Measuring Technical Efficiency of Wheat, Barley and Lentil Production Farms at Al-Zerbeh Region in Aleppo

Abdullah Al-Youssef*(1) Ahmad Shams Aldien Shaaban(2) Jamila Dirbas(3) Abdulatef Al-Assaf(1) Isam Khalifeh(1) and Yasmeen Naal(1)

(1). Aleppo Research Center, General Commission for Scientific Agriculture Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.

(2). Aleppo University Center for Strategic Studies and Research, University of Aleppo, Aleppo, Syria.

(3). Cotton Research Administration, GCSAR, Damascus, Syria.

(* Corresponding author: Dr. Addullah Al-Youssef. Email:

Received: 20/04/2017                                Accepted: 24/09/2017


The aim of this research was to estimate production costs, and to compare technical efficiency levels and production gap of wheat, barley and lentil in the area within the project of enhancing food security in Arab Countries/Syria-Second Phase. The search conducted at Jabal Samaan region based upon 150 Questionnaires. The technical efficiency estimated by stochastic frontier analysis using Front 4.1 software. The results indicated an increase in the variable cost percentage of the total costs. The net profits were 650128, 458686 and 320021 S.P/ha for lentil, barley and wheat respectively. Averages technical efficiency were 81.5%, 67.3% and 82.9% for wheat, barley and lentil farmers respectively. Also, high significantly differences were found between actual and potential yield. Besides, lowest production gap was 340.3 (kg/ha) for lentil farmers, followed by wheat farmers (785.1 kg/ha), and finally barley farmers (1611 kg/ha).

Key Words: Production costs, Technical efficiency, Stochastic frontier analysis, Jabal Samaan.

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Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L.) Seedlings Response to Potassium and Foliar Spray of Methanol under Drought Conditions Induced by Poly Ethylene Glycol (PEG-6000)

Fadi Abbas *(1)  Entessar AL-Jbawi (2) and Mahmoud AlHamdan(3)

(1). Scientific Agriculture Research Center of Homs, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.

(2). Sugar beet Research Department, Crops Research Administration, GCSAR, Damascus, Syria.

(3). Natural Resources Directorate, Scientific Agriculture Research Center of Homs, GCSAR, Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Fadi Abbas. E-Mail:

Received: 24/09/2018                                Accepted: 14/11/2018


This experiment was conducted at Homs Agriculture Research Center Lab, during 2014, using two monogerm sugar beet varieties (Rival and Semper), to study the effects of drought induced by polyethylene glycol (PEG-6000) on seedling stage, and the role of potassium and foliar spray of methanol in reducing the negative effects of drought. Plants thinned to one plant per polyethylene sac which contains 10 kg of soil. Three osmotic solutions (0, -3, -6 bar) were applied, using three levels of potassium sulfate (0, 1.5, 3 g/plant), besides spraying 25% of methanol (four times), one week after emergence, then one-week interval between treatments. Results showed a significant effect of osmotic potential on growth stages, because of that, the time needed to complete each stage increased with decreasing osmotic potential level. Potassium had no significant effect on the early growth stages (germination, cotyledon pairs), while this factor affected the following stages (first, second and third true leaves pairs) significantly. Methanol had no significant effect on the early growth stages (germination, cotyledon pairs and first true leaves pairs), while it affected the following stages (second and third true leaves pairs) significantly. The values of leaves dry matter, leaves area and net assimilation rate decreased with the reduction of osmotic potential, and the differences were significant. Also, potassium and methanol enhanced growth, and had a positive effect on these attributes significantly. Rival variety surpassed Semper in all of studied attributes.

Key Words: Drought stress, Potassium, Methanol, Seedling, Sugar beet.

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Effect of Different Flour and Milk Additives from Soybean in Improvement of Chemical and Quality Characteristics of Bread

Mashhour Nawaf Ghanem*(1)

(1). Swieda Agriculture Research Center, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Sweida, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Mashhour Nawaf Ghanem. E-Mail:

Received: 21/10/2017                                Accepted: 14/11/2017


Bread is the widest product of food produces. In order to improve the chemical and quality of bread contents. This study was carried at As’swida Research Center and Directorate of Supply and Internal Trade laboratories in 2015. soy milk was added and soy flour at replacement levels of 10-20-30% to the wheat flour. The chemical analyses showed that the highest content of protein was in the 30% soy milk treatment. The 30% soy flour sample was superior in phosphor, potassium, calcium, and magnesium contents (31%- 0.36%- 0.07%- 0.09%) respectively. in comparison to control ‘wheat bread’ (0.18%-0.24%- 0.04%-0.07%) respectively. The highest content in nitrogen 3.34% was in the 30% soy milk treatment compared to 2.24% in control. Sodium was increased directly by increasing soy flour. The ash also increased with the increment of soy flour (2.9% compared to 1.9 in control). The quality characters were appropriated for all the treatments regarding to the non-adhesion of two pieces of loaf of bread, white brown color and maturity, with the superiority of taste and smell desired to the treatment 30% soy milk.

Keywords: Bread, Soybean, Soy milk, Soy flour.

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Phytochemical Detection of Active Ingredients in the Syrian Medicinal Plant Tribulus terrestris L. from the Family Zygophyllaceae

Abdel Aleem Bello*(1)

(1). Plant Biology Department, Faculty of Science, University of Aleppo, Aleppo, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Abdel Aleem Bello. E-Mail:

Received: 15/07/2018                                Accepted: 01/10/2018


Syrian plants are a natural heritage and precious treasure, which efforts must be directed to study and discover their active constituents and benefits. One of these plants is Tribulus terrestris, which is naturally spread medicinal plant in Aleppo city. This research was carried out at the Laboratory of Plant Taxonomy and Medicinal Plants Research, Faculty of Science, Aleppo University, within the period 15/10/2017 and 5/6/2018. In this research, the active constituents in the extracts of this plant were detected using various chemical tests and specific reagents. Flavonoids, coumarins, glycosides, alkaloids, phenols and tannins were recorded in most extracts of the plant, while anthraquinones and fixed oils were not observed in any extract. Saponins were recorded in the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the aerial parts and in the aqueous extract of the fruits. The present study was unique in detecting coumarins and diterpenes in this plant. It was concluded that many medical activities of this plant can be interpreted by having a wide range of active constituents. Refer to previous studies, it is believed that this research on Tribulus terrestris is the first of its kind at the local level.

Keywords: Tribulus terrestris, Phytochemical screening, Active constituents.

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Estimation of the Trees Height of Cupressus sempervirens L. Using the Mathematical Modelling in Misiaf Region

Ali Thabit*(1)

(1). Natural Renewable Resources and Environment Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Aleppo University, Aleppo, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Ali Thabit. E-Mail:

Received: 02/08/2018                                Accepted: 24/09/2018


The aim of this research was to design and test height-diameter models of Cupressus sempervirens in Misiaf, Syria. Modelling techniques were applied at four sampling plots that were selected throughout the natural distribution area of Cupressus sempervirens in Misiaf region. The tree height (h) and diameter at breast height (dbh) of eighty-four trees (84) were measured. Different forms of mathematical models (Michailoff, Parabel, Prodan, Petterson, Korsun, and Logarithmic) were selected to estimate the trees height of Cupressus sempervirens using diameter at breast height (dbh) as independent variable. Models were examined using different statistical tests i.e. absolute mean of the model error, relative mean of the model error, standard error of the absolute mean of the model error, model accuracy, model accuracy % and coefficient of determination R2, which showed the proportion of the total variance that is explained by model. These statistical tests were done to select the best model to estimate the trees height of Cupressus sempervirens in Misiaf region in Syria. The results of model’s efficiency tests showed that the best function was Parabel equation, this model had a high R-squared value (R2 = 60.8 %), less error value (0.21), and best accuracy value (mx = 19 %). The results of this research could be a good tool in management of Cupressus sempervirens sites and could help forest managers in the future studies in the field.

Keywords: Cupressus sempervirens, Height–Diameter relationships, Mathematical modelling, Syria.

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Irrigation Programming Using WEAP – MABIA Model in Al-Kabir Alshamali Basin, Syria

Marina Al-Ali*(1) Jamil Abbas(1) Emad Kubeli(1) and Hussen Saleh(2)

(1). Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen university, Lattakia, Syria.

(2). Higher Commission for Scientific Research, Damascus, Syria

Received: 02/08/2018                                Accepted: 24/09/2018


This research was conducted at Al-Kabir Alshamali basin in Lattakia Governorate, this area in located between Syrian-Turkish border, and the Syrian coastal strip within an area of 835 km2, to evaluate the current status of water resources of the agricultural sector, and suggest future scenarios to reduce water deficit using MABIA and WEAP 21. Water evaluation and planning depended on the data from the Directorate of Water Resources in Lattakia, including: river flow, storage capacity, monthly storage, volume curve of dam’s lakes (Tishreen, AlHaffa and AlThoura), evaporation, and losses to ground water in addition to springs monthly flow of and groundwater recharge, besides the data of climatic factors from General Directorate of Meteorology, data of the Ministry of Agriculture (land use including irrigated areas and cultivated crops) and data from the General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (mechanical and chemical soil analysis) to calculate the basic moisture parameters. The previous mentioned data were interred for the base year 2011. The results showed that improving irrigation cannels reduced water deficit from 4.2 million m3 in the year 2011 to 2.8 million m3 by the year 2050. While when field Irrigation efficiency scenario is applied, water deficit was reduced to reach 2.2 M.m3 in the year 2050. But when the two previous scenarios are combined, the water deficit which is expected to decrease to 2.1 M.m3 by the year 2050. While when water harvest scenario is applied water deficit will be reduced to reach 1.5 M.m3 by the year 2015. From the above, the importance of applying mathematical modeling using water planning and assessment MABIA and WEAP 21.

Keywords: Water resources, Agricultural sector, Al-Kabir Alshamali basin, Water deficit, MABIA, WEAP21.

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Harvesting and Spreading of Water in Closed Contour Dykes for The Development of Vegetation Cover and Desertification Reduction in The Syrian Badia

Atef Abdul Aal*(1) Linda Droubi(2) and Ameera Al-Khazaal(3)

(1). Sweida Research Centre, General Commission for Scientific Agriculture Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.

(2). Latakia Research Centre. GCSAR, Damascus, Syria.

(3). Homs Research Centre, GCSAR, Damascus, Syria.

(*Correspondin author: Eng. Atef Abdul Aal. E-Mail:

Received: 25/12/2017                                Accepted: 06/07/2018


The research was carried out near one of the main seasonal valleys of the basin in Qaryatein village during the seasons 2009, 2010 and 2011, on a watershed area about 62 km2, and an annual rainfall rate of 118 mm. The research designed to create four closed contour dykes with perpendicular bunds at each end of the dyke, according to the topographic slope, and the maximum height of 120 cm for the dyke, with diversion bunds on the valley bed, to concentrate the surface runoff, and turn part of it into the contour closed dykes, to study the effect of the average depth of storage (17 and 35 cm, and the control without storage), to ensure the appropriate soil moisture for the production of fodder crops (vetch, and barley), and to increase the pastoral grazing capacity under dry land conditions, as well as soil conservation and erosion control. Diversions of contour dykes converting part of the water runoff to only 29% of the total flood into the effluent outside the valley, where the lower areas were not deprived of flood water. The results showed the improve efficiency of the use of runoff water at a rainfall rate of (118 mm/year) to 400 mm/year due to storage behind the of dykes, and increase the soil moisture from (6%) in the control to more than (16%) behind the dykes. All depths of storage gave good productivity, amounted to an average of 2600 kg/ha barley seeds and 1600 kg/ha straw, 2600 kg/ha barley and 1600 kg/ha straw, but did not exceed 120 kg/ha seeds, 70 kg/ha straw. For vetch, the average yield was 2.300 kg/ha seeds, and 1850 kg/ha straw, while the control had 155 kg/ha seeds, and 110 kg/ha straw. Water erosion was controlled by (55%) compared to the control, without techniques, and the pastoral grazing capacity increased from 25 ha/head/year to less than 0.1 ha/head/year.

Keywords: Dams, Runoff, Water harvesting, Erosion.

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The Effect of Different Types of Organic Fertilizers on Some Soil Properties and Olive Trees Productivity in Homes Province, Syria

Dima AlSaid(1) Nisreen Nikedly(2) Nabila Kredi(1) Malak Jzaeirly(1) Huda Masalati(2) Salwa Wabeh(2) Lama AlZein(2) Bushra Khozam(2) and Muhammad Manhal AlZoubi*(1)

(1). Natural Resources Administration, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.

(2). Agricultural Research Center of Homs, GCSAR, Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Muhammad Manhal Al Zoubi. E-Mail:

Received: 13/07/2017                                Accepted: 01/10/2017


The effect of organic fertilizers (sheep manure, cow manure and olive residue compost) on some soil properties and olive productivity was studied at Homs Scientific Agriculture Research Center, General Commission for Agricultural Scientific Research (GCSAR)/Syria during the seasons 2013, 2014 and 2015. The experiment was designed on the basis of completely randomized block design (RCBD), with five treatments (control, cow manure, sheep manure, olive residue compost and mineral fertilizers), with three replicates. The organic fertilizers were added according to total nitrogen analysis of the organic fertilizers, also, depending on the mineral nitrogen analysis in the soil and the recommendations of Ministry of Agriculture. The results showed an increase in soil organic matter and soil total nitrogen in all treatments amended with organic fertilizers compared to the control. Meanwhile soil total nitrogen was significantly increased in treatment amended with olive residue compost compared to treatment amended with mineral fertilizers. Also, significant difference was noticed in soil available phosphorus in treatments amended with cow manure and sheep manure compared to the control, and in treatment amended with sheep manure compared to mineral fertilizers. Also, available potassium was significantly increased in treatment amended with sheep manure compared to the control. Furthermore, results showed significant differences in oil productivity of cow manure treatment (14.77%) compared to the control (11.27%). According to the yield average of the three seasons, it is concluded a significant increase in olive productivity (4.74, 0.29 and 12.16 ton/ha) respectively in treatment amended with sheep manure compared with the control (1.19, 0.013 and 5.65 ton/ha) respectively.

Key wards: Organic manure, Soil fertility, Olive residue compost.

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Effect of Three Species of Rhizobacteria (PGPR) in of Stimulating Systemic Resistance Against Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV) of Tomato Plants

Ramez M. Al Shami*(1) Imad D. Ismail(1) and Yaser Hammad(2)

(1). Plant Protection Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University, Latakia, Syria.

(2). Soil and Water Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University, Latakia, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Eng. Ramez M. Al Shami. E-Mail:

Received: 30/06/2017                              Accepted: 03/10/2017


This experiment aimed to study the effect of three species of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (Frateuria aurantia, Bacillus megaterium and Azotobacter chroococcum) by inoculated seeds or seedlings of tomato plants on suppressed the effect of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) in greenhouse in Tartus. Total phenols and photosynthesis pigments (chlorophyll A, B and carotenoids) were observed in fresh leaves of tomato plant after 30 Days of infection. Results showed, that treatment with single bacteria Frateuria aurantiawas was significantly higher in total phenol compared  with Bacillus megateriumor, Azotobacter chroococcum, compared with the control healthy or infected. However, the bacteria Azotobacter chroococcum gave a significant increase in photosynthesis pigments compared with Bacillus megaterium or Frateuria aurantia. On the other hand, the mixed treatment of ABF+CMV (seeds and seedlings) showed highest increase in total phenol (37.75 and 47.09 mg/100g) consequently, photosynthesis pigments (chlorophyll A 0.973 and 1.065 mg/g), (chlorophyll B 0.872 and 0.903mg/g) and (carotenoids 0.972 and 0.995 mg/g) respectively. The increase in total phenols and photosynthesis pigments leads to the ability ofrhizobacterto stimulate systemic resistance and reduce the effect of the virus on tomato plants.

Keywords: CMV, PGPR, Tomato, Total phenols, Photosynthesis pigments.

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Determination of the Optimum Laboratory Conditions for the Production of Crystal Protein by Bacillus thuringiensis KS3 Isolated from Iraqi Soils

Khlood Abid-Alelah Alkhafaji*(1) Samera Oda Khleoy(2) Safaa Abid Alrahem Mahmoud(1) Shaemaa Rajab Farhan(1) Sabreen Abid Alhadi Saleh(2) and Mohamed Abid al- Rahem Abiallah(1)

(1). Applied Microbiology Department, Center of Biotechnology, Directorate of Agricultural Research, Ministry of Science and Technology. Iraq.

(2). Biology Control Department, Pest Integrating Management Center, Directorate of Agricultural Research. Ministry of Science and Technology. Iraq.

(*Corresponding author: Khlood Abid-Alelah Alkhafaji. E-Mail:

Received: 15/03/2018                                Accepted: 25/09/2018


This research aimed to determine the optimum conditions for the production of crystal protein produced by a local Iraqi isolate of Bacillus thuringiensis KS3. This research was conducted at the laboratories of Directorate of Agricultural Research during the period from 2016 to 2017. Growth factors such as sugar, nitrogen sources and minerals were evaluated, also pH was determined. Environmental factors such as temperature, aeration and time of production were studied separately; Laurea Bertani broth (LB) was modified for optimal production of crystal protein. Sucrose gave the best concentration of protein which reached up to 4.49 mg/ml, while peptone could be used as a substitute of a tryptone as best nitrogen source. No significant differences among tryptone, soytone, beef extract and casein. The best C:N ratio was that of 2% peptone and 1.5% sucrose which gave 5.252 mg/ml. Magnesium sulfate increased the crystal protein concentration which reached to 7.92. No significant difference was observed between magnesium sulfate and manganese chloride. Medium equilibrated to pH 7.5 was used for highest crystal protein production compared with pHs 6.5, 7, and 8. Culture of Bacillus thuringiensis KS3 incubated for 72 h at 30C with 120 rpm/min in a shaker incubator gave the best protein concentration.

Key words: Bacillus thuringiensis, delta toxin, sucrose, peptone, pH.

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