An Analytical Economic Study of Consumer Demand for Vegetable Oilin Damascus City

Fayez AL-Mikdad(1) Osama AL-Janadi(1) and Ahamad AL-Rifaee(1)

(1). Administration of Socio-Economics, General Commission of Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Fayez Al-Mikdad. E-Mail:

Received: 23/10/2016                                 Accepted: 18/11/2016


The vegetable oils are a good source of energy, and are economically important. It is dramatically consumed in dietary patterns in Syria, in addition to the main role of vegetable oils in many food industries. The statistics revealed an increasing in domestic consumption of vegetable oils in Syria, thereby increasing amount of imports. This research aimed to estimate the demand function for vegetable oils, and to describe the relationships among changes in the amount consumed, prices, and income, to achieve that goal. The research has based on secondary data from the Ministry of Agriculture, and the Central Bureau of Statistics, in addition to the cross-sectional data obtained from a simple random sample consisting of 191 consumers in Damascus. The changes in the studied variables were followed periodically, every three months for one year (started from the fourth quarter of 2012 to the third quarter of 2013). The research based on descriptive statistical analysis as well as quantitative analysis to estimate the demand function for vegetable oil, and to derive the price, cross, and income elasticities. The study showed that the price and income elasticities of vegetable oils generally amounted to 0.2258, 0.1782 respectively, and there was a significant cross elasticity between sunflower and soybean oils as alternatives to each other.

Key words: Demand function, price, Cross and income elasticities, Consumption of vegetable oils, Alternative goods.

Full paper in Arabic: PDF

Economics of Rainfed Olive Production in Homs Governorate

Moammar Dayoub*(1) Khetam Edrees(2) and Nisreen Edrees(2)

(1). Salamieh Agricultural Research Centre, General Commission for scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.

(2). Socio Economic Studies Directorate, Homs Agricultural Research Center, GCSR, Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Moammar Dayoub. E-Mail:

Received: 20/07/2016                     Accepted: 20/08/2016


The main objective of this research was the descriptive economic and econometric analysis of cost functions of rain fed olive in Homs Governorate/Syria. In addition, this study aimed to determent the economic efficiency that maximize profit. Primary data was collected in 2012 and 2013 through interviews with the farmers. The farms were divided according to stability zones to zone 1 and 2. According to the descriptive economic analysis of costs and returns of olive production, the highest average of production cost per kilogram of olives was (120.98) SP for zone (1) in 2013, and the lowest value was (76.76) SP for zone (2) in 2012. In general, an obvious increment in production costs was appeared; this is due to the increase in production supplies prices, and labor wages in 2013 when compare with 2012. Also, a significant increase in the cost of olive oil production in 2013 as compared with 2012. The olive oil cost of 1 Kg in zones 1 and 2 for the season 2012 were (436.58, 388.52), and (528.66, 522.83) in 2013, respectively, this is due to the influence of high temperature, and the fall of flowers, which led to a significant decrease in fruition, in addition to other reasons because of the crisis, included the rising in oil production costs, starting from labor wages, ending with the wages of wills and transportation. Using the econometric models of cost functions, the economic efficient size was computed. The optimal production, and area in zone 1 were in 2011 (3533.33 kg, 3.00 Ha), respectively, while in 2013 were (4021.74 kg 4.4 Ha), but in zone (2) the optimal production, and area were (3783.78 kg, 3.59 Ha) in 2012, while in 2013 were (4500 kg, 3.93 Ha), respectively. This increment in production, and area in 2013 due to the alternate fruit bearing phenomenon in olive trees, besides the increase in production costs. The study concluded the need to support production requirements, especially for rainfed olive, because it is considered an important income source for the families of the region, and contribute to the stability and sustainability of agricultural production.

Keywords: Econometric analysis, Costs of olive production, Rainfed, Economic efficiency.

Full paper in Arabic: PDF

Analytical Study of Consumer Prices Indices Using Cluster Analysis, Syria

Safwan Mutha Abou -Assaf*(1) Remal Slman Saab(1) Maya Youssef Al-Abdala(1) and Samar Hossam Aldeen Al-Ashaoush(1)

 (1). Sewida Agricultural Research Center, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.
(*Corresponding author : Dr. Safwan  Abou Assaf. E-Mail:

Received: 23/07/2016                           Accepted: 12/08/2016


The aim of this research was performing an analytical comparison of consumer prices index in Syria, to determine the convergence and spacing among them, using the method of hierarchical cluster analysis, and creating a proximities matrix that rely on calculating squared Euclidean distance between the studied units, according to the provinces, months and main groups of goods and services during 2014 compared to 2010. It was found that there were 10 provinces formed the first cluster, and this refers that these figures are homogenous among these provinces, while months were distributed in four clusters, which indicates a lack of homogeneity of the indices of consumer prices between months. In addition, the results revealed that nine of goods and services were concentrated in one cluster, indicating the homogeneity of these groups. The study recommended to use recent years and to consider the base year in the estimation of indices of consumer prices, also the study advised the competent authorities to expand the use of database accounts indices, and putting more details in performing main groups of goods and services. In addition to that, domestic investment must be run at a faster scale, especially the local industrial sectors.

Keywords: Index numbers, Cluster analysis, Hierarchical cluster analysis, Squared Euclidean Distance, Inflation.

Full paper in Arabic: Analytical Study of Consumer Prices Indices Using Cluster Analysis, Syria

The Role of Zero Tillage in Economic Return of Rain-fed Lentils in Al-Qamishli and Al-Malikiyah (Al-Hasakah Governorate)

Alaa Hamo*(1) Shabab Nasser(1) and Khaled Sultan(1)

(1). Economic Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Damascus University. Damascus. Syria.                                                                                                                   (*Corresponding author: Eng.  Alaa hamo. E-Mail:

Received: 29/02/2016                           Accepted: 06/04/2016


This study aims to define the role of zero tillage (ZT) in economic return for the lentils in the regions of Al-Qamishli and Al-Malikiyah (Al-Hasakah governorate). All farmers who followed ZT system in these regions has been selected. Sample size amounted to 200 randomly selected farmers, of which 100 follow ZT system, and the other 100 follow traditional cultivation. The economic analysis depended on estimating the average production costs, and economic returns for growing seasons 2013/2014 and 2014/2015. The results showed that the production cost in ZT is less than the TC by 12%, estimated to 56024, 63982 SYP/ha respectively. The net profit of ZT was about 391986 SYP/ha on average, with 7958 SYP/ha greater than TC.  Moreover the average cost ZT compared to ZT has been reduced by 19.8%, estimated to 30 and 37 SYP/kg, respectively. The analysis showed that the ZT reduce the amount of fuel consumption, working hours, seeding rate and total cost by 67%, 56 %, 44%, 32%, respectively. While the yield has increased by 9%.  This study revealed that ZT achieved an economic return higher than TC by 12 %.

Keywords: Zero tillage (ZT), Traditional cultivation (TC), Production costs, Economic return, Rain-fed lentils.

Full paper in English: The Role of Zero Tillage in Economic Return of Rain-fed Lentils in Al-Qamishli and Al-Malikiyah (Al-Hasakah Governorate)

Econometric Analysis of the Cost Functions of Spring Potatoes in Hama Government-Alghab Region

Moammar Dayoub*(1) Ibrahim Abdullah(2) Ramez Hamada(2) and Bassam Ali(3)

(1). Salamieh Agricultural Rresearch Center, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.
(2). Alghab Agricultural Research Center, (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.
(3). Administration of Economic and Social Studies, (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.
(*Corresponding author: Dr. Moammar Dayoub. E-Mail:

Received: 07/09/ 2015                                     Accepted: 01/01/ 2016


The research was conducted in Hama governorate-Alghab region, and it based on a random sample of 135 spring potatoes farmers. Data was collected using special questionnaire designed for this purpose. The research aimed to estimate the cost functions in order to reach economic sizes of production and farm. The results showed that the optimum size, which minimize the cost was 40464.6 kg/ha, for the first category (less than 1 hectare), while the average actual production was 19031.25 kg/ha, but the optimum size for the third category (more than 3 hectares) was 43855.9 kg/ha, and the actual production was 26675 kg/ha. The study revealed also that the optimum size of the farm is 4.85 hectares, and the average farm size of the sample was 1.64. Level of profitability stood at 145.69% for the first category and reached 194.59% for the third one. The average cost also declined from 12.46 S.P. /Kg for the first category to 11.05 S.P. /Kg for the third one. The study emphasized the need to aggregate holdings in order to reduce production costs and to achieve better returns to scale.

Keywords: Spring potatoes, Economic scale, Cost function.

Full paper in Arabic: Econometric Analysis of the Cost Functions of Spring Potatoes in Hama Government-Alghab Region