Reem Abd El-Hameed * (1), Ghada Kattmah(1) , Ali Hjeiz (1) Bassam Okla(2), Redwan Badr Eldeen (2), and Maysaa Al Sayed (1)
(1). Olive Research Department, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research.
(2). General Commission of Food Technology, Syria
(*Corresponding author: Dr. Reem Abd El-Hameed. E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org,)
Received: 28/02/2022 Accepted:28/03/2022
This research carried out during period (2018 and 2020) in collaboration between the General Commission of Agricultural Scientific Research (GCSAR) and the Faculty of Agriculture at Damarcus University, on some local olive varieties (Khoudiri, Douibli, Sakari, Airouni) and foreign one (Lecceino) cultivated in coastal region, oil percentage was determined in Fruit Physiology Laboratory in Administration of Horticulture Research, and its content of fatty acids in Food Technology Lab. Faculty of Agriculture, Damascus University. The results of chemical study showed that the highest oil percentage according to wet weight was in local variety Khoudiri (24.19%) and the lowest was in Airouni (18.30%), the studied varieties also varied in terms of their oil content of the main fatty acids, and the differences were significant between them with regard to the proportions of (Palmetic, Oleic, Lenoleic, Lenolenic), as well as Khoudiri var. was distinguished by its oil content of fatty acid Oleic (74.28%) and exceeded significantly the other varieties, followed by Sukari and Leccino vars. (68.66, 68.69% Respectively), The two local cultivars Airouni and Douibli were distinguished by their high oil content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (20.96, 18.66%) which indicates their nutritional value when consumed as table olive cultivars, The calculated oxidizability values showed that oil of two varieties Koudairi and Sukari are less susceptible to oxidation with a significant difference than the rest of the studied olive cultivars. The studied cultivars insert in three groups: the first: includes the local variety Khodeiri (oil percentage< 20%, oleic fatty acid < 70%), the second: contains two varieties the introduced one Leccino and the local Sukari (oil percentage< 20%, Oleic acid < 60%, 70%>), the third: include two local varieties Doebli and Airouni (oil percentage: 18-20%, oleic acid< 60% (. This research added new evidence of the superiority of the local variety in most cases compared with introduced ones, since the local varieties are originated in our land and adapted to climatic conditions in it. Especially since many studies indicated that Syria is the origin of olive and from it spread to the rest of the world.
Keywords: olive, variety, oil percentage, fatty acid, calculated oxidizability.
Full paper in Arabic: pdf