Preparation of Water Erosion Risk Map of Al Thawra Dam Basin Soils Using Corine Model

Hadeel  Mammar *(1), Mona Barkat (2)

(1).Department of Soil Science and Water. Faculty of Agriculture. Tishreen University. Lattakia . Syria.

(2). Department of Soil and Land Sciences. Faculty of Agriculture. Tishreen University. Lattakia. Syria.

(* Corresponding author: Email:

Received: 31/05/2019                               Accepted: 29/12/2019


This study aimed to prepare a map of the danger of water erosion in Al THAWRA basin dam in Lattakia during 2018 using Corine model, followed by measuring the variant of Soil erosin susceptibility through estimating soil texture, depth and stoniness percent. After that, the potential erosion risk map was prepared by the multiplication of soil susceptibility to erode map, slop map, and rainfall erosivity index value using GIS technique. As for the cover land map, it was prepared and classified into two classes according to protection degree. Therefore, the actual risk map was prepared through multiplication of potential risk and land cover map.The study showed that soil erosion susceptibility index was low in the northwestern part and was high in the western and northeastern part of the studied area with spaces (11.92 km2),( 16.66 km2) respectively , it also showed that the steep soils were concentrated in the southern and northern parts and some northeastern parts. Finally, the study indicates the importance of vegetation to reduce the area under high risk of erosion by 58.20 %.

Key words: Water erosion, CORINE Model, Geographic Information System (GIS), AL-Thawra dam basin

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The Effect of Deficit Irrigation on Some Yield Traits of Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus)

Saoud Sarboukh *(1), Faten Al-Safadi (1), Baraa Bodakka(1), Safaa Bodakka(1), Amjad Abo Mogdeb(1)

 (1). General Commission of Scientific Agricultural  Research -Scientific Agricultural research center in As-Sowaidaa

 (*Corrsponding author: Saoud

Received: 04/03/2019                               Accepted: 07/04/2019


This study was conducted at Huot Research station, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR) during 2016-2017 in order to achieve: (1) study the effect of deficit irrigation (DI) on some of the yield properties of water melon , (2) study the effect of DI on water melon  water use efficiency and irrigation water needs. Therefore three treatments were tested in this experiment (1) 100% of ETc irrigation, (2) 75% of ETc irrigation, (3) 50% of ETc irrigation. Complete randomized design with three replications was used. Where (DI) was applied when the first flower bloomed.The results showed that water melon  irrigation needs 550 mm. in addition it showed that the deficit  irrigation decreased significantly the yield of water melon fruits, the fruit Wight, and the water use efficiency when the irrigation percents of Etc were decreased, where the yield was 8645, 6185, 3505 kg/ donm, and the fruit wight was 12.49, 9.53, 5.25 kg/ fruit, for the treatments 100% of ETc irrigation, 75% of ETc irrigation, 50% of ETc irrigation respectively. In the other hand total solublesolids significantly increased as the water stress increased where thetotal soluble solids was 6.42%, 7.55%, 8.61%, for the treatments 100% of ETc irrigation, 75% of ETc irrigation, 50% of ETc irrigation respectively. Therefore, when water is easily available with little cost it is recommended to apply 100% of ETc irrigation on water melon, else 75% of ETc irrigation DI is recommended when there is a shortage in water recourses or the water price is so high, but 50% of ETc irrigation is not recommended.

Keyword: Water melon, Deficit irrigation, Water needs, Water use efficiency.

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Estimating of Consumer Demand for Honey Bees in Lattakia Governorate

Mohammad Ghoush* (1) and Wael Habib (2)

(1).Agro-economy Department. Faculty of Agricultural, Tishreen University, Syria.

(2).Agro-economy, General Commission for Scientific Agriculture Research (GCSAR), Syria.

(*Corrsponding author: Mohammad Ghoush

Received: 17/08/2020                               Accepted: 22/09/2020


This research aimed to estimate the function of honey demand, and to determine the most important factors affecting its required quantities at the consumer level in Lattakia Governorate/Syria.The research relied on preliminary data through a field questionnaire targeting a random sample of consumers with a size of 400 households in 2019. Estimates have of demand function showed that purchase price changes were responsible for (35.3%) of the amount required of it by the consumers, as the demand for honey is flexibility high request. The results also showed that the multiplicity of procurement sources, the monthly income level of the consumer, the number of children in the family, and the multiplicity of other bee products that are consumed had a significant positive impact in the honey consumption, while the purchase price, the consumer age, and consumer sex, had an impact significantly negative on honey consumption.

Keyword: Demand function, consumption, honey bee, Lattakia.

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Determination the Concentration of Heavy Metals in the Bark of Citrus aurantium, Ligustrum vulgaris and Melia azedarach Trees Planted in Tartous City, Syria

Kamel Khalil*(1), Nour Aldin Youssef(2), Assem Hamd(1)

(1).Environmental Prevention Department, Higher Institute for Environmental Research, Tishreen University.

(2).Water Resources Directorate in Tartous Governorate.

(*Corrsponding author: Dr. Kamel Khalil. Email:

Received: 29/06/2020                              Accepted: 01/09/2020


This study aimed to estimate the concentration of cadmium (Cd) and nickel (Ni) elements in the bark samples of three tree species: Citrus aurantiumLigustrum vulgarisMelia azedarach. Samples were taken from /4/ locations in the city of Tartous with different traffic density in 2016. The concentration of Cd and Ni was estimated by using the atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results showed that the highest concentration of Cd (0.135 ppm) and Ni (0.6177 ppm) elements was at the Tourism rotary site, and the highest accumulation of Cd  (0.123 ppm) in the bark of the Melia azedarach trees while the highest accumulation of Ni  (0.5146 ppm) in the bark of the Citrus aurantium trees but these concentrations were overall within the natural limits Cd (0.01-0.3ppm) and Ni (0.1-5 ppm). In general, the accumulation of Cd and Ni was higher in the summer than in the spring. This research confirms the possibility for using the bark of trees as a bioaccumulator for heavy metals.

Key words: Heavy metals, Trees bark, bioaccumulator, Tartous ( Syria).

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Evaluation of Tree Species and Estimation of their Idealism in Khalid Ibn Al-Waleed Street in Lattakia City

Osama Radwan(1)

(1). Ecology and Forest Department Faculty of Agriculture – Tishreen Univ. Lattakia–Syria.

(*Corrsponding author: Dr. Osama Radwan.

Received: 30/10/2019                   Accepted: 20/01 /2020


Street trees are an integral part of the street infrastructure, so choosing the right type plays a big role in determining the aesthetic and environmental value of any street. From an aesthetic perspective, street trees are important in increasing the beauty of the city and providing visual aids, from an environmental perspective, street trees play an important role in reducing the effects of urbanization and population growth on the environment.  An analysis of tree rows was conducted besides the diversity and idealism of trees in Khalid Ibn AlWaleed Street in Lattakia City.

The Results of this paper revealed prominent breaks in the arboreal rows, and the rows contained three plant species (Melia azedarach L., Ficus nitida L., and Jacaranda mimosaefolia L.), also, results showed that the ratios of many taxonomic units were not ideal and also it was noticed the irregular distribution of individual trees between the species that were found in the street, which caused distortion of the beauty of the street. Findings showed a decrease in the value of the idealism where (Jacaranda mimosaefolia) attained a value of 6.61/10 and (Ficus nitida L.) 6.97/10, while the value of (Melia azedarach L.) was 7.69/10.

Keywords: Street trees, Urban forests, Architectural environment, Morphological     Characteristics, Trees Idealism- Lattakia City

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Use of Principal Components Analysis and R Programming Language to Study Changes in NDVI Values for Forestry Cover in Afrin, Syria

Mohamad Hamza Istanbuly(1) and Mustafa Nur Istanbuly *(1)(2)    

(1). Department of Renewable Natural Resources and Ecology, Faculty of Agriculture
       Engineering, University of Aleppo, Aleppo, Syria.

(2) Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

(*Corrsponding author: Mustafa Nur Istanbuly,

Received: 13/05/2019                               Accepted: 07/06/2019


The development of remote sensing techniques was accompanied by an evolution in statistical analysis techniques and software used to improve analysis of remote sensing data such as NDVI values. The objective of this study was to analyze the changes in vegetation cover in the Afrin region, Syria, using the NDVI, the R programming language and analysis of the Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The changes in the NDVI values ​​extracted from Landsat satellite images were analyzed for the years of study and the relationship between them and the studied areas. The results showed a clear correlation between the amount of changes in Normalized Difference Vegetation index values ​​by regions and years of study. The changes in the Koy area were not related to the years of study and are from prior years of 2010. For 2010 and 2011, changes in vegetation cover were due to change in the regions (Rajo and Koran), meaning that in these two regions most changes were observed during these two years. For the Basouta region, the changes were in 2010. As for the year 2016, it was not associated with any specific change for a given region and distributed throughout the study area. For kasimli, the change in vegetation is mainly distributed over the years 2013-2014-2015. Belbbol region where change was related to 2014 and 2015. The prediction of the case of forest cover in the Afrin area showed two possibilities: either to remain in this condition and this coverage for the next 10 years or the worst case scenario for the total loss of forest coverage until 2020. The study showed that the use of NDVI is an effective method of monitoring and management Forestry coverings and the merge of novel methods in the analysis of satellite images with modern statistical methods is an effective tool for understanding and interpreting changes in the target forest coverings of the study. This paper showed clearly how it can to merge Time factor with spatial factor to explain forestry covers changing using new methods.

Keyword: Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, Principal component analysis, Remote sensing, Syria.

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Association of Perilipin Gene PLIN1 Polymorphism with Body Weight and Abdominal Fat Weight of Hybrid Broiler Ross 308

Rusul Tawfiq Ali 1 and Sajida A. Al-Shaheen1

(1) Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Basra,Basra,Iraq.

 (*Corrsponding author: Rusul Tawfiq Ali.E-Mail:

Received: 17/10/2020                               Accepted: 01/11/2020


This study was conducted with the aim of determining the association of the genetic polymorphisms of perilipin gene (PLIN1 gene) with body weight and abdominal fat weight of broiler chickens (Ross 308) using the nitrogen base sequence analysis technique. The results of DNA sequence analysis Conducted in the Korean company (Macrogen). showed the base change (T>C) at the 294 base pair position in the fifth exon region of the gene. The results of the genetic description showed the presence of two alleles (C, T) and two genotypes (CC, CT). The observed numbers of CC and CT genotypes were 9, 3 respectively. The allele C was of the highest allele frequency (0.875) and the allele T was of the lowest allele frequency (0.125). The CC genotype showed the highest genotype frequency (0.75%) and the CT were of the lowest genotype frequency (0.25%). The observed and expected allelic heterozygosity percentage was (0.25, 0.22), respectively. The average percentage of heterozygosity was (0.21). The results showed no significant (P ≥0.05) effect of the two genotypes; CC and CT of perilipin gene (PLIN1 gene) and gender on mean of body weight and abdominal weight at 5 and 7 weeks of age.

Key words: Hybrid Broiler Ross 308, Perilipin Gene PLIN1, Genotypic Polymorphism.

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Persulfate Catalyst for Removing Methylene Blue

Alaa Mohamad Soubh(1)* and Mohamad Ghalebizade(2)

(1). School of Environment, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

(2). Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty, Tarbiat Modares University, Iran.

(*Corrsponding author: Dr. Alaa Mohamad Soubh. E-Mail: )

Received: 19/10/2020                               Accepted: 08/11/2020


Methylene blue (MB) is the most commonly used substance for dyeing cotton, wood and silk. The removal of this substance from colored effluent has become the biggest problem for textile industry. The purpose of this research is to investigate the performance of advanced oxidation process – radical sulfate through the activation of persulfate (PS) by converter sludge (CS) to remove methylene blue of aqueous solutions. It was conducted in a batch reactor. The performance of nanomaterials obtained from the converter sludge of Esfahan Steel Company, Iran was investigated for persulfate activation . Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis are used to investigate the surface morphology and to examine the surface elemental composition of converter sludge. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of converter sludge were obtained using an X-ray diffractometer. The effects of pH (3-9), CS dosage (0.4-1.6 g L-1), persulfate concentration (1-4 mmol L-1), and reaction time (0-60 min) on the removal of 10 mg L-1 methylene blue. The maximum removal efficiency of methylene blue under optimal operational conditions (pH 3, CS dosage 1.2 g L-1, persulfate concentration 2.5 mmol L-1 and reaction time: 20 min) was 89%.

Key words: Methylene blue, Persulfate, Converter sludge, Radical sulfate, remove.

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Using Zeolite and Granule Activated Carbon Combination for Remediating Landfill Leachate-contaminated Groundwater in Permeable Reactive Barriers

Waseem Yousef Daoud*(1)

 (1). Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Amirkabir University  of   Technology. Tahran. Iran

 (*Corresponding author: Waseem Yousef Daoud.

Received: 15/10/2020                   Accepted: 23/11/2020


Over the last decade, there has been an explosion in activities directed to development and implementation of PRBs. Considering the high concentrations of ammonium, heavy metals and organic contaminants in landfill leachate-contaminated groundwater, single-reactor-PRB may not be effective; for that reason a sequenced PRB has been developed. The major objective of this study is to investigate and compare the adsorption performances of Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) which is a form of carbon processed to have small, low volume pores that increase the surface area, and Natural Zeolite (NZ) which is the aluminosilicate, on one hand and combination of them in remediating landfill leachate-contaminated groundwater on the other. To come close to this goal, a novel PRB in pilot scale was designed in Plexiglas column. Three parts of 5 cm heigh were considered to put the reactive media in the middle of the column. The simulated groundwater contaminated with a COD concentration of 600 mg/l was supplied to the end of the column in upflow direction with a flow rate of 10 ml/min. by a small pump. Results showed that GAC has predominated NZ for COD removal. However, no significant removal of COD could be observed by using only NZ as a reactive medium. In addition, using NZ and GAC layers simultaneously had no significant effect on COD removal. Therefore, due to NZ acting as a good adsorbent for ammonium and heavy metals, it is recommended that the NZ and GAC compartments should rather be considered as up-gradient and down-gradient barriers, respectively.

Key words: PRB, Landfill Leachate, Groundwater, Zeolite, GAC, COD Removal.

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Accumulate Lead and Copper Elements after Treatment with Sulfur and Organic Matter

Kaies Sami Muhamed* (1), and Ammar Fakhree Khdeer(2)

(1)- Environment Department, Local directorate of Slah Al-Deen Iraq.

(2)-Horticulture Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Takreet University, Iraq.

 (*Corrsponding author: Kaies Sami Muhamed. E-Mail:

Received: 09/02/2019                               Accepted: 10/11/2019


The experiment was conducted in the wooden canopy of the Department of Horticulture and Gardening Engineering – College of Agriculture / Tikrit University during the spring season 2019-2020 to study the phytoremediation of lead and copper pollution by using Damas Conocarpus lancifolius saplings. Randomized Complete Block Design (R.C.B.D) was used with three replications and three factors that were arranged within the experimental units according to the split-split plot system. Where the organic matter coefficients (0, 20) g kg-1, symbolized as F0, F1, were distributed on the main plots, and soil pollution factors (0, 0.4, 1.25) g kg-1, Which coded as P0, P1, P2, Were distributed in the secondary plots. The third factor was sulfur (0, 1.5, 3) g kg-1 which coded as S0, S1, and S2 in the sub plots. The results showed that the concentrations of heavy elements in the soil decreased at the end of the experiment, and this indicated the ability of Damas plant phytoremediation soil polluted heavy elements . And Damas plant’s high ability to accumulate heavy elements (lead and copper) in different tissues and parts. As the plant accumulation of heavy elements increased by increasing heavy elements concentrations. It was found that the highest accumulation of these two elements was in the root system (358.89) mg kg-1 at a concentration (0.4) g kg-1 for the element of lead when treatment P1 and (293.67) mg kg-1 at a concentration (1.25) g kg-1 for the element. Copper when treated with P2..

Keyword: Damas sapling, Heavy elements , Sulphur, Organic matter.

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