Plant Extracts Use Importance in Controling Tetranychus urticae Koch on Eggplant Solanum melongena L. Under Protected Farming Conditions

Ibrahim Aziz Sakr(1) and Usama Sagee Sheban*(1)

(1). Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University, Lattakia, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Usama Sagee Sheban. E. Mail:

Received: 01/05/2018                                Accepted: 10/07/2018


Within the efforts to control the harmful mites using environmentally safe methods, a study was carried out at a greenhouse planted with eggplant in Al-Bassa area , in Latakia governorate during the agricultural season 2016/2017 to evaluate the effectiveness of a number of plant extracts on Tetranychus urticae Koch 1836 (Acari: Tetranychidae) worldwide and very harmful to many hosts in greenhouse and field. The study included the seeds and leaves of Chinaberry, seeds and leaves of Cypress Lemon, seeds and fruits of River Red Gum, flowers and leaves of Oleander, and corms and leaves of Wild Arum. The Vaseline rings method was adopted and criteria: the average of mortality for the treated stage and fertility were calculated. The results showed that the highest efficacy was found when using the extract of the seeds of Chinaberry on adult females and on the first nymphs (65.4 and 69.3%, respectively). The lowest fertility was recorded with the extract of Oleander leaves (8.17%), which had the most effect on egg hatching (87.4%). It is worth to mention that the extracts of seeds, fruits and corams gave higher efficiency than the leaves extracts, and leaves extracts were higher than the efficiency of floral extracts against T. urticae phases.

Key words: Two-spotted red spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, Eggplant, Vaseline rings, Plant extracts.

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Controlling the Population of Tetranychus urticae Koch on Tomato under the Greenhouse Conditions Using some Chemical and Biological Treatments

Ibrahem Azez Sakr(1) Majeda Mhamed Mofleh(2) and Randa Ahmed Suliman*(1)

(1). Department of Plant protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University, Lattakia, Syria.

(2). General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Rsearch GCSAR, Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Randa Ahmed Suliman. E-Mail:

Received: 05/09/2019                                Accepted: 27/10/2019


Research was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of integration between using the pesticides Acetamiprid, Abamectin and Pyridaben and the aqueous extracts of both   Melia azedarach L. and Sytrax officinalis L. then releasing the predator Stethorus glivifrons Mulsant with to manage the population of Tetranychus urticae Koch on Tomato Lycoersicon esculantmin at the greenhouse in 2018. The Experiment was conducted using the complete randomized block design, where the results of the research showed that the extracts of both M. azedarach L. and S.officinalis L. had efficacy recorded 62.29 and 50.93 % respectively in the first week. The efficacy decreased in the first and the second week after releasing the predator, then it raised again in the third and the fourth weeks to record 62.54, 54.72 % for each of them. Thus, it could be stated that the extracts efficacy coincided with the release of the predator S. glivifrons. A decrease in the influence of the specialized insecticide Acetamiprid was recorded, while it reached its top after the release of the predator in the fourth week 33.77 % due to the negative influence of the pesticide on the predator and the population was incapable to be adequate to control the harmful population of T. Urticae. The specialized acaricide Pyridaben was superior and recorded an efficacy exceeded 84% in the first week  before the application  and decreased in the first, the second and  the third weeks after the release of the predator without a significant difference between them, then increased in the fourth week after the releasing where it reached 73.72 % with a significant difference in all the times of the readings. Mortality percentage when acaricide Abamectin was used, recorded 61.14 % after 24 hours of the treatment, then highly increased to 70.72 % in the first week after the release of the predator. The efficacy decreased in the first and the second weeks after the release which recorded 70.72 and 65.21 % respectively with a significant difference between them. Then it increased again in the third and the fourth weeks after the release to reach 79.62 and 80.70% without significant differences between them. Thus, the predator was capable to re-raise the mortality percentage after falling in the first and the second weeks after the release to get it back to where it was when the predator efficacy reached the highest influence in the first week.

Key words: Plant extracts, Chemical pesticides, Tetranychus urticae, Stethorus glivifrons, Lycoersicon esculantmin, Syria.

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Testing the Efficiency of Mixing Natural Plant Extracts with Some Synthetic   Organic Pesticides on the Female Adults of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) Under Lab Conditions

Ibraheem Saqr(1) and Suhair Ghalia*(1)

(1). Department of plant protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University, Latakia, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Eng. Suhair Ghalia. Email:

Received: 30/05/2018                                Accepted: 3/10/2018


Biological experiments were done under the conditions of Plant Protection Laboratory, Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University, to show the possibility of increasing the efficacy of the natural plant extracts on the T.urticae by mixing them with a half dose of synthesis pesticide which recommended, to decrease of the amount of pesticides which are used and spread in the environment, and to decrease the economic cost and the environmental pollution. A mixed mother extracts were used of leaves of six plant species viz. Melia azedarach, Smilax aspera, Styrax officinalis, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Ecbalium elaterium and Lantana camara, with half dose which were recommended of six synthesis pesticides viz. Neoron, Ortus, Nissorun Vertimec, Talastar and Magister. Demodulations of extracts were done by dipping the phaseuloues leaves disk in the mixed solutions to treat the individuals. The mixed Neoron, Talastar, Vertimec and Magister had achieved a good effect to the efficiency of the extracts and the maximum value reached 100% or close to max in many cases particularly with Smilax aspera, Styrax officinalis and Melia azedarach extracts. The differences between mortality ratio had become high between most of the mixed solutions and the mother solution extracts, and also between most of the tested compounds and mixed extracts with Ortus compound which had low impact with the plant extracts.

Key words:  Plant extracts, Pesticides, T. urticae,  Leaf disk.

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Bio-Efficacy of Plant Extracts against Mustard Aphid (Lipaphis erysimi Kalt.) on Rapeseed (Brassica campestris Linn.) under Field and Laboratory Conditions

Kailash Bhatta*(1) Laxmi Chaulagain(2) Kapil Kafle(3) and Jiban Shrestha(4)

(1). Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur, Kathmandu, Nepal.

(2). Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Tribhuvan University, Lamjung Campus, Lamjung, Nepal.

(3). Department of Horticulture and Plant Protection, Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Tribhuvan University, Lamjung Campus, Lamjung, Nepal.

(4). Agriculture Botany Division, Nepal Agricultural Research Council, Khumaltar, Lalitpur, Nepal.

(*Corresponding author: Kailash Bhatta. E-Mail:

Received: 16/11/2019                                Accepted: 08/12/2019


The bio-efficacy of eight plant aqueous extracts viz Neem (Azadiracta indica), Bakaino (Melia composite), Asuro (Adhatoda vasica), Titepati (Artimesia vulgaris), Khirro (Sapium insigne), Bojho (Acorus calamus), Tobacco (Nicotinia tabaccum) and Marigold (Tagetes erecta) were tested on Lumle tori-1 variety of rapeseed against mustard aphid (Lipaphis erysimi Kalt.) during rabi season of 2018/19 under field and lab conditions at Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science (IAAS), Lamjung Campus, Lamjung, Nepal. The treatments were eight plant extracts, cypermethrin 10% EC (@1.5 mL/L), and water as control. Aphids were deliberately exposed to the treatments and then the numbers of alive and dead aphids were counted. The plant extracts showed highly significant effect on aphid mortality in both field and lab condition. In the lab, cypermethrin was found to be the most effective against aphid offering the highest aphid mortality (96%) followed by neem extract (88%) whereas the lowest aphid mortality (14.67%) was observed in control plot. Under field condition the highest percentage of aphid reduction was observed with use of cypermethrin followed by neem and tobacco leaf extracts whereas, control plot showed the lowest percentage of aphid reduction. Among all treatments, the highest grain yield of rapeseed (2104.44 kg/ha) was obtained from plot treated with cypermethrin followed by neem extract (2048.44 kg/ha) and tobacco extract (2020.22 kg/ha) whereas, control plot produced the lowest rapeseed yield (1133.67 kg/ha). All the treatments of plant leaf extracts showed better insecticidal activity. However, neem extract followed by tobacco extract reduced the aphid population to a great extent. Therefore, neem and tobacco extracts could be the best alternative for controlling aphids.

Keywords: Cypermethrin, Mustard aphid, Plant extracts, Rapeseed.

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Phytochemical Detection and Antimicrobial Activity of Centaurea ptosimopappa

Abdel Aleem Bello(1) and Tawfik Al-Boshi*(2)

(1). Plant Bilolgy Department, Faculty of Science, University of Aleppo, Aleppo, Syria.

(2). Depatment of Renewable Natural Resources and Ecology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Aleppo, Aleppo, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Tawfik Al-Boshi. E-Mail:

Received: 20/02/2018                                Accepted: 11/04/2018


The goal of the study was to detect the presence of active ingredients and the antimicrobial activity in the extracts of two different groups of Centaurea ptosimopappa Hayek, which are bald and furry, using thin layer chromatographic method and diffusion method within Agar well. This study was accomplished at Faculty of Science, Aleppo University. Phytochemical detection showed the presence of alkaloids, anthocyanins, tannins and steroidal triterpenes in the extracts of bald Centaurea ptosimopappa Hayek. While tannins, steroidal triterpenes, cardiac glycosides and flavonoids were detected in the extracts of furry group. Antimicrobial activities of these extracts were determined by Agar well diffusion method. The extracts of furry Centaurea ptosimopappa Hayek were clearly more active than bald Centaurea ptosimopappa Hayek. For instance, when we used 80 µl of the chloroform extract of furry plants the diameter of the inhibition zone was more than 20 mm for Staphylococcus aureus, but only 13 mm was noticed when 80 µl of the chloroform extract was used of bald plants.

Keywords: Phytochemical detection, Antimicrobial activity, Plant extracts, Centaurea ptosimopappa.

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The Efficacy of The Integration of Plant Extracts, Chemical Pesticides and Releasing The predator Phytoseiulus  persimilis A-H in Controlling The Population of Tetranychus urticae K on Tomato in The Greenhouse Conditions

Ibrahim Aziz Saqr(1) Magedah Mohammad Mofleh(2) and Randa Suleman*(1)

(1). Plant Protection Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University, Latakia. Syria.

(2). General Commission of Agricultural Scientific Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Eng. Randa Suleman. E-Mail:

Received: 18/05/2018                                Accepted: 05/06/2018


The research was conducted in order to assess the efficacy of the integration between the use of the aqueous extracts of both Melia azedarach L. and Styrax officinalis L. and the pesticides Acetamiprid, Abamectin and Pyridaben and releasing the predator Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot in controlling the population of Tetranychus urticae Koch on tomato Lycopersicum esculentum under the greenhouse conditions. Results showed that both extracts M. azedarach L. and S. officinalis  L. have an effect reached to 50.99 % and 40.29 %, respectively after 24 hours of the experiment with no significant difference between them. The efficacy increased to 77.19 % and 70.18 %, respectively in the fourth week after releasing the predator Ph. persimilis with a significant difference. The acaricide Pyridaben surpassed the Abamectin where the efficacy recorded 63.13 and 62.07%, respectively after 24 hours of the experiment but with no significant difference. The predator Ph. persimilis was able to generate a population that was able to control the population of T. urticae with integration of Abamectin in the fourth week of the experiment after releasing the predator. The efficacy recorded 86.03%, it had the highest effect comparing to the other treatments with a significant difference except with the Pyridaben treatment.

Key words: Plant extracts, Chemical pesticides, Tetranychus urticae, Phytoseiulus persimilis, Lycopersicum esculentum, syria.

Full paper in Arabic: PDF