Myrtus communis (Myrtacea), Gardenia (Rubiaceae) and Citrus maxima (Rotaceae) in May 2019. Also, this study showed the first international record the presence of its predator Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant (Coleopteran: Coccinellidae) fed on eggs and nymphs of the Pyriform scale insect. The parasite Metaphychus sp. (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) was recorded too.

Key words: First record, Protopulvinaria pyriformis (Cockerell), Metaphychus sp. Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant, Syria.

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Generate Identification Key of Some Wild Trifolium L. Species Distributed in Syria Using Decision Tree

Aya Kanawaty*(1) Naseh Olabi(2) and Ali Shehadeh(3)

(1). Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Aleppo University, Syria.

(2). International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), Aleppo, Syria.

(3). International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), Egypt.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Aya Kanawaty. E-Mail: aya.kanawaty87@gmail.com).

Received: 01/08/2017                                Accepted: 20/02/2018


Identification key of 60 species of Trifolium L. were made by using 84 morphological characters for seeds, which planted under greenhouse conditions and then when they were grown, and were compared with local floras for identifying, or as herbarium specimen. The 84 morphological characters studied were concern about habit, stem, leaf, stipule, inflorescence, peduncle, bracts, pedicel, calyx, corolla, fruiting head and seeds. All data was entered to Orange program (C4.5) to make decision tree. Results showed that 60 species of Trifolium L. could be identified with a limited number of characters (7 specific characters) compared with local floras, which require whole plant material to be identified, so that, there were selective character could separate species from each other, which could help researcher in plant taxonomy.

Keywords: Wild species, Trifolium, Identification key, Decision tree, Syria.

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Isolation and Determination the Causes of Ringworm Infection in Camels, Syria

Abd Alnasser Al-Omar*(1)

(1). Hama Agricultural Research Center, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Abd Alnnaser Al-Omar. E-Mail: abdnaser64@gmail.com).

Received: 11/02/2018                                Accepted: 13/03/2018


This study was carried out on 200 Ringworm infected camels’ samples under release breeding system in two governorates; Homs and Deir- eizour (Syria) during the period of March, 2010 till February, 2011 aiming for isolating and determining the dermatophytes that cause ringworm in camels. Samples were collected from clinically infected animals untreated by medicine, of which 100 samples from old camels aged (3-10 years), and 100 samples from small camels aged to 3 years. Laboratory tests were carried out by dividing each sample into two parts, the first part for direct microscopic test using Potassium Hydroxide solution 20% (KOH), and the second part for fungal planting on alimentary matrix Sabouraud,s Dextrose Agar (SDA). The morphological and colonial characteristic of outgrowth fungal colonies by microscopic and ocular exams were used to determine the gender and sort of fungous pathogenic. Results showed for the first time in Syria isolation and determining two sorts of fungous pathogenic which cause Ringworm in camels; the first was Trichophyton verracusum and the second was Trichophyton  mentagrophytes where the rates of isolation in the two governorates in old camels as an average of 77.5% and 13.75%  of isolations respectively, and it was appeared mixed isolation rate for two fungus which amounted 8.75%, whereas in small camels the rates of isolations amounted in averages of 94.5% and 5.49% respectively, but there was no significant difference between gender and sort of fungous pathogenic in the two governorates .The rate of samples that gave a positive result for ringworm infection by direct macroscopic test method with an existence of 20% KOH in old and small camels as an average of 92% and 95% of infected cases respectively. The rate of samples that gave growth of fugal colonies were 80% and 91% of positive cases of microscopic test respectively.

Keyword: Ringworm, Camels, Syria.

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Evaluation of Natural Regeneration of Cedrus libani A. Richard in Some Afforested Sites in Tartous, Syria

Abeer Ibrahem*(1) Imad Qubaily(1) Ali Thabet(1) and Samaher damserko(1)

(1). Department of Forestry and Environment, Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University, Latakia, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Abeer Ibrahem. E-Mail: ink_abeer@yahoo.com).

Received: 17/10/2017                                Accepted: 23/02/2018


The research aims to study the situation of natural regeneration of the Cedrus libani A. in some afforested sites (Alnabe Matah, and Mawla Hassan) in Tartous, Syria; in order to determine the causes of weakness of the natural regeneration of Cedrus libani  in these sites, by checking the vigor of Cedrus libani  seeds through the germination under the influence of some environmental factors, and determine the status of the natural regeneration of Cedrus libani  in the studied sites. The germination tests showed a good vigor of Cedrus libani seeds which collected from afforested Cedrus libani forest stands. The seedlings stage is the main obstacle of the success of Cedrus libani natural regeneration; since most of the seedlings had died in the first year of their life because of the summer drought.

Key Words: Cedrus libani, natural regeneration, Alnabe Matah afforested site, Mawla Hassan afforested site, Tartous, Syria.

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The First Record of the Parasite Zombie fly (Apocephalus borealis Brues) on Honey Bee Apis mellifera in Syria

Menos Assad*(1)

(1). Scientific Agriculture Research Center in Latakia, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research GCSAR, Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Eng. Menos Assad. E-Mail: menos.asaad@hotmail.com).

Received: 01/06/2018                                Accepted: 01/07/2018


Honey bee colonies are infected by numerous pests like pathogens and parasites, which cause Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) phenomenon, where the infected foragers left their hives at night and dying shortly thereafter. Zombie fly (Apocephalus borealis), is considered one of the parasites that attacks honey bees in many countries in the world. Samples of adult honey bees were collected from two locations in latakia. This study confirmed the first record of Apocephallus borealis in honey bees in Syria.

Key words: Honey bee, Zombie fly, Apocephalus borealis, Syria.

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Prevalence of Ringworm Infection in Camels under Release Breeding System in Syria

Abdul Naser Al-Omar*(1)

(1). Agricultural Research Center in Hama, General Commission for Scientific and Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Abdul Naser Al-omar. E-Mail: abdnaser64@gmail.com).

Received: 20/08/2017                                Accepted: 01/11/2017


This research was carried out on 1639 heads of camels in two Syrian governorates, Homs and Deir- Ezzour during the period of March 2010 till February 2011 to recognize prevalence of Ringworm infection under the conditions of breeding release. Clinical symptoms of infection were recorded i.e. age of infected animals, sex, and general condition. The infections were listed according to the seasons of the year. The clinical symptoms appeared in the form of lesions and distinctive circular spots covered with dry dense white scurf, localized mainly in the head, neck, chest, front standings and sometimes in all over the body. Results showed sufficient difference (p<0.01) in the prevalence of infections among the ages of infected animals, where the infections were greater in small aged camels till three years old where the ratio was (31.87%), while it was (9.58%) in camels their ages within the range (3-10) years. Infection prevailed in both sexes, male and female, where the ratio of infection was greater in old female camels (10.05%) comparing to old males (6.01%), also it was greater in small females (35.4%) comparing to male animals (27.63%), but there is no significant difference between the two sexes. The ratio of prevalence infections varied according to the seasons of the year with significant difference (p<0.001). It was for old camels in winter, autumn, summer and spring (14.63%،, 10.95%،, 7.69%, 4.98%) respectively. While the ratio in small camels with significant difference (p<0.05) (40.94%, 33.60%, 29.26%, 23.84%) respectively. These results is considered important for charged people in the veterinary and health sectors, because it helps them in setting protective schedules programs that can reduce the ratio of prevalence the infection in animal.

Keys words: Ringworm, Breeding release, Camels, Syria.

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Estimation of the Trees Height of Cupressus sempervirens L. Using the Mathematical Modelling in Misiaf Region

Ali Thabit*(1)

(1). Natural Renewable Resources and Environment Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Aleppo University, Aleppo, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Ali Thabit. E-Mail: alithabt@yahoo.fr).

Received: 02/08/2018                                Accepted: 24/09/2018


The aim of this research was to design and test height-diameter models of Cupressus sempervirens in Misiaf, Syria. Modelling techniques were applied at four sampling plots that were selected throughout the natural distribution area of Cupressus sempervirens in Misiaf region. The tree height (h) and diameter at breast height (dbh) of eighty-four trees (84) were measured. Different forms of mathematical models (Michailoff, Parabel, Prodan, Petterson, Korsun, and Logarithmic) were selected to estimate the trees height of Cupressus sempervirens using diameter at breast height (dbh) as independent variable. Models were examined using different statistical tests i.e. absolute mean of the model error, relative mean of the model error, standard error of the absolute mean of the model error, model accuracy, model accuracy % and coefficient of determination R2, which showed the proportion of the total variance that is explained by model. These statistical tests were done to select the best model to estimate the trees height of Cupressus sempervirens in Misiaf region in Syria. The results of model’s efficiency tests showed that the best function was Parabel equation, this model had a high R-squared value (R2 = 60.8 %), less error value (0.21), and best accuracy value (mx = 19 %). The results of this research could be a good tool in management of Cupressus sempervirens sites and could help forest managers in the future studies in the field.

Keywords: Cupressus sempervirens, Height–Diameter relationships, Mathematical modelling, Syria.

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The Efficacy of The Integration of Plant Extracts, Chemical Pesticides and Releasing The predator Phytoseiulus  persimilis A-H in Controlling The Population of Tetranychus urticae K on Tomato in The Greenhouse Conditions

Ibrahim Aziz Saqr(1) Magedah Mohammad Mofleh(2) and Randa Suleman*(1)

(1). Plant Protection Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University, Latakia. Syria.

(2). General Commission of Agricultural Scientific Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Eng. Randa Suleman. E-Mail: randasuliman65@gmail.com).

Received: 18/05/2018                                Accepted: 05/06/2018


The research was conducted in order to assess the efficacy of the integration between the use of the aqueous extracts of both Melia azedarach L. and Styrax officinalis L. and the pesticides Acetamiprid, Abamectin and Pyridaben and releasing the predator Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot in controlling the population of Tetranychus urticae Koch on tomato Lycopersicum esculentum under the greenhouse conditions. Results showed that both extracts M. azedarach L. and S. officinalis  L. have an effect reached to 50.99 % and 40.29 %, respectively after 24 hours of the experiment with no significant difference between them. The efficacy increased to 77.19 % and 70.18 %, respectively in the fourth week after releasing the predator Ph. persimilis with a significant difference. The acaricide Pyridaben surpassed the Abamectin where the efficacy recorded 63.13 and 62.07%, respectively after 24 hours of the experiment but with no significant difference. The predator Ph. persimilis was able to generate a population that was able to control the population of T. urticae with integration of Abamectin in the fourth week of the experiment after releasing the predator. The efficacy recorded 86.03%, it had the highest effect comparing to the other treatments with a significant difference except with the Pyridaben treatment.

Key words: Plant extracts, Chemical pesticides, Tetranychus urticae, Phytoseiulus persimilis, Lycopersicum esculentum, syria.

Full paper in Arabic: PDF