Hussam H. Husein*(1) Mustafa Beda(2) Eissa F. Ali(3) Ibrahem Zaghteti(1) and Abeer Karbouj(2)
(1). General Commission for Scientific Agriculture Research, Administration of Natural Resources Research, Damascus, Syria.
(2). General Commission for Scientific Agriculture Research, Administration of Natural Resources Research, Department of Drainage and Water Quality, Damascus, Syria.
(3). General Commission for Remote Sensing, Lattkia Branch, Lattakia, Syria.
(*Corresponding author: Dr. Hussam Haj Husien. E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org).
Received: 24/07/2016 Accepted: 05/10/2016
The study was carried out to assess water pollution of Nahral-Kabir Al-Shamali according to the Syrian National Standard (SNS), because of that the following thematic maps of water streams, water catchments, Water bodies, concentration and draining points were developed. Those thematic were carried out using ArcHydro extension of GIS in order to select sampling sites along the river course. Water samples were taken from 9 permanent measurement points along the river during two seasons 2009 and 2010. The locations were: Estuary, Souq al-Hal, Jisr Ata Allah, Al-Saffkoun, Kafrya, Khan Al- Jouz, Wadi Al- Sheikhan, Marj Al-Zhour and Ein Al-Ashra. However, The changes in elements concentration i.e. NO3–, NO2–, SO4-2, Ca+2, Mg+2, Na+, K+, pH, TDS, EC and TOC were studied. The findings showed a variation in pH values by the changes in the studied observation points, but they had almost similar behavior for the observation point itself. The pH value exceeded the permissible limits of the Syrian National Standard (SNS) in the observation points of Souq Al-Hal, Jisr Ata Allah, Al-Saffkoun and Ein Al-Ashra in all the studied months. The highest pH value was 9.52 in June at Al-Saffkoun, while the lowest one was 7.83 in February at Marj Al-Zhour. According to the study findings, the same behavior was for EC values and total dissolved salts (TDS). Most of the observation points didn’t exceed the permissible EC values and total dissolved salts (TDS), except for the observation points of the Estuary and Souq Al-Hal, where the value exceeded the permissible limits in all the studied months, and the lowest EC value for both observation points were 0.803 and 0.93 in March, respectively, and for total dissolved salts (TDS) the lowest values were 372 and 386 mg/L. The highest values of EC were 1.33 and 1.745dS/m in January, respectively, and for total dissolved salts (TDS) the highest values for both points were 630 and 860 mg/l. In terms of Na, the study showed that the obtained values of the studied samples had no excess of permissible limits in SNS i.e. 69 mg/l except for the Estuary, where the value exceeded the permissible limits in most of the studied months, and the highest value was 117.4 mg/l in January. Mg concentration exceeded the permissible limits of SNS i.e. 60.8 mg/l in the Estuary and Souq Al-Hal in June and November, so the highest value was in the Estuary in November i.e. 69.31 mg/l. K values exceeded the permissible limits of SNS in all sites and months with the highest value of 19.3 in the Estuary in November and the lowest value of 2.3 mg/l in February at Kafrya site. TOC values exceeded the permissible limits of SNS in all months and for most sites, so the highest value was 14.85 mg/l in August at Souq Al-Hal, and the lowest value was 2.26mg/l in November at Kafrya. On the other hand, NO2–, and NO3– have had different behavior, where the nitrite values exceeded the permissible limits of SNS in most of the studied months except for March and August, which didn’t exceed these limits at any point of observation points. On the contrary, the nitrate values didn’t exceed the permissible limits of SNS at most observation points in most months, thus the highest value of nitrite was 0.8mg/l in February at Wadi Al- Sheikhan. The highest nitrate value was 80.76mg/l in June at the Estuary point. This is attributed to the untreated industrial wastewater of some factories (iron rolling and mineral oils) at Estuary point.
Keywords: Nahr al-Kabir al-Shamalli, Thematic maps.
Full paper in Arabic: PDF