Effect of Different Blanching Methods on the Activity of the ‎Peroxidase Enzyme and the Quality Characteristics of Frozen ‎Carrot Slices

Batool Alansari*(1) and Abdulrahman Hasan Laftah(1)

(1). Department of Food Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Basrah, Basra, Iraq.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Batool Alansari. E-Mail: batool.Mahmod6@gmil.com).

Received: 04/04/2020                               Accepted: 03/06/2020


This study was carried out between January to February 2019 in Basra University, Faculty of Agriculture, at laboratory of Food Science Department  to determine the effect of different blanching methods (boiling water immersion T1, steam T2 and microwave T3) for 5 minutes on the activity of the peroxidase enzyme and the quality characteristics of the carrot slices stored in freezing for a period of 30 days. The activity of the peroxidase enzyme was measured for all treatments and some chemical and sensory tests of carrot slices were performed before and after freezing. The results showed that there were significant differences at the probability level (P <0.05) between T3, T2, and T1 treatments compared to the T0 control treatment (un blanched carrots), as the enzyme activity decreased gradually as the storage period progressed. It is noted from the results that banching time was insufficient to stop the activity of the enzyme, which is evidence of the efficiency of the blanching process, while the percentage of moisture and pH increased, while the ratio of dry matter, the percentage of total acidity and the content of ascorbic acid to the treatments T3, T2, T1 decreased compared with T0 (control treatment). The results of the sensory tests showed that there were no significant differences at the probability level (P <0.05) between the T3, T2, and T1 treatments compared to the T0 (control treatment). The best treatment was the blanching method with boiling water immersion and microwave blanching in terms of color and texture, whereas there were no differences in taste and smell for all treatments after the end of the freezing storage period.

Key words: Peroxidase, Freeze storage, Carrot, Blanching, Ascorbic acid.

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Production of Lactic Acid from Whey Using Immobilized ‎Mixed Culture of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus ‎bulgaricus

Sahar Adnan Sheet(1) and Waleed Ahmed Mahmood*(1)

(1). Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, University of Mosul, Iraq.

 (*Corresponding author: Dr. Waleed Ahmed Mahmood, E-Mail: waleedahmed53@yahoo.com).

Received: 12/01/2020                               Accepted: 12/04/2020


This study was carried out at Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, University of Mosul during 2018 and 2019 seasons. Lactic acid was produced from cheese whey of buffalo’s milk by a mixed culture of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus immobilized in calcium alginate gel by using batch fermentation. Some factors affecting immobilization efficiency and lactic acid productivity were studied. Results indicated that the concentration of 2% sodium alginate in the cell suspension resulted in maximum immobilization efficiency and acid production with significant differences from the other used concentrations (1 and 2%). Maximum acid productivity and immobilization efficiency were obtained upon using calcium chloride with concentrations of 4 and 5%, respectively. Beads diameter of 3 mm resulted in the highest immobilization efficiency and acid productivity. 45-60 minutes of beads solidification time were found suitable to obtain high immobilization efficiency and lactic acid productivity. Results showed that low inoculum concentration (5×107 cell/ml) was preferred for obtaining the highest immobilization efficiency, which was significantly dropped upon increasing of inoculum concentration. Maximum lactic acid production was obtained by using inoculum concentration of 20×107 cell/ml with non-significant differences over the range of 10-25×107 cell/ml. Immobilized cells were reused for four runs and a significant loss in activity was observed during the successive runs.

Key words: Lactic acid,Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, whey, Immobilized cells.

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Residual Effect of Some Heavy Elements in Propolis and Bees ‎Wax as an Indicator of Pollution in Latakia Governorate, ‎Syria

Vienna Hammoud*(1) Khalil Moukayess(2) and Liena salama(3)

(1). Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Tartous University, Tartous, Syria.

(2). Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University, Latakia, Syria.

(3). Department of Basic Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University, Latakia, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Vienna Hammoud. E-mail:viennahammoud@gmail.com).

Received: 19/03/2019                               Accepted: 07/05/2019


The concentrations of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) in propolis and bees wax were determined by using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The samples were collected from five different locations of Latakia; Qardahah (Asitamo), Haffeh (Dabba), Jableh (Snouper), Latakia city (Al-Ramel Al-Shamali\ Autostrade of Al-Jomhouria) and Eastern Entryway to Latakia, during the spring and autumn in 2014. The results showed that there were significant differences in the concentrations of all tested elements between the locations, it was also demonstrated significant differences between the mean concentrations of all elements in propolis and  bee wax except cadmium. The concentration of nickel, zinc and lead were significantly higher in propolis than bees wax, except the concentration of copper which was high  in  bees wax. The concentration of copper, zinc, nickel and lead was similar in both spring and autumn, unlike the concentration of cadmium in autumn (0.019 ppm) which was higher than in spring (0.009 ppm).

Key words: Bee, Propolis,  Bees wax,  Copper, Zinc, Nickel, Lead, Cadmium.

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Study the Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of ‎Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) Pulp and Seed

Shamaail A. Saewan*(1) Rawdhah M. Ali(1) Saher S. George(1) and Lina S. Mohammed(1)  

(1).Department of Food science, College of Agriculture, University of Basrah, Iraq.

(*Corresponding author: Dr.  Shamaail A. Saewan. E-Mail: shamaail@yahoo.com).

Received: 12/01/2020                               Accepted: 12/03/2020


The current study was conducted from November, 2017 to May, 2018. Tamarindus indica L. was purchased from commercial markets in Basrah city, southern Iraq. The pulp and seeds were isolated and dried separately at 40° C for 72 hours. The chemical composition was estimated. High significant differences (P<0.05) were observed for moisture, ash and carbohydrate contents between pulp and seeds. No significant differences (P<0.05) were observed for protein and lipids. 50% of ethanol solution extracts of pulp and seeds were prepared with different concentrations of (5, 25, 50, 75 and 100) mg/ml. Antioxidant activity, reducing power and FRAP (Ferric reducing/antioxidant power) were measured. Significant differences (P<0.05) were found between the concentrations mentioned above and tamarind extracts (pulp and seed). High significant differences (P<0.05) were found for the concentration of 100 mg/ml of pulp extracts, while low significant differences for the concentration of 5 mg/ml of seed extract for all the mentioned tests in comparison with the standard compounds.

Key words: Tamarindus indica, Antioxidant activity, Chemical composition, Reducing power.

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Effect of Bentonite Addition on Some Physio-chemical and ‎Sensorial Properties of Syrian Homemade Wine

Ruba Ali Saleh*(1) and Kossai Al-Hakeem(1)

(1). Department of Food Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University, Lattakia, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Eng. Ruba Ali Saleh. E-Mail: rubaalisaleh29@gmail.com).

Received: 02/11/2018                               Accepted: 28/01/2019


This study was conducted on Syrian wines that made of local grapes, to determine the impact of adding Na-Bentonite (Montmorillonite silicate) in 3 concentrations (0.5,1 and 1.5 g/L) on some physio-chemical and sensorial properties of theses Syrian wines, such as: degree of nephlometric turbidity, physical stability considered as heat stability, parameters of color as total intensity, tent, intensity of yellow, red and blue colors, protein concentration and sensorial assessment. The results showed that the minimum concentration that achieved heat stability in white wine was (0.5 g/L), while increasing of concentration didn’t achieve any significant differences in wine turbidity, which confirmed that this was the optimum concentration to white wine. On another hand,  the concentration of (0.5 g/L) caused a high decrease in turbidity value in red wine compared with two other concentrations and control, in spite of a concentration of 1.5 g/L resulted the highest heat stability,  but the concentration 0.5 g/L still considered the minimum that could achieve a heat stability, though it could be considered the optimum concentration for red wine also.

Key words:  White wine, Red wine, Fining,  Bentonite, Heat stability, Turbidity.

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The Chemical Composition of Pollen Date Palm Phoenix dactylifera L. var. Samisemi Males Trees

Ibtihaj H. Al Temimi

(1). Department of Horticulture and Land Scap, College of Agriculture, University of Basra, Iraq.

(*Corresponding author: Ibtihaj H. Al Temimi. E-Mail: jehanhandil@yahoo.com).

Received: 27/11/2019                                Accepted: 20/01/2020


The study was conducted during the agricultural seasons 2016 and 2017 at three agricultural locations in the province of ThiQar, Basra and Babylon in order to estimate the most important chemical components in the date palm pollens and the study of the inhibitory effect of the ethanol pollen by Randomized complete Blok Design (RCBD). Thirty-six palm trees were selected randomly. The biological experiment studied the effect of ethanolic pollen extraction concentrations (0, 50, 100 and 200) mg/l on inhibition of human bacteria E. coli and Staph. The results showed that the carbohydrates in ThiQar location was the highest (20.09%) compared to Babylon and Basra locations (19.02 and 18.32%) respectively, and the lowest protein and phenolic content  was (6.58 and 17.54%) respectively with significant differences compared to the protein and phenolic content of pollen in Basra governorate which was (12.43 and 20.78%) respectively. The results showed also the superiority of antioxidant activity of pollen in Basra compared to antioxidant activity of pollen in ThiQar and Babylon. The results showed that there were no significant differences between the study sites in the content rate of essential oil, specific weight of aromatic oil and the degree of aromatic oil reaction. While the pollen in ThiQar governorate showed the superiority in the refractive index, density, and saponification number of essential oil. The suppressive activity of different concentrations of pollen extracted in ThiQar was tested on two types of human pathogen bacteria E. coli and Staph aureus. The result indicated that E. coli was more effected by ethanolic extracted than Staph aureus. The largest suppressive diameter was (18 mm) of E. coli bacteria growth with a concentration of 200 mg/L and inhibition percentage of 81.82% compared to antibiotic Erythromycin 15. While, Staph aureus bacteria showed resistance for all ethanolic extracted of pollen. 

Keywords: Chemical composition, Bacteria, Date palm, Pollens, Iraq.

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Determination of the Physical, Chemical and Sensory Properties of Gluten-Free Biscuits by Mixing Different Proportions of Anbar Rice Flour and Quinoa Flour

Resala Husain Al-Lami(1) Raghad Salman Mohammed*(2) and Raghdan Hashem Muhsen(3)

(1). Facultu of Biology Technique, Al-Nahrain University, Iraq.

(2). Ministry of Science and Technology, Iraq.

(3). Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Baraa University, Al-Basraa, Iraq.

(*Corresponding author: Raghad Salman Mohamed. E-Mail: raghad1974@yahoo.com).

Received: 14/11/2019                                Accepted: 31/12/2019


This study was conducted with the aim of identifying the possibility of making free gluten biscuits and estimating their quality by analyzing the characteristics of the biscuits resulting from the mixing of quinoa flour with rice flour, to make different combinations of biscuits for children with gluten allergy, after some physical treatments such as cleaning, soaking and drying of quinoa, peeling and grinding of rice in order to make three mixtures of biscuits. The first mixture was 100% quinoa flour, the second mixture was quinoa flour of 50% and rice flour of 50%  and the third mixture was quinoa flour  of 25% and  rice flour of 75%, in order to test the best mix of biscuits based on the highest chemical and quality tests such as, moisture, protein, ash, carbohydrates, fat and energy. As well as measuring the ratios of some mineral elements and comparing them with the recommendations of Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) for children’s food. Beside measuring important active compounds, amino acids and sensory evaluation such as external appearance, texture, color, taste, sensory and physical and chemical properties of biscuits. Physical and sensory results showed that the best mix was the second which was 50:50 quinoa and rice. Which were characterized by acceptable characteristics in terms of taste, appearance and the spread of biscuits produced.

Key words: Gluten allergy, Biscuits for children, Quinoa, Anbar rice.

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Characterization of Fatty Acids and Determination of Vitamins A and E in Carp Fish (Cyprinus carpio) Viscera Oil Extracted Using Infrared Radiation

Asaad R. S. Al–Hilphy(1) Sabah M. H. Al-Shatty*(1) Atheer A. A. Almtury(1)

(1). Department of Food Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Basrah, Basrah, Iraq.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Sabah Al-Shahy. E-Mail: sabahalshatty@yahoo.com).

Received: 26/11/2019                                Accepted: 03/02/2020


Common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) fish oil was extracted by a locally manufactured infrared device at Food Engineering Laboratory, Department of Food Science, University of Basrah, and it was used for the first time at the local level as there are no previous studies before. A complete randomized design (CRD) was used for analyzing data of temperature, and a factorial experiment was used for analyzing intensity and distance of infra-red radiation. Three replications were used  in all experiments. In this study, fatty acids were diagnosed, as well as vitamin A and E were estimated for carp viscera oil. It was found that the quantity of vitamins A and E were 0.01 mg/100 g, and 0.007 mg/100 g respectively. Fatty acids were determined using GC/MS technique, which included Methyl esterification of fatty acids and their identification. The results showed that four unsaturated fatty acids were detected viz. Oleic, Linolenic, Myristoleic and Palmitoleic with percentages of 9.38%, 1.10%, 1.05% and 12.55% respectively. Also, nine saturated fatty acids were detected viz. Stearic acid, Myristic acid, Undecanoic acid, Nonanoic acid, Caprylic acid, Capric acid, Margaric acid, Oleic acid, Palmitic acid and Tridecoic acid with percentages of 2.64%, 1.11%, 2.13%, 1.92% ,4.43%,1.49%, 1.16%, 1.33%, and 3.58% respectively.

Keywords: Fatty acids, Carp (Cyprinus carpio) viscera, Infrared radiation, GC/MS. Vitamin A and E.

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Some Factors Affecting Lactic Acid Production from Cheese Whey Using a Mixed Culture of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus

Sahar Adnan Sheet( 1) and Waleed Ahmed Mahmood*(1)

(1). Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, University of Mosul. Iraq.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Waleed Ahmed Mahmood. E-Mail: waleedahmed53@yahoo.com).

Received: 04/01/2020                                Accepted: 09/02/2020


The study was carried out at Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, Univ. of Mosul in 2018 and 2019. Lactic acid was produced from cheese whey of buffalo’s milk by free mixed cultures of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus. Some factors affecting acid productivity were studied which included type and concentration of carbon and nitrogen sources, concentration of magnesium sulphate and manganese sulphate, inoculum concentration, pH and fermentation time. Results showed a significant increase in acid production upon using the mixed culture as compared to pure culture of each species. Yeast extract (12 gm/l) and lactose (15 gm/l) were found the best addition as a source of nitrogen and carbon for improving acid production, respectively. Addition of magnesium sulphate (0.35 gm/l) and manganese sulphate (0.05 gm/l) had significantly increased lactic acid production. Maximum lactic acid production was obtained upon the addition of the inoculum with a concentration of 10×107 cell/ml. Optimum initial pH of whey for acid production was 5.5 with non-significant differences within the range of 5-6.5. Incubation time of 48 hours was found suitable for acid production since the increment beyond this time was non-significant.

Key words: Lactic acid,Cheese whey, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus.

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Study of Changes in Fatty Acids Content (ω3 and ω6) When Freezing the Fish (Liza aurata, Risso, 1810)

Rana Mostfa Mohamad*(1) Adib Ali Saad(2) and  Moufid Yassin(3)

(1). Animal Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University, Latakia, Syria.

(2). Department of Basic Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Tishreen University, Latakia, Syria.

(3). Department of Analytical and Food Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tishreen University, Latakia, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Eng. Rana Mohamad.  E-Mail: rana-mohamad@outlook.sa).

Received: 04/09/2019                                Accepted: 02/10/2019


This study was carried out at the laboratories of the Faculty of Technical Engineering, University of Tartus, during 6/2017, to determine the changes in fatty acid content in flesh of (Liza aurata, Risso, 1810), which is one of the Syrian commercial marine fish species, and that during frozen storage at (-18 °C) at consecutive time intervals (0, 60,  120, and180) day. Fish samples were randomly collected from sites landing along the beach of Tartus governorate, and approximately (40) individuals were taken for the analysis with three replicates, and an individual for each replication, then kept it at (0-4) °C directly waiting to be transferred to the laboratory within less than an hour. There the gonads, internal organs, head, bones, skin and blood vessels were removed, then frozen and stored at (-18°C). The edible muscles of fresh and frozen samples were analyzed only during the studied periods of freezing. According to the results of the study, L. aurata was classified as a medium-fat content fish. The content of Mono Un Saturated Fatty Acids was higher than the Saturated Fatty Acids, followed by Poly Un Saturated Fatty Acids (MUFA ˃ SFA ˃PUFA) for fresh samples, but frozen samples content was (SFA ˃ MUFA ˃PUFA) at the end of the freezing period. The fresh samples content of  L. aurata of omega 3 and omega 6) were (15 and 4%) respectively, while it attained in the frozen samples (11 and 3.7%) during (0, 180) days of freezing time respectively, due to lipid oxidation, so it is possible to freeze L. aurata at (-18°C) for (5) months while its nutritional value retaining within the limits which are suitable for human consumption. Fatty acids have significant differences during storage duration at a significant level of (0.05).

Key words: Liza aurata, Tartus, Omega3, Omega6.

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