New Records of Three Larval Species of Erythraeidae (Acari: Trombidiformes) in a Citrus Orchard in Latakia, Syria

Ziad Barbar*(1)

 (1). Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Baath University, Homs, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Ziad Barbar. E-Mail:

Received: 04/11/2017                              Accepted: 14/12/2017


Most larvae of Erythraeidae are considered as parasites of various insect species, and their adults seem to be effective generalist predators of several agricultural pests. Studies of this fauna is limited in Syria. The present study aimed to identify mite species of Erythraeidae in a pesticide-free citrus orchard in Latakia governorate/Syria. Surveys were carried out three times in 2016 and 2017. Three Erythraeid species were collected, and all belong to the genus Erythraeus: Erythraeus (Erythraeus) phalangoides, Erythraeus (Erythraeus) adanaensis and Erythraeus (Zaracarus) didonae. This is the first report of these species in Syria. Morphological remarks of each species were collected and provided.

Keywords: Acari, Erythraeidae, Erythraeus, larva, Syria.

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Biosynthesis of Medium Chain Length Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate by Pseudomonas aeruginosa Dw7

Eman H. Gatea٭(1) Saad H. Khudair(1) and Nadhim H. Haider(2)

(1). Environment and Water Directorate, Ministry of Science and Technology, Baghdad, Iraq.

(2). Collage of science, Baghdad University, Baghdad, Iraq.

(*Corresponding author: Dr Eman Gatea. E-mail:

Received: 04/11/2017                              Accepted: 14/12/2017


Polyhydroxya lkanoates (PHAs), are a promising family of bio-based polymers, which considered to be alternatives to traditional petroleum-based plastics. Poly-β – hydroxybutyrate (PHB) is the most known degradable biopolymers, produced by bacterial genera. It is generally accepted that PHB can be used instead of plastic to solve one of the greatest problems facing the environment. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Dw7 was grown on mineral salt medium supplemented with waste cooking of corn oil for the synthesis of a medium chain-PHB. This study is divided into three steps, at first fermentation of P.seudomonas aeruginosa Dw7, which was carried out aerobically at optimum temperature of 30 ˚C and 500 rpm of agitation speed. Lab scale bioreactor (5L) operated as a batch culture system for 80 hours. The highest cell dry weight (CDW) of bacteria reached to 5.3 g/l observed after 60 h of operation, which was corresponding to 62.6 % of PHB. The results suggested the efficiency of the system for production of PHB in large scale. Many solvent systems were conducted to evaluate the best solvent for PHB extraction from bacterial cell in the second step. Chloroform–hypochlorite dispersion extraction was followed by that extraction with chloroform showed the best solvent system for yielding of PHB. Relatively; it has the high rate with 63% yield of PHB. Characterization study of PHB was the last step. PHB were included chemical, physical; mechanical and solubility properties of the produced PHB have been characterized by many analyses techniques, comprising Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), Fourier-transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray diffraction (X-Ray) and melting point. PHB was a yellowish white crystal, soluble in chloroform and other chlorinated hydrocarbons like dichloromethane, dichlorethane and chloropropane. X-Ray diffraction (XRD) study was carried out to check if the polymer had a crystalline or amorphous structure. The increased intensity of peaks showed that the polymer had more organized packed crystalline structure. The results of the GC-MS recorded that there were 9 different active peaks predictive. The two major compounds that were produced by P. aeruginosa Dw7 were then identified as undecanoic acid which eluted at 15.4 min and tridecanoic acid at 17.3 min with relative abundance of 100% and 33.14% respectively. The characteristic FTIR peaks for PHB indicated that the most prominent marker band for the identification of PHB is the ester carbonyl band at C=O, OH and C-O.

Keywords: Pseudomonas aeruginoa, Poly-β- hydroxybutyrate, Bioreactor, Extraction with solvents.

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Variance, Heritability, Genetic Advance and Correlation Coefficient of Some Phenological, Morphological and Productivity Traits in Some Lentils (Lens culinaris M.) Genotypes

Mohammad Nael Khattab*(1)

(1). Crops Field Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University, Latakia, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Mohammad Nael Khattab. E-Mail:

Received: 20/09/2017                              Accepted: 08/11/2017

The phenological, morphological and productivity characteristics of six lentil genotypes (Idlib 1, Idlib 2, Idlib 3, Idlib 4, Balade and Kurdi) were assessed, using some genetic indicators (genetic and phenotypic variance, genotypic and phenotypic correlation coefficients, broad- sense heritability, and the genetic advance between seeds yield and its components at Dmsrkho area, in Latakia during two seasons (2014/2015) and (2015/2016). Randomized complete block design with three replicates was used, in order to investigate as much as possible, the genetic power of the genotypes to exploit them to the fullest extent and determine the appropriate selectorial evidence to improve lentils crop. Analysis of variance indicated that the genotypes differ significantly (P<0.05) for all studied characters. Moreover, years, genotype and years by genotypes interaction were significant for all studied traits. Phenotypic coefficient of variation was slightly higher than genetic coefficient of variation, and heritability values were high for most traits, this indicates the dominance of genetic factors and the low impact of environmental factors. Seed yield/plant (g) had a significant, positive genotypic and phenotypic correlation on number of pods/plant (rg=0.905** and rph=0.907**), while hundred seed weight (rg=0.294** and rph=0.294**) and biological yield (rg=0.76** and rph=0.78**). Biological yield had significant positive genotypic and phenotypic correlation with hundred seed weight (rg=0.62* and rph=0.59*) and seed yield (rg=0.93* and rph=0.95**). This indicates the possibility of selection for the biological yield through the selection of hundred seed weight and seed yield.

Keywords: Lentil, Heritability, Genetic advance, Genetic variance, Phenotypic variance, Correlation coefficient.

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Preparation of Formulations of Weaning Food from Black and Brown Rice and Study its Different Properties

Nagham Abdul Razzaq Mshemesh*(1) Waafa Hasson(1) Khamees Habeeb Mutlag(1) Rasha  Mussa(1) and Ahamed Hussien(1)

(1). Agricultural Research Directorate, Ministry of Science and Technology, Baghdad, Iraq.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Nagham Abdul Razzaq Mshemesh. E-Mail:

Received: 13/11/2017                              Accepted: 09/02/2018


This study has been performed in Agriculture Research Directorated Labs, Ministry of Science and Technology/Iraq, aimed to use different formulations of weaning food contained different concentrations of black rice flour, brown rice, peas and oat chips. Some physical treatments like cleaning, peeling and milling to rice and and germination, chard, peeling, drying and milling to peas were used to make these four  formulations, which were chosed depended on chemical analysis (moisture, protein, ash, fiber, carbohydrate, fat and energy) in addition the estimation of some minerals (Ca, Fe and Zn) comparing with recommendation of FAO weaning food and functional properties; like bulk density (BD), foam capacity (FC) and swelling power (SP). Sensory evaluation was also conducted. Results showed that the treatment  F4 (25% black rice, 40% peas, 20% oat  and 15% dry milk) was the best formula comparing with the other formulations, which recorded high protein (19.50%), oil (7.50%), fiber (3.33%), ash (2.0%), carbohydrate (63.67%) and energy 400.18 kcal. The minerals estimations percentages of Fe, Zn of the treatment F4 were 7.43 mg/100g  and 8.21mg/100g repectively. These results was within FAO recommendations for weaning food.  Regarding the functional properties of the formula F3 (50% bron rice, 25% peas, 10% oat and 15% dry milk) was sperior in bulk density (0.63g/cm3), while formula F4 was superior in foam capacity which recorded 33.53%, while F2 (30% blak rice, 30% peas, 30% oat and 10% dry milk) recorded the highest value in swelling power (1.84%). In terms of sensory evaluation, which was conducted by 10 evaluators, the formula F1 (30% brown rice, 30% peas, 30% oat and dry milk) obtained the highest degree of color rating, its value was 9 degrees. The formula F2 got the lowest grade of color, it reached 4 degrees (brown color), but for taste description all the formulas were low in sweetness, and the formula F4 got the highest degree of taste amounted to 7 degrees, while texture and solubility F3 got the highest degree which reached 8 degrees. Solubility was good for all formulas. F1 formula in general was acceptable.

Key words: Weaning food, Legumes, Black rice, Brown rice, Oat.

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Study the Effect of Adding Different Concentrations of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) on the Physiochemical and Quality Properties of Sponge Cake During Different Storage Periods

Batool Alansari*(1)

(1). Department of Food Science, Agriculture college, University of Basrah, Basra, Iraq.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Batool Alansari. E-Mail:

Received: 14/11/2017                              Accepted: 08/02/2018


The current research was carried out between May and June to study the effect of adding different concentrations of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% on the physiochemical and quality characteristics of the sponge cake stored for (0, 5, 10 and 15) days. The results of the chemical composition of the flour used in the sponge cake mix showed that the percentages of protein and fat were 10.3 and 0.8% respectively, while the ash and carbohydrate levels were 0.65 and 76.75% respectively, the moisture percentage was 11.5%. The results of the sensory evaluation showed that the cake treated with 1% of fennel powder had good colour, texture and appearance in comparison with the other treatments, while the cake treated with 1.5% of fennel showed better flavour among other treatments. The results of the physical tests showed an increase in the weight and size of the sponge cake with the increase of fennel powder, while the specific size decreased compared to the standard sponge cake. The values of peroxide and the acidity of the sponge cake stored at room temperature for 15 days were decreased with the increase of the percentage of fennel powder in comparison with the standard sponge cake. The addition of fennel to cake mix effected positively on the final product.

Key words: peroxide number, sponge cake, sensory properties, storage ability.

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Effect of Temperature and Retention Period on the activity of Olive Leaf Midge Dasineura oleae F. loew (Dipter: Cecidomyiidae) and its Endoparasitiod Platygaster demades Walker (Hymenoptera: Platygasteridae)

Zahraa M. Baidaq*(1) Ali M. Ramadhane(2) and Randa Abu Tara(3)

 (1). Agricultural Research Center of Latakia, General Commission of Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.

 (2). Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University, Lattakia, Syria.

  (3(. Faculty of science, Damascus University, Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Eng. Zahraa Baidaq. E-Mail:

Received: 22/11/2016                              Accepted: 17/01/2017


This work aimed to study the environmental factors influencing growth stopped of olive leaf midge Dasineura oleae F. loew (Dipter: Cecidomyiidae) and its host (Hymenoptera: Platygasteridae) Platygaster demades Walker, such as temperature and reservation period. A series of experiments had been done to end this phenomena of larvae by changing temperatures from suitable temperature at 1±20  °C accompanied with different photoperiods 16 L: 8D and relative humidity of 75± 5% during 15, 30, and 60 days, to low temperature at 1 ±7 °C accompanied with complete darkness and relative humidity of 75± 5%  for 15 days. This had been done after 30, 60, 90 and 120 days of growth stopped. The experiments showed that there was a strong correlation between P. demades and the host. The larval activity of P.demades was synchronized with the host at all stages in which an activity was recorded. The results showed that D. oleae enters in a real diapause, that can be ended as larvae was exposed to low temperature for more than 15 days. It has been shown that temperature is the limiting factor of D. oleae diapause and its parasitoid P. demades.

Keywords: Olive leaf midge, Dasineura oleae, Endoparasitiod, Platygaster demades, Diapause, Temperature.

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Effect of Seed Treatments of Tomato Variety Merel with Four PGPR Bacterial Strains on Promoting Peroxidase Enzyme Activity and Growth Improvement

Hanan Kawas *(1) Omar Hamudi(2) Ahmad Ahmad(3) Imad  Ismail(4)

(1). Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University, Lattakia, Syria.

(2). Agricultural Research Center of Latakia, General Commission for Scientific Agriculture Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.

(3). Agricultural Research Center of Tartous, (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.

(4). Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University, Lattakia, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Eng. Hanan Kawas. E-Mail:

Received: 18/12/2016                           Accepted: 14/02/2017


This research was conducted to study the effect of four bacterial strains (PGPR): Pseudomonas chlororaphis MA342, Serratia plymuthica HRO-C48, Bacillussubtillis B2g and B. subtillis FZB27 to improve the growth of tomato plants in the greenhouse. Bacterial strains were applied to the seeds in a concentration of (1010 cfu/ml), of each bacterial strain. The results showed the treatment with bacteria improved peroxidase enzyme activity at a rate of (2.15-6.35) % after 78 days of treatment compared with non-treated control (0.002) n mol, and a rate of (60.71- 232.14) % after 94 days compared with non-treated control (0.056) n mol. The treatment with bacteria increased the height of plant at a rate of (1-21.37)% compared with non-treated control (57.83) cm, and increased fresh weight of foliage at a rate of (9.25-122.56)% compared with non-treated control (317)g, while it increased dry weight of foliage at a rate of (3.89- 61.98)% compared with non-treated control (111.33)g, and increased fresh root weight at a rate of (22.39-310.48)% compared with non-treated control (22.33)g, and increased root dry weight at a rate of (9.09- 33.27)% compared with non-treated control (5.5)g, and increased number of fruits at a rate of (7.73-54.73)% compared with non-treated control (8.66 fruit), and increased weight of fruits at a rate of (5.69-60.33)% compared with non-treated control (105.33)g . The strain B27 had the highest values of the studied traits.

Key words: PGPR, Pseudomonas chlororaphis MA342,  Serratia plymuthica HRO-C48,  Bacillus subtillis B2g,  B. subtillis FZB27,  Tomato.

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Productivity Evaluation of Three Introduced Quinoa Varieties under Central Highlands Conditions in Yemen

Mohammed Yaha Daws*(1) and Ahmed AL-Moallem(2)

(1). Central Highlands Regional Agricultural Research Station, Yemen.

(2). Northern Highlands Agricultural Research Station. Yemen. 

(*Corresponding author: Eng. Mohammed Dows. Email:

Received: 13/11/2017                              Accepted: 25/12/2017


The experiment was conducted at the Research Station of Middle Heights, during 2014 and 2015 seasons. Three varieties of Quinoa were used i.e. Ames 13762, NSL 106398 and Ames 137, which were introduced from International Center for Bio Saline Agriculture (ICBA), and they were selected out of five varieties that were grown as observation lines in 2013, to get one variety, high forage and grain yields, also suitable for the local conditions. RCBD design with four replications was used. The traits that were studied were: Earliness, plant height, flowering at 50%, green forage, grain and dry matter yields. Results indicated that there were highly significant (p≤0.01) differences between seasons and varieties in respect to plant height, green forage, dry matter and grain yields. While, no significant effect for the interaction between varieties and seasons overall growth performances. Results indicated that seasons have significant effects on the green forage, grain and dry matter yields at p≤0.01 and p≤0.05. Ames 137 variety produced significantly higher green forage yield (58.88 t/ha) compared with NSL 106398 (37.13 t/ha) and Ames 13762 (50.38 t/ha) and has superiority in dry matter yield (23.75 t/ha) on same varieties, which recorded 15.13 and 19.50 t/ha respectively, and followed by NSL 106398. Results also showed high significant effect of the seasons on plant height, green forage, grain and dry matter yields. Season 2014 was the best, which recorded (151  cm), (52.33 t/ha), (1.6t/ha) and (20.83  t/ha) respectively, compared with 2015 season. Ames 137 variety has gained the highest degrees for animal receptiveness and farmer’s evaluation. The study recommended to use Ames 13762 for grain production, and Ames 137 for forage production.

Key words: Productivity traits, Quinoa varieties, Yemen.

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Genetic Behavior of Some Quantitative Traits of Yellow Maize (Zea mays L.) Single Crosses

Ali Wannows*(1) Samir AL Ahmad(2) Ghassan AL Lahham(1) Razan AL Najjar(1)  Elias Aweel(1) and Reem AL Mansour(1)

(1). Maize Research Department, Crops Administration, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.

(2). Agricultural Research Center of Tartous, GCSAR, Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Ali Wannows. E-Mail:

Received: 11/02/2017                           Accepted: 27/03/2017


Half diallel set of crosses between six inbred lines of maize were executed at Maize Research Department, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Syria, during 2010 and 2011 seasons to study heterosis, general and specific combining ability components for grain yield (ton/ha), ear height, length and diameter (cm), and silking date (day)  compared with control varieties Basel-1 and the hybrid Spirou S-4-985 to identify the best hybrid in terms of yield. Randomized Completely Block Design (RCBD) was used with three replicates. General (GCA) and specific (SCA) combining ability mean squares of the inbred lines, and crosses were significant for all traits, except SCA mean square for ear height. This showed the contribution of additive and non-additive gene action in those traits. The ratio of σ2GCA2SCA showed the dominance of additive gene action for ear height and length, but non-additive gene action for grain yield, and silking date. On the other hand, it indicated additive and non-additive gene action for ear diameter. Heterosis of all hybrids for all traits was significant compared with mid and better parents. The results confirmed that the lines IL.766-06, and IL.792-06 had a good GCA for grain yield, while four hybrids had a good SCA, which means the necessity to be included in yield trails, specifically the hybrid (IL.459-06 × IL.292-06) for grain yield.

Key words: Maize, Half diallel cross, GCA, SCA, Heterosis.

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Effect of Seed Rate, Spray with Sorghum Water Extracts and Weeding on Wheat Yield (Triticum durum L.)

Sami  Al-Rajjo*(1)Ahmad Mouhanna(1) and Fadi Abbas(2)

(1). Field Crops Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Baath University, Homs, Syria.

(2). Scientific Agriculture Research Center of Homs, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Eng. Sami Al-Rajjo. E-Mail:

Received: 20/01/2017                           Accepted: 20/03/2017


This research was conducted at Tal Shnan village, located at the eastern of Homs city, Syria during 2012/2013 growing season, using hard local wheat cultivar, Sham 5, to study the effect of seed rates (120, 150, 180, 210 kg/ha), spray with different parts of sorghum water extracts using different, and weeding on wheat yield and weeds accompany with the crop. Results showed that seed rate (180 kg/ha) achieved the highest biological yield and grain yield. Harvest index was increased with increasing seed rate. While, dry weight and number of weeds in 1m2 were decreased with increasing seed rate. Spray with sorghum water extracts (1:10) by 5 L/ha after 60-80 days of sowing caused an increment in biological and grain yields. Also, a decrement in dry weight and number of weeds in 1m2. Water extract of the stems achieved the highest values, followed by (stems+roots), then (stems+leaves) extracts, while (leaves+roots) attained the lowest values. This study concluded that sorghum water extract of the stems achieved a significant increment in wheat yield.

Key words: Seed rate, Sorghum water extracts, Weeding, Wheat.

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