Response of Peanut (Arachis hypogea L.) to Different Types and Doses of Boron Fertilizer under Deficit Irrigation ConditionsModeling and Monitoring Water Resources for Development of The Upper and Midmost Orontes Basins in Syria

Tammam Kheder Yaghi*(1) and Boshra Khozam(2)

(1). Al-Salamyieh Research Center, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.

(2). Homs Research Center, GCSAR, Damascus. Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Tammam Kheder Yaghi. E-Mail:

Received: 17/04/2018                                Accepted: 02/06/2018


Homs governorate watershed is considered as the agricultural production hub and a strategic water reservoir of Syria. However, freshwater used unsustainably in the upper and midmost Orontes basin (from Syrian- Lebanese borders to Rastan dam), in parallel with the increase in agriculture production, pollution, population, and economic growth. Water is predicted to become scarce by 2020 in this basin. This study aimed to describe Upper and Midmost Orontes basins using advanced technologies such as Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS). In addition to develop a prediction model that helps to estimate future availability of water resources and demand. Also, how some strategies can help the government in achieving sustainable development. Consequently, their water security in the wake of climate changes till 2050. Integrated software (WEAP) and some assisting programs were used for this purpose. Whereas climate changes, marginal water reuse, industrial growth, and the implementation of new water saving techniques such as water networks maintenance, rise of water productivity, low population growth rate and the creation of alternative dam in Homs Lake were considered important factors in the analysis of program. The results showed the importance of the use of remote sensing techniques and geographic information systems in the description of the studied basin in terms of accuracy, saving effort and time, as well as the employment of the derived GIS layers in the integrated program WEAP, which linked the past and present values ​​with future strategies data after being carefully calibrated them, which overall achieve the sustainable development in studied area until 2050, if it applied on the ground. Where the water deficit almost will disappear in the natural and dry conditions completely with a water surplus will be estimated about 25 MCM/2050, whereas water deficit will remain about 67.3 MCM/2050 in the drought conditions, thus the effectiveness of the studied basin will be 76.5% at this case.

Key words: Watershed, Remote sensing, Sustainable development, Effectiveness of basin.

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