Value Chain analysis of Production Units of Fancy Molasses from Sugarcane in Minya Governorate, Egypt

Harb El. Hasseen El-Bardisy*(1) and Mohamed Najy Bakr(1)

(1). Agricultural Economics Dep, Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Azher University at Assiut, Assiut, Egypt.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Harb El. Hasseen El-Bardisy. E-Mail:

Received: 17/10/2019                                Accepted: 06/11/2019


The study aimed to analyze the value chain of fancy molasses production units by analyzing the business activities in the value chain, measuring job opportunities and identifying the main problems that affec the different actions in value chains of the production units in Egypt (the juicers). The study showed that there were idle capacities in the units of production estimated about 13 thousand tons annually during the period (2009/2010-2017/2018), which represented about 26% of the available production capacity, and there was an increase in the exports of fancy molasses or black honey during the study period at an annual rate did not prove statistically significant which estimated 0.25 tons. It was found that the most important stages of increasing chain value which need to focus on is the process of collecting reeds due to its high costs, which is estimated about 563 pounds/ton cane on average, and the estimated cost of producing per quintal (45 kg) of fancy molasses was about 210.50 pounds/quintal, which was considered the weighted selling price at which costs were equal to revenue.  The study showed that final markets for sugar cane honey were represented in three main markets i.e. wholesale markets which accounted 74.51% of the total domestic market, retail markets which accounted 15.92% and street vendors which accounted 6.9%. The average of profit of wholesalers is about 828 pounds/quintal, which is more than 3 times of the value of buying a quintal in a wholesale price (270 g/quintal), and retailers earned about 729 pounds/quintal, which is more than twice of the value of buying a quintal in retail price (360 g/quintal) and street vendors earned about 759 pounds/quintal, which represented 1.9 times the purchase price. It was found that one fancy molasses quintal produced from honey cane provides about 0.25 job opportunities, and the average of net profit of quintal is 81.40 pounds/quintal for the sugar cane production units. The average cost per quintal of the study sample is 210.5 pounds/quintal. The price of sugar cane honey is increasing with the product movements throughout the supply chain, starting from the unit sale to the surroundings for 261 pounds/ quintal, 270 pounds/quintal for wholesalers, 360 pounds/quintal for retailers and 382.5 pounds/quintal for street vendors. The product price represented a very low percentage of the consumer price, which estimated 24% for wholesalers, 32% for retailers and 34% for street vendors. The recommendations were to develop production processes, especially inputs for small units and to focus on activities that generate chain value-added, and finance through wholesale markets, also the State adoption of the problems of producers and work on them, particularly during the period of production and marketing of the product which are considered as income-generating activities for medium level families, besides providing food for low-income people.

Key words: Value chain, Fancy molasses, production units, Production and manufacturing activities, Economic and marketing performance.

Full Paper in Arabic: PDF

Study on Extension and Technical Problems of Mobile Beekeepers in Yemen

Mohammed Alsharhi* (1) Ali Hassan Khalil (2) and Gamal Alsharabi(3)

(1). Department of Agriculture, Faculty of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Thamar University, Yemen.

(2). Department of Agricultural Extension and Economic, Faculty of Agriculture, Ibb University, Yemen

(3). Department of Plant Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Ibb University, Yemen.

(*Corresponding author correspondent: Dr. Mohammed Alsharhi. E-Mail:

Received: 17/05/2019                                Accepted: 02/10/2019


This study carried out in 2018 at Thamar Governorate of Yemen. The study utilized descriptive research approach to fulfill its objectives. An 85 mobile beekeepers who own about 24095 beehives were purposefully selected. The data were collected through administrative questionnaires through personal interview. The findings of the study showed that Thamar, Hodeida, Ibb and Sanaa were the best governorates for growing and development bee. Whereas, Amran, Marib, Hajah, Saadah, Shabwah, Taiz, Hadramout, Hodeida, and Thamar were the governorates which produced Sidr honey, however, Hodeida governorate was the only governorate which produces Sallam honey. Furthermore, Ibb governorate produced Sawrab honey. The study reported that the main problems that identified by the mobile beekeepers were 100% practicing traditional beekeeping, 82% presence of pests and diseases, 73% lack of feeding supplements, 47% pesticide poisoning and 35% of beekeepers who stated the lack of bee forage.

Key words: Beekeeping, Mobile beekeepers, Agriculture extension, Beekeepers, Yemen.

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Competitiveness Indicators of Egyptian Potatoes in the Global Market

Moataz Eliw Mostafa Ahmed*(1)

(1). Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Azhar University, Assuit, Egypt.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Moataz Eliw Mostafa Ahmed. E-Mail:

Received: 22/09/2019                                Accepted: 10/11/2019


The dependence on export is the most crucial developmental approach in the economy of any country as an essential pillar of economic growth. Egyptian potato exports have a relatively large share of the agricultural trade balance. Thus, the development of agricultural exports is one of the main axes in the Egyptian agricultural development policy. Where Egyptian agriculture has good ingredients and a comparative advantage in the production of potatoes, which enables it to compete with countries in the essential markets imported this crop. The study relied on the descriptive and quantitative statistical analysis methods and the estimation of the general time trend equations for the development of the cultivated area, productivity and total production of potatoes. The general time trend equations of the total production showed statistically, at a significant level of 0.01 a positive value which accounted 223.78 thousand tons per year. Also, some indicators of competitive export performance were used as an indicator of the efficiency of export performance. The results showed that it was higher than zero in all years of study confirming the existence of competitive export. The results showed that Egypt ranked tenth as the average quantity of potato exports was 312.93 thousand tons, which represented 2.58% of the average world potato exports during the period 2010-2013. In terms of instability index, it was found during the study period that there was an instability in the quantity of potato crop exports, which reached a minimum value of 1.14% in 2013, and a highest value of 51.84% in 2014.

Key words: Competitiveness price, Market share, Instability coefficient.

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Study the Farmer’s Adoption of Agricultural Recommendations Regarding Date Palm in Wadi Al-Jah, Yemen

Ali Hassan Obaid Khalil*(1)

(1). Agricultural Extension and Economic Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Ibb University, Yemen.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Ali Hassan Obaid Khalil. E-mail:

Received: 12/05/2019                                Accepted: 11/06/2019


This study aimed to describe the socio-demographic characteristics of palm date famers in Wadi Al-Jah district in Hodeida Governorate of Yemen, also, to evaluate to which extent the farmers applied the agricultural recommendations in order to increase the palm date production in the studied area. The total number of the respondent was 44 farmers who were selected randomly. A questionnaire was designed in order to fulfil the objectives of the study. The findings of study outlined that 100% farmers were not applying new techniques related to irrigation practices, 100% of them do not know an optimal quantity of irrigation water for the date palm cultivation, 97.3% were not fertilizing their date palm neither bio-fertilizers nor chemical, 80% were not practicing the recommended plant spacing and 85% were not practicing the fruit thinning. Regarding the diseases and pests of the date palm, the study also reported that 77.3% of the respondents indicated that the lesser date moth (Alhumara) was found as the first disease that affected their farms, 52.3 % were affected by the Frond borer. Moreover, the third pest is the Amitermis desertorium which the study indicated that the percentage of the infection was 29.5% of the respondents.  In addition, the study revealed that 100% of farmers were not chemically treating the offshoots before planting.

Keywords: Date palm, Adoption of agricultural recommendations, Yemen.

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Analytical Study of the Most Important Factors Affecting Empowerment of Rural Women in Daraa, Syria

Fayez Jadallah Al-Mikdad*(1) Wael Zaki Habeeb(2) and Hani Soleman Al-Hassoun(1)

 (1). Socio Economic Administration, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research GCSAR, Damascus, Syria.

(2). Latakia Agricultural Research Center, GCSAR, Damascus, Syria.

(*Correspoding author: Dr. Fayez Jadallah Al-Mikdad. E-Mail:

Received: 20/05/2019                                Accepted: 23/06/2019


Rural women in Syria, especially those working in agriculture, have low level of access to agricultural productive resources, markets, services and finance, despite their significant contribution to agricultural work. This research aimed to identify the patterns of empowerment of rural women in Daraa Governorate in Syria and the most important factors affecting their empowerment. To achieve this objective, the research depended on data from secondary sources as well as primary data collected through a questionnaire designed to serve research objectives. The research was carried out during 2017 in Daraa Governorate (Izra’a and Al Sanamin regions). The results indicated that 76% of rural women were in the low category of the empowerment scale, with 66% of them were having poor decision-making capacity for agricultural work, 76% were having poor ownership of productive resources and 67% were suffering poor access to extension services and low level of ability to join any organization. The results indicated that 16% of the observed women were at the med level of empowerment whereas only 6% of them were at the high level of empowerment. SOWT analysis noted that women had a high level of experience in agricultural work, but were not qualified enough to manage their own enterprise. Moreover, despite considerable government interest to empower rural women, they still have little access to productive inputs.

Keywords: Empowerment, Rural Women, Social Statistics, SWOT Analysis, Daraa, Syria.

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Labor Lack and its Implications on Agricultural Production in Tartous Governorate

Leen Almukaddem*(1) Shaza Mayhoob(1) Safaa Ahmad(1) and Faten Edrees(2)

(1). Tartous Research Center, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.

(2). Administration of Socio-Economics Research, (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Eng. Leen Almukaddem. E-Mail:

Received: 01/09/2018                                Accepted: 15/10/2018


The problem of labor scarcity is considered as a major obstacle in the agriculture sector, so this research aimed to study labor shortage, its causes and possible solutions. The study was conducted based on a random sample of 200 farmers distributed in 7 villages in Banias and Akkar Plain areas in Tartous governorate. The study showed that labor scarcity has affected the productivity of crops in almost all studied samples of farmers. The difference in the productivity of tomato crop was 4.8% and it for eggplant it was 6.7%, while the productivity of potato and peanut did not influence. The main reasons for labor scarcity were the high income provided by other non-agricultural businesses such as trade and local free jobs compared to agricultural work, seasonal agricultural work and the internal and external migration of young men. The study also showed that most farmers did not have agricultural machines that could save labor, because of the high cost of using machinery, small ownerships and lack of experience of using these machines. The study suggested that the agricultural extension should be directed toward encouraging farmers to use technologies, improving the level of living for the agricultural workers, by raising wages and establishing updated database including all the information about the agricultural workers, their wages and skills that could help in clarifying the situation of agricultural labor in Syria.

Key words: Human labor, Machinery, Agricultural production, Labor scarcity, Tartous governorates.

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Interaction Between Agricultural Extension and Barley Farmers and the Most Important Problems of Production in Sweida Governorate

Safwan Abou Assaf*(1) Bassam Al Atalah(1) Ghada Janoud(2)and Remal Saab(1)

(1). Sweida Research Center, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.

(2). Directorate of Agriculture and Agricultural Reform, Sweida, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Safwan Abou Assaf.

Received: 21/06/2018                                Accepted: 05/11/2018


Agricultural policies and plans try to support barley as an important component of crop combination in Sweida governorate. The research aimed to identify the most important interactions between agricultural extension and barley farmers in Sweida governorate (located in the south of Syria), and to identify the most important problems of production facing barley farmers. To achieve these goals, different statistical tools were used including Spearman and Pearson coefficients and 4-point Likert scale. Data were collected from a random sample of barley farmers in Sweida governorate during season 2014/2015. The results revealed that interaction degree was weak in 51.74% of the sample and moderate in 30.23%. In spite of this result, there was a significantly positive relation between the interaction degree and each of: the presence of the agricultural extension unit in the village, registration in an agricultural cooperative, farmer’s age, experience in agriculture, the main work of the farmer (whether it is related to agriculture or not). The most important problems face barley production from the farmers’ point of view was the increase in labor and fuel prices. The participation of the farmer in the research and in the extension unit’s activities at all stages, is highly recommended to improve the interaction with agricultural extension and scientific research centers.

Keywords: Agricultural extension, Extension activities, Barley, Sweida governorate.

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Econometric Analysis of Oranges Production Function in Latakia Governorate

Almouthana Aziz Hasan*(1)  Mahmoud Mostafa  Alio(2)  Ibrahim Mohammad Abdullah(3)

(1). Directorate of Economic and Social Studies Research, Latakia Center, General commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.

(2). Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University, Latakia, Syria.

(3). Directorate of Economic and Social Studies Research, AL-Ghab Center, GCSAR, Damascus, Syria.

(* Corresponding author: Eng: ALmouthana Aziz Hasan. E-mail:

Received: 08/05/2018                                Accepted: 02/06/2018


The present study was conducted in Latakia Governorate during the growing season 2017/2018. A simple random sample of 352 oranges farmers were selected, in order to estimate the production function of “Cob Douglas” model to study the factors affecting oranges production and measure the elasticity of production inputs to determine the production stage. The study showed that the production changes were due to organic fertilizers, nitrogen, phosphate, and irrigation water quantity.  A significant positive effect was found for each of the production inputs in the applied model. The increase in the quantity of these inputs by 1% (when the quantity of other inputs were constant) led to an increases in the quantity of production by the elasticity of the production of 0.52%, which was smaller than one, that means the dominance of contradictory production capacity, where production is increasing at rates lower than the increase of the inputs.  This confirmed that production was in the second stage, which is the economic stage. It was also found that the production inputs were used in quantities less than the recommended quantity which is mentioned in the extension program for citrus. Therefore, it was important to provide the production requirements and subsidize the prices, particularly, the fertilizers (potassium), insecticide, and fungal control, to achieve the optimum production of oranges tree.

Key words: Econometric Analysis, Oranges, Production Function, Production Elasticity.

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Analysis of the Competitiveness Capabilities of Syrian Cumin Product in the International Markets

Tayseer Fouad Hatem*(1)

(1). Socio-Economic Research Administration, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Tayseer Fouad Hatem. E-Mail:

Received: 28/10/2018                                Accepted: 23/12/2018


This paper aimed to study the competitiveness of the Syrian cumin product in the world market, and in major importing markets. The results showed that the market of cumin product was the oligopoly market, and the main export destinations were mainly Arab countries. There was a difference between the values of the indicators of competitiveness during the two periods of study and there was a decrease in the second period, although this decrease is still considered as good and high as compared to the competitive countries and gives competitive capabilities for the Syrian cumin product at the global level. The results also showed a high value of the revealed comparative advantage for the Syrian cumin product, and its competitive price in the global markets. The global market shares were high in Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Algeria and Netherlands. The Arab countries have the highest market share, iIn addition to a high value of the index of penetration of exports in the most important markets of cumin importing, such as Dutch market, Saudi, UAE, Egyptian and American markets. This indicates the possibility of good expansion within these markets. It also showed a high value of the indices of export power and dependence on exports for the Syrian cumin product, which indicates the importance of the cumin crop as a major export product of high importance relative to Syrian exports.

Keywords: Cumin, Competitiveness capabilities, Comparative Advantage, Market Share, Export Penetration Rate, Price Competitiveness.

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Demand Functions Estimation of Syrian Potatoes in the Jordanian and United Arab Emirates Markets

Mohammed Maary(1)* Maher Yousef(1) Mustafa Haj Hmaidi(1) and Bashar Nenneh(1)

(1). Department of economic, Faculty of Agriculture, Aleppo University, Aleppo, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Eng. Mohammed Maary. E-Mail:

Received: 18/09/2018                                Accepted: 17/10/2018


The aim of the study was to identify the possibilities of developing Syrian potato exports and maintain market share in foreign markets by analyzing the current structure of Syrian potato exports and determining the most important factors influencing its demand in the main export markets of the Syrian potato. To achieve the objectives of the research, data were collected from secondary sources. Standard economic analysis methods represented in the estimation of some simple linear, multiple and nonlinear regression models, regression method and the correlation coefficients matrix were used to estimate the external demand functions of the Syrian potato. The results showed that the Arab countries were the most important importing markets for the Syrian potato during the period (2000-2015), and the most important markets were Jordan and the UAE, and the study of some variables affecting the Syrian potato crop in the Jordanian and UAE markets during the period (2000-2015), it was found that when the per capita income in Jordan led to the increase in the quantity required of the Syrian potato and the value of the elasticity of the demand for income was (-1.3), and the value of elasticity of demand price was (7.48), this means that the demand for Syrian potatoes is flexible. While price elasticity in the UAE market showed that the demand for Syrian potatoes is also flexible with the value of the elasticity of demand (-11.4). The price of Syrian potatoes for the prices of the competitive countries is one of the most competitive determinants of the potato product.

Keywords: Potato, Demand function, Price elasticity, Income elasticity.

Full Paper in Arabic: PDF