Genetic Analysis of Some Productivity Traits and Earliness in Upland Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

Rawaa El-Shiekh Attiea*(1)

(1). General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Rawaa El-Shiekh Attiea. E-Mail: dr.

Received: 12/11/2019                                Accepted: 31/12/2019


Genetic potential, combining ability, heterosis effects and heritability were studied in F1 genotypes of Gossypium hirsutum L., at Cotton Research Station in Deir Ezzor, Syria. Four parental genotypes (Aleppo 33/1 (P1), Deir Ezzor 22 (P2), Line 106 (P3) and Line G73 (P4)) and their six F1 half diallel progenies were grown in a randomized complete block design with three replications in 2011 season to study seed cotton yield (; lint percentage (L.P.%) and earliness percentage (E.P.%). Results showed significant (p≤0.01) differences among the genotypes, parents and crosses for seed cotton yield and lint percentage. Significant (p≤0.05) differences were observed for parent vs. crosses indication to average heterosis over all hybrids for the above two traits. For earliness, insignificant differences were showed among genotypes, crosses and parent vs. crosses, but significant (p≤0.05) differences were showed among parents. Results indicated that best genotypes which performed highest mean and general combining ability were: lines 106 and G73 for seed cotton yield; Deir Ezzor 22 for lint percentage and Aleppo 33-1 for earliness percentage. Thus, it could be suggested that these parental varieties could be utilized in a breeding program for improving these traits to pass favorable genes for improving hybrid and subsequently producing improved genotypes through the selection in segregating generations. Best crosses based on mean performance and/or heterosis and/or specific combining ability were Aleppo 33-1*G73 followed by Aleppo 33-1*line 106 for seed cotton yield; Aleppo 33-1*G73 for lint percentage and Line 106*G73 for earliness percentage. Suggesting that these crosses could be used in breeding program to improve such traits. On the other hand, results showed high value of H2b % and low value of H2n%for seed cotton yield,  ascertained that dominance effects had great role in the existence of the variability of this trait, which insure that the expected gain from recurrent back crossing for seed cotton yield would be high in the breeding program. However, estimates of H2b % and H2n% for both of lint percentage and earliness percentage were high. Theses convergence of narrow and broad heritability values revealed that both additive and non-additive gene actions played important roles in the inheritance of these two above traits, so breeding program should contain selection and hybridization for improving these traits.

Kay words: Cotton, Combining ability, Heterosis, Heritability.

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The Role of Drip Irrigation and Mulch on Changing Soil Moisture and Salinity and its Effect on Cotton Yield

Galia Abdel Majeed(1) Abdel Naser Aldarir(2) Ahmad Shams Aldien Shaaban(3) and Abdallah AL Yosef*(4)

(1). Research Center of AL-Haskeh, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.

(2). Department of Rural Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Aleppo, Aleppo, Syria.

(3). Department of Biotechnologies Engineering, Faculty of Biotechnology, University of Aleppo, Aleppo, Syria.

(4). Research Center of Aleppo, GCSAR, Damascus, Syria.

(* Corresponding author: Dr. Addullah Al-Youssef, Email:

Received: 12/11/2018                                Accepted: 16/12/2018


Drip irrigation and mulch is the best methods for increasing in cotton yield. A field experiment was implemented at the Research Station of AL-Hasaka governorate through 2011/2012, using randomized complete block design containing three levels of irrigation: the first treatment (A) was to irrigate 100% of water requirement, when the soil moisture went down to 80% of field capacity, with  sufficient quantity of water to raise the soil moisture to field capacity, and the second  treatment  (B) was irrigated at the same time of (A) treatment, but with 75% of the quantity of A, and the third treatment (C) was also at the same irrigation time, but with half the quantity of (A). Four methods of covering was adopted; drip irrigation without mulching, drip irrigation with white, black plastic film and straw cover as Mulch, with three replicates. The goal of the research was studying the effect of mulch on soil moisture and salinity of the soil profile of cotton, the distance was 35 cm, 17.5 cm, under the drop pipe and its effects on production. The results showed that in mulch condition the soil moisture did not differ all over the pipe, contrary to drip irrigation without mulching treatment in which the soil moisture was higher under drop pipe particularly, while the soil moisture decreased whenever the distance went away from the pipe. Salinity of soil rised whenever soil moisture decreased. Concentration of soil salinity increased in upper section (0-30 cm) in low irrigation treatment (C) and drip irrigation without mulching treatment compared with mulching treatment. So, the production varied between 1019-7081 kg/ha for straw mulch under 50% moisture and white mulch with 100% moisture respectively.

Keywords: Drip irrigation, Salinity, Plastic mulch, Deficit irrigation, Soil moisture, Cotton.

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Applying  ARIMA Models for Forecasting the Production of Cotton Crop in Syria

Salwa Almohammad(1) Ibtessam Jasem*(2) and Mai Lubboss(1)

(1). Agriculture Economy Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Aleppo University, Aleppo, Syria.

(2). Cotton Crop Administration, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.

(*Correspoding author: Dr. Ibtessam Jasem. E-Mail:

Received: 31/12/2016                           Accepted: 25/01/2017


Prediction acquired a great importance in economic studies, that made the decision-makers draw economic and social policies for future, depending on the available data of the phenomenon history. Many economic prediction methods were used as Autoregressive Integrated Moving Averages (ARIMA). This model is a mixture of autoregressive technique and moving averages. The objective of this research is to use ARIMA models for predicting production area and productivity of cotton crop in Syria, and at the level of the major producing provinces (Al Hasakah, Aleppo, Rakka and Al-Ghab), because of their high accuracy in time series analysis and prediction. Annual data of the production area and productivity of irrigated cotton crop during the period (1985-2012) was used. The results revealed that ARIMA model (1.0.0) is the most appropriate one for predicting the production area and productivity of cotton in Syria up till 2020 according to the statistical tests of the accuracy of predictive models. The results suggested an increase in area and productivity for the next eight years with an annual growth rate higher than the annual growth rate for the studied period (1985-2012), where the annual growth rates of the area and production were (0.48% and 0.30%), respectively.

Keywords: ARIMA models, Cotton , Syria.

Full paper in Arabic: PDF

Efficiency Evaluation of Some Nematophagous Fungi Against Root-Knot Nematode Meloidogyne incognita on Cotton Plants in Syria

AL- Masri, M. (1), S. Alarabi (1), R. Albaka (1), M. Abed Al kader (2) and K. Al-Assas (2)

(1). Scientific Agricultural Research Center in Hama, General commission for scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Damascus,  Syria.                                                             (2). Plant Protection Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Damascus University, Damascus, Syria.                                                                                                        (*Correspoding author: Dr. Maymounah Al-Masri. E-Mail:

Received: 04/01/2016                           Accepted: 28/03/2016


The efficiency of 7 nematofagous fungi (Trichoderma harzianum, Monacrosporium eudermatum Strain 2024 (recently Arthrobotrys eudermatum), Arthrobotrys conoides Strain 2022, A. candida Strain 2012, Paecilomyces lilacinus Strain 14052 (recently Purpureocillium lilacinum), P. variotii Strain I and P. variotii Strain II) were evaluated against root-knot nematode M. incognita (race 3) on cotton plants (variety Aleppo 33) in pots under field conditions during 2012 at Hama Scientific Agricultural Research Center, GCSAR/Syria. The use of tested fungi reduced the number of egg masses on cotton roots, number of larvae in the soil, nematode reproduction rate, and improved cotton plants growth indicators comparing with the control plants (P≤0.05). The fungus A. conoides was the most efficient one in reducing the number of root gall (57%), while Paecilomyces fungi reduced significantly the egg hatching rates which ranged 13.2-18.2% comparing with the control that inoculated only with the nematode (63.5%), with no significant differences among them. Also, results showed significant differences with the relative efficiency rates for the two fungi (P.lilacinus and P. variotii Strain I), and nematicide Mocap (Ethoprop) in the reducing egg mass rates (52.3, 62.1, and 93.1, respectively). The effect of the fungus M. eudermatumwas was not only in the parasitism on the vermiform stages, but also it reduced the eggs average inside egg masses (455.8 egg\egg mass), similarly to the effect of nematicide Mocap (Ethoprop) treatment alone (203.7 egg\egg mass).

Key words: Cotton, Nematofagous Fungi, Meloidogyne incognita.

Full paper in Arabic: Efficiency Evaluation of Some Nematophagous Fungi Against Root-Knot Nematode Meloidogyne incognita on Cotton Plants in Syria

The Effect of Natural Syrian Zeolite on the Availability of Some Minerals in the Soil and Productivity of Wheat and Cotton in Gypsum Soils

Helal Gayerly(1) Samer Bregle(1) Muhamad Manhal Al Zubi*(1) Yahya Ramadan(2) Khaled Al Shebli(2) Amira Al Hafez(2) and Mayada Fattoum(2)

(1). Natural Resources Research Administration, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.
(2). Agricultural Research Center in Al Raqqa, GCSAR, Al Raqqa, Syria.

(*Corresponding author:Dr. Muhamad Manhal Al Zubi, Natural Resources Research Administration, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria. E-Mail: Mobile phone: 00963933334783, Fax: 00963112121460).

Received: 15/03/ 2015                                     Accepted: 06/05/ 2015


This study aimed to determine the impact of Syrian Zeolite on some soil properties and productivity of wheat and cotton crops, which is planted in the gypsum soil at Beer Alhashem Research Station, Al-Raqa Agricultural Research Center, General commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Syria, begins from 2006 to 2010 seasons. Completely randomized block design was used with three replicates. The addition rates of zeolite were: (ZEO1)  at a rate of 90 m3/ha, (ZEO2) at a rate of 180 m3/ha, (ZEO3)  at a rate of  270 m3/ha, (ZEO4) at a rate of  360 m3/ha, (ZEO5)  at a rate of 450 m3/ha, and control without zeolite. Wheat variety (Bouhoth 6), and cotton variety (Raqaa5) were cultivated in a cropping rotation. The fertilizers were added according to the Ministry of Agriculture and Agrarian Reform (MOAAR) recommendations. Soil, and zeolite were analyzed before cultivation. The results showed significant increment in the productivity of cotton with the increase in adding zeolite in third season (ZEO5treatment, which produced 2.42 ton/ha), also in the fourth season (ZEO3, and ZEO4treatments, which produced 3.23and 3.08 ton/ha, respectively). The results also clarified in wheat experiment, that ZEO1treatment gave the best production as compared with other treatments in all seasons (3.5, 4.57, 5.4, 2.79 ton grains/ha, respectively). The increase in wheat productivity was noticed in all zeolite treatments as compared with control in most seasons, and the addition of zeolite 90 m3/ha in wheat experiment was the best as compared with the other zeolite treatments, but the productivity of ZEO5treatment was less as compared with other zeolite treatments. It was noticed a significant increment in mineral nitrogen, available phosphorus and available potassium with the addition of zeolite in the soil after harvesting.

Keywords: Zeolite, Soil fertility, Gypsum lands, Wheat, Cotton.

Full paper in Arabic: تأثير خام الزيوليت الطبيعي السوري على إتاحة بعض العناصر المغذية في التربة وعلى إنتاجية محصولي القمح والقطن في الأراضي الجبسية