Prevalence of Ringworm Infection in Camels under Release Breeding System in Syria

Abdul Naser Al-Omar*(1)

(1). Agricultural Research Center in Hama, General Commission for Scientific and Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Abdul Naser Al-omar. E-Mail: abdnaser64@gmail.com).

Received: 20/08/2017                                Accepted: 01/11/2017

Abstract

This research was carried out on 1639 heads of camels in two Syrian governorates, Homs and Deir- Ezzour during the period of March 2010 till February 2011 to recognize prevalence of Ringworm infection under the conditions of breeding release. Clinical symptoms of infection were recorded i.e. age of infected animals, sex, and general condition. The infections were listed according to the seasons of the year. The clinical symptoms appeared in the form of lesions and distinctive circular spots covered with dry dense white scurf, localized mainly in the head, neck, chest, front standings and sometimes in all over the body. Results showed sufficient difference (p<0.01) in the prevalence of infections among the ages of infected animals, where the infections were greater in small aged camels till three years old where the ratio was (31.87%), while it was (9.58%) in camels their ages within the range (3-10) years. Infection prevailed in both sexes, male and female, where the ratio of infection was greater in old female camels (10.05%) comparing to old males (6.01%), also it was greater in small females (35.4%) comparing to male animals (27.63%), but there is no significant difference between the two sexes. The ratio of prevalence infections varied according to the seasons of the year with significant difference (p<0.001). It was for old camels in winter, autumn, summer and spring (14.63%،, 10.95%،, 7.69%, 4.98%) respectively. While the ratio in small camels with significant difference (p<0.05) (40.94%, 33.60%, 29.26%, 23.84%) respectively. These results is considered important for charged people in the veterinary and health sectors, because it helps them in setting protective schedules programs that can reduce the ratio of prevalence the infection in animal.

Keys words: Ringworm, Breeding release, Camels, Syria.

Full paper in Arabic: PDF

Estimation of the Trees Height of Cupressus sempervirens L. Using the Mathematical Modelling in Misiaf Region

Ali Thabit*(1)

(1). Natural Renewable Resources and Environment Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Aleppo University, Aleppo, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Ali Thabit. E-Mail: alithabt@yahoo.fr).

Received: 02/08/2018                                Accepted: 24/09/2018

Abstract

The aim of this research was to design and test height-diameter models of Cupressus sempervirens in Misiaf, Syria. Modelling techniques were applied at four sampling plots that were selected throughout the natural distribution area of Cupressus sempervirens in Misiaf region. The tree height (h) and diameter at breast height (dbh) of eighty-four trees (84) were measured. Different forms of mathematical models (Michailoff, Parabel, Prodan, Petterson, Korsun, and Logarithmic) were selected to estimate the trees height of Cupressus sempervirens using diameter at breast height (dbh) as independent variable. Models were examined using different statistical tests i.e. absolute mean of the model error, relative mean of the model error, standard error of the absolute mean of the model error, model accuracy, model accuracy % and coefficient of determination R2, which showed the proportion of the total variance that is explained by model. These statistical tests were done to select the best model to estimate the trees height of Cupressus sempervirens in Misiaf region in Syria. The results of model’s efficiency tests showed that the best function was Parabel equation, this model had a high R-squared value (R2 = 60.8 %), less error value (0.21), and best accuracy value (mx = 19 %). The results of this research could be a good tool in management of Cupressus sempervirens sites and could help forest managers in the future studies in the field.

Keywords: Cupressus sempervirens, Height–Diameter relationships, Mathematical modelling, Syria.

Full paper in Arabic: PDF

The Efficacy of The Integration of Plant Extracts, Chemical Pesticides and Releasing The predator Phytoseiulus  persimilis A-H in Controlling The Population of Tetranychus urticae K on Tomato in The Greenhouse Conditions

Ibrahim Aziz Saqr(1) Magedah Mohammad Mofleh(2) and Randa Suleman*(1)

(1). Plant Protection Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University, Latakia. Syria.

(2). General Commission of Agricultural Scientific Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Eng. Randa Suleman. E-Mail: randasuliman65@gmail.com).

Received: 18/05/2018                                Accepted: 05/06/2018

Abstract

The research was conducted in order to assess the efficacy of the integration between the use of the aqueous extracts of both Melia azedarach L. and Styrax officinalis L. and the pesticides Acetamiprid, Abamectin and Pyridaben and releasing the predator Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot in controlling the population of Tetranychus urticae Koch on tomato Lycopersicum esculentum under the greenhouse conditions. Results showed that both extracts M. azedarach L. and S. officinalis  L. have an effect reached to 50.99 % and 40.29 %, respectively after 24 hours of the experiment with no significant difference between them. The efficacy increased to 77.19 % and 70.18 %, respectively in the fourth week after releasing the predator Ph. persimilis with a significant difference. The acaricide Pyridaben surpassed the Abamectin where the efficacy recorded 63.13 and 62.07%, respectively after 24 hours of the experiment but with no significant difference. The predator Ph. persimilis was able to generate a population that was able to control the population of T. urticae with integration of Abamectin in the fourth week of the experiment after releasing the predator. The efficacy recorded 86.03%, it had the highest effect comparing to the other treatments with a significant difference except with the Pyridaben treatment.

Key words: Plant extracts, Chemical pesticides, Tetranychus urticae, Phytoseiulus persimilis, Lycopersicum esculentum, syria.

Full paper in Arabic: PDF

New Records of Three Larval Species of Erythraeidae (Acari: Trombidiformes) in a Citrus Orchard in Latakia, Syria

Ziad Barbar*(1)

 (1). Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Baath University, Homs, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Ziad Barbar. E-Mail: ziadbarbar89@yahoo.com).

Received: 04/11/2017                              Accepted: 14/12/2017

Abstract

Most larvae of Erythraeidae are considered as parasites of various insect species, and their adults seem to be effective generalist predators of several agricultural pests. Studies of this fauna is limited in Syria. The present study aimed to identify mite species of Erythraeidae in a pesticide-free citrus orchard in Latakia governorate/Syria. Surveys were carried out three times in 2016 and 2017. Three Erythraeid species were collected, and all belong to the genus Erythraeus: Erythraeus (Erythraeus) phalangoides, Erythraeus (Erythraeus) adanaensis and Erythraeus (Zaracarus) didonae. This is the first report of these species in Syria. Morphological remarks of each species were collected and provided.

Keywords: Acari, Erythraeidae, Erythraeus, larva, Syria.

Full paper in English: PDF

Applying  ARIMA Models for Forecasting the Production of Cotton Crop in Syria

Salwa Almohammad(1) Ibtessam Jasem*(2) and Mai Lubboss(1)

(1). Agriculture Economy Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Aleppo University, Aleppo, Syria.

(2). Cotton Crop Administration, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.

(*Correspoding author: Dr. Ibtessam Jasem. E-Mail: e_sam_0@hotmail.com).

Received: 31/12/2016                           Accepted: 25/01/2017

Abstract

Prediction acquired a great importance in economic studies, that made the decision-makers draw economic and social policies for future, depending on the available data of the phenomenon history. Many economic prediction methods were used as Autoregressive Integrated Moving Averages (ARIMA). This model is a mixture of autoregressive technique and moving averages. The objective of this research is to use ARIMA models for predicting production area and productivity of cotton crop in Syria, and at the level of the major producing provinces (Al Hasakah, Aleppo, Rakka and Al-Ghab), because of their high accuracy in time series analysis and prediction. Annual data of the production area and productivity of irrigated cotton crop during the period (1985-2012) was used. The results revealed that ARIMA model (1.0.0) is the most appropriate one for predicting the production area and productivity of cotton in Syria up till 2020 according to the statistical tests of the accuracy of predictive models. The results suggested an increase in area and productivity for the next eight years with an annual growth rate higher than the annual growth rate for the studied period (1985-2012), where the annual growth rates of the area and production were (0.48% and 0.30%), respectively.

Keywords: ARIMA models, Cotton , Syria.

Full paper in Arabic: PDF

First Record of Labidostomis diversifrons Lefevre Beetle on Pistachio Trees in Syria

Mazen Bofaur*(1) and Rami Bohamdan(1)

(1). Sweida Research Center, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Mazen Bofaur. E-Mail: mazenaudy@yahoo.com).

Received: 26/02/2017                                 Accepted: 14/09/2017

Abstract

Field survey has been conducted on a few orchards of pistachio vera in Sweida Governorate, Syria. The results of survey showed an expansion of new insect species for the first time in Syria, the leaf beetle Labidostomis diversifrons Lefevre, 1876 (Chrysomelidae; Coleoptera) which has been recorded on the trees of pistachio vera. The species classified depending on morphological features of entire insects, which caused direct injury to the leaves, and made the trees weakness and leafless. Different recourses have been observed for feeding, the beetle feeds on grasses such as: Lactuca virosa and Polygonum arenastrum.

Keywords: Labidostomis diversifrons L., pistachio vera, beetle, morphological features, Lactuca virosa, Syria.

Full paper in Arabic: PDF

THE EFFECTIVENESS OF SOME ESSENTIAL OILS ON PUPA VITALITY OF MEDITERRANEAN FLOUR MOTH EPHESTIA KUEHNIELLA (LEPIDOPTERA: PYRALIDAE)

Mohammad Al-Allan*(1) Adel Almanofi(1) Nouredeen Zaher Hjej(1) Gaidaa Al Ameer(2)

(1). Department of Entomology, Administration of Plant Protection, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.

(2) Department of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Administration of Horticulture Research, GCSAR, Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Mohammad Al Allan. E-Mail: allanmhd@gmail.com).

Received: 09/07/2016                       Accepted: 10/10/2016

Abstract

The experiment was carried out in the laboratory conditions at General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research, Damascus, Syria, in 2013, to test the effect of some plants oils i.e., mustard Sinapis arvensis, Camphor Cinnamomum camphora, Peppermint Mentha varidis, Cinnamon Cinnamomum zeylanicum, clove Syzygium aromaticum, and ginger Zingiber officinale on Pupa vitality of Mediterranean Flour Moth Ephestia kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Ten 10 virgins of Mediterranean flour moth were placed in a Petri dish, and a piece of cotton wet with 0.1 ml of one of the tested oils, with three replicates. Petri dishes left under laboratory room conditions until the emergence of adult insects, then the rate of dead larvae and the effectiveness of oils used were calculated. The results showed that the mortality rate of virgins was higher when using mustard oil followed by Camphor, Peppermint with no significant differences (p≤0.01) (26.67, 23.33, 20% respectively), while there were no significant differences among each of cinnamon, clove, ginger and control (6.67, 6.67, 3.33, 6.67%, respectively). It was noticed that there were no significant differences between peppermint, cinnamon, clove and control, whereas the differences were significant between mustard and camphor, and cinnamon, clove, ginger and control with the superiority of mustard and camphor oils. In respect of the effectiveness, mustard had the highest value (21.43%), followed by camphor and peppermint, but cinnamon and clove had no effectiveness. Ginger oil had a negative effectiveness, because it enhanced the activity of the pupa. The study recommends to use mustered oil as the best treatment to control the Pupa vitality of Mediterranean Flour Moth.

Key words: Essential oils, Mediterranean flour moth, Syria.

Full paper in Arabic: PDF

Taxonomic Study of Genus Atriplex spp. in Syrian Flora

Taxonomic Study of Genus Atriplex spp. in Syrian Flora

Basem Al Samman*(1) Abdullah Abo-Zakham(2) and Yousef Wejhani(1)

(1). Genetic Resources Department, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.
(2). Renewable Natural Resources and Ecology Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Damascus University, Damascus, Syria.
(*Corresponding author: Dr. Basem Al Samman. Email: basemhsam1@yahoo.com).

Received: 24/05/2016                           Accepted: 10/08/2016

Abstract

In the course of an ongoing taxonomic study on the genus Atriplex, an extensive field trips has been carried out in Syria during the period 2009-2012. Eleven Atriplex species spread in 10 sites related to the Syrian governorates of Daraa, Hama, Homs, Deir Azzour, Hasaka, Aleppo and Lattakia were used in the study. These are: A.halimus, A.leucoclada, A.canescens, A.lentiformis, A.polycarpa, A.nummularia, A.glauca, A.hortensis, A.lindleyi, A.portulacoides,and A.hastata. As a result, a classification key was deduced according to more than 25 characterization indicators.

Key words: Flora, Atriplex L., Taxonomy, Characterization indicator, Syria.

Full paper in Arabic: Taxonomic Study of Genus Atriplex spp. in Syrian Flora

Evaluation of the Susceptibility of some Tomato Hybrids used in Greenhouses of Syrian Coast Against Bacterial Stem Pith Necrosis Disease

Evaluation of the Susceptibility of some Tomato Hybrids used in Greenhouses of Syrian Coast Against Bacterial Stem Pith Necrosis Disease

Abdullatif Al Ghazzawi*(1) Mahmoud Abu Ghoura(2) Nabeel Al Ahmad Bek(1) and Raghda Al Baghdadi(1)

(1). Plant Protection Research Administration, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.
(2). Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Damascus University, Damascus, Syria.
(*Corresponding author: Eng. Abdullatif Al Ghazawi. E-Mail: Ghazawi11@gmail.com).

Received: 13/12/2015                           Accepted: 28/04/2016

Abstract

Tomato stem pith necrosis disease which is caused by Pseudomonas corrugata Roberts & Scarlettis is one of the most important diseases infecting tomatoes which grown in the greenhouses that spreaded in the Syrian coast region. 40 isolates of P. corrugata were collected from Tartous and Latakia governorates, and their ability of infection, and virulence were evaluated. The most three virulent isolates (G12.1, G14.3 and G35) were chosen to test their infection ability on ten tomato hybrids which most grown in the greenhouses, depending on their susceptibility scale from 0 to 3. The tested isolates were varied in their virulence in Tartous and Latakia, and within the same governorate. Some isolates from Tartous (G35, G14.3 and G12.1) were superior in their ability of infection compared with the rest of isolates collected from both governorates against the plants of the hybrid Code 80 F1, the values of infection were 4.9, 4.7 and 4.4, respectively. Meanwhile, both Tartous isolate 107.1 and Latakia isolate 121.1 were in the last order in their ability of infection. The results showed also that all ten tested tomato hybrids were infected by the bacteria under the artificial inoculation conditions with variable degrees. The hybrid Saida was the highest susceptible with an average of infection 6.61 and the lowest was hybrid Sidra with an average of infection 2.31. The tested hybrids were divided according to the infection scale to high infected, moderate infected, and partially tolerant and tolerant.

Key words: Pith necrosis, Pseudomonas corrugata, Syria, Tomato hybrids.

Full paper in Arabic: Evaluation of the Susceptibility of some Tomato Hybrids used in Greenhouses of Syrian Coast Against Bacterial Stem Pith Necrosis Disease

Efficiency of Some Biotical-Fungi against Parasitic Nematode on Peanut Rhizosphere

Sobhya Al-Arabi*(1) Maymouna Al masri(1) Rabieaa Al baka(1) Faysal Al  Farawati(1) and Mazen Albasaleh(1)

(1). Plant Protection Research Administration, General Commission for Agricultural Scientific Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.                                                 (*Corresponding author: Eng. Sobhya Al-Arabi. E-Mail: sobhia_alarabi@hotmail.com).

Received: 15/11/ 2015                           Accepted: 01/01/ 2016

Abstract

Efficiency of some biotical-fungi (Fusarium moniliform, Trichoderma harzianum, Pacilomyces lilacinus, Gliocladium virens and nematicide Fenamiphos EC 40% (0.7 ml/l) were evaluated to reduce the density of parasitic nematode of peanut plants rhizosphere in Hama (Dimo) and Latakia (Eidiya) governorates, Syria, during 2011. Results showed that all tested biotical-fungi were efficient to control the parasitic nematode; they contributed in the growth of peanut plants and increased their productivity by 55% in comparison with control plants. An obvious effect of the application time of these fungi was recorded; the treatment at planting time was superior significantly with 97 to 100% compared with the treatment in the midseason after 70 days of planting of 52.7 to 74%. Meanwhile, no significant differences were recorded when these fungi were applied in two different regions (central and coastal) to decrease population of the parasitic nematode of peanut.

Keywords: Biotical-fungi, Fenamiphos, Fusarium moniliform, Pacilomyces lilacinus, Trichoderma harzianum, Gliocladium virens, peanut, Syria.

Full paper in Arabi: Efficiency of Some Biotical-Fungi against Parasitic Nematode on Peanut Rhizosphere