Aromatic Oil Composition of Myrtle Myrtus communis L. Leaves in Syria

Omar Farouk Fahel*(1) Waleed Mansour(2) Fateh Khatib(3) and Bader AL-Deen Galab(1)

(1). Scientific Agricultural Research Center of Aleppo, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.

(2). Department of Renewable Natural Resources and Ecology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Aleppo, Aleppo, Syria.

(3). Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Aleppo, Aleppo, Syria.

 (*Corresponding author: Eng. Omar Farouk Fahel. E-mail: ofaroukfa@gmail.com).

Received: 17/12/2016                           Accepted: 29/01/2017

Abstract

This research was carried out to determine the quantity of essential oil extracted from myrtle Myrtus communis L leaves, by hydro distillation, and to identify the major and minor components, besides to determine its quantities in the essential oil by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry GC-MS. The samples were collected on November 2013 from eight different climatic locations (Aleppo, Zarzour, Al-zenea, Katra AL-Rayhan, Al- Rayhana, Kasab, Mashta al-Holou and Mosiaf). The quantity and composition of the essential oil were estimated on the basis of the leaves dry weight. Oil quantity varied between the studied genotypes from different locations, which range from 0.46 to 0.55 ml, with non-significant differences. Eighteen compounds were identified in myrtle essential oil, and there were significant differences in 13 compounds. 1,8-Cineole performed the highest rate (18.85%) compared with other components, followed by α-Pinene (16.93%). While the lowest percentage was (0.31%) of Myrcene. The results showed superiority of humid and sub-humid areas in having higher content of the monoterpenes hydrocarbon compounds, compared to the semi-arid areas. While semi-arid areas performed high content in oxygenated monoterpenes compounds. The total content of oil components ranged between (78.53 to 86.26) %. The proportion of the major and minor components reached (59.45-22.71%) respectively.

Key words: Essential oil, Myrtus communis L., Gas Chromatography, Oil components, Hydrodistillation.

Full paper in Arabic: PDF

Effect of Several Factors on Micrografting of Navel Orange Using Different Rootstocks

Kinda Ibrahim*(1) Ali Al-Khateeb(1) Fahd Al-biski(2) and Khalil Al-Maarri(3)

(1). Latakia Research Center, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.

(2). General Commission of Biotechnology, Damascus, Syria.

(3). Horticulture Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Damascus University, Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Eng. Kinda Ibrahim. E-Mail: kindaib@yahoo.com).

Received: 31/05/2016                           Accepted: 19/06/2016

Abstract

The research was conducted at Faculty of Agriculture, Damascus University/Syria, with the help of Scientific Agricultural Research Center in Latakia during 2013 and 2014seasons. Three rootstocks were used i.e. Sour orange, citrumelo and troyer citrange, to study some factors affecting the success of micrografting technique (concentrations and periods of sterilization, rootstock, shoot tip size, type of nutritive medium and the grafting method). The nutritive medium was prepared, and the shoot tips was isolated from Navel orange source, then the micrografting was done for the three rootstocks. The results showed that contamination and germination of seeds were affected by the concentration and period of sterilization. Also, this effect varied among the three rootstocks that were used. Success of grafting depended on the rootstocks. Citrumelo rootstock gave the highest grafting rate (54.17 %). Regarding shoot tip size, the results revealed that this character played a crucial role for the success of micrografting. The highest grafting rate was achieved (62.50%) by using shoot tips of about 1 mm sized. Also, the results showed that grafting method and nutritive medium had vital role on the success of micro-grafting. Micro-grafting rates were better by using liquid medium (45.83%) and with the application of inverted T-incision method (75%).

Key words: Navel orange, In vitro micrografting, Rootstocks.

Full paper in Arabic: PDF

Effect of Mineral, Organic Fertilization, and Application Depth of Phosphate Fertilizer on Phenological Phases of Grapevine Cultivar, Al-Helwani

Mahmoud Al-Shihadat*(1)

(1). Administration of Horticulture Research, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Mahmoud Al-Shihadat. E-Mail: mahmod.h.sh@hotmail.com

Received: 31/05/2016                           Accepted: 19/06/2016

Abstract

The experiment was carried out on vineyard with 10 years old grapevines of cultivar Al-Helwani (Vitis vinifera L.), which grown in Daraa governorate, during three seasons (2008, 2009 and 2010) to study the effect of organic, mineral fertilization rates and the application depth of triple superphosphate (T.S.P) on the phenological phases of grapes. Three mineral fertilizer rates of (N. P. K) were used, i.e., 75-25-50, 150-50-100, and 300-100-200 Kg/ha. The triple super-phosphate was added by broadcast on the soil surface, and in depth of 30 cm, in three replications, in addition to a control without fertilization. Besides the addition of dried granulated manure in January. The results showed that there was no significant effect to the addition of compost and depth phosphate fertilization on the length of flowering stage, and there were no significant differences among the treatments that used. While a significant decrease was achieved in the length of the flowering stage with the addition of NPK fertilization, with the rates of 1.1, 1.08, and 1.05% for the first, second, and third rates, respectively. The results also clarified a delay in maturity with the addition of compost as compared with control (P≥0.05), while in terms of phosphate depth addition, there were significant differences between the treatments on maturity. The maturity was earlier (70 days) when superphosphate was broadcasted, and the maturity took more days (73 days) when was added in depth of 30 cm. The maturity took more time (74 days) with the addition of the third rate of superphosphate significantly. The maturity took (68 days) with the addition of the first rate of superphosphate, while the length of maturity was about (71) days in control.

Key words: Grapevine, Al-Helwani, Phenological phases, Phosphate fertilizer, Organic fertilization.

Full paper in Arabic: PDF

Identification of Some Local Apple Cultivars and Genotypes Using SSR Markers

Bayan Muzher*(1) and Ola Al-Halabi(1)

(1). Biotechnology Division, Apple Center Department, General Commission for Scientific Agriculture Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Bayan Muzher. E-mail: bmuzher@hotmail.com).

Received: 24/08/2016                           Accepted: 27/09/2016

Abstract

The current research was carried out during 2012-2013 to identify and screening some of local apple cultivars and genotypes, which distributed in different environmental regions using SSR markers. Fifteen local apple cultivars and genotypes were collected, in addition to two commercial cultivars; Golden delicious and Royal gala and three seedling genotypes. Genetic analysis were achieved using 16 SSR primer pairs, 15 of them were able to detect the polymorphism in the studied genotypes. The total number of polymorphic alleles was 40, with polymorphism percentage of 97.56%. The number of alleles ranged between 1- 4 alleles, with an average 2.56 alleles per locus. Genetic similarity ranged from 13 to 100%. The Cluster analysis divided the studied genotypes into two clusters, the first cluster included Golden delicious with Royal gala and the two seedling genotypes A and B in addition to most of genotypes collected from the coastal region, and Skarji cultivar, while the second cluster included C seedling genotype besides the local apple cultivars Sukari1, Sukari2, and Shmamti, also four local apple genotypes. Expected heterozygosity (He) was 0.495, while observed heterozygosity (Ho) was 0.285. Consequently, SSR markers were able to detect the genetic variability among studied genotypes that belong to local apple cultivars, which lead to reduce the time and efforts for determining their genetic identity.

Key words: Apple, Local cultivars, SSR, Genetic similarity.

Full paper in Arabic: PDF

Effect of Different Treatments of Fertilizing on the Nutritional Status of Micronutrients on the Al-Helwani Grapevine

Mahmoud Al-Shihadat*(1)

(1). Horticulture Administration, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.

(*Corresponding author: Dr. Mahmoud Al-Shihadat. E-Mail: mahmod.h.sh@hotmail.com).

Received: 14/06/2016                         Accepted: 06/04/2016

Abstract

A research was carried out in Daraa Governorate, Syria, during three seasons (2008, 2009 and 2010) with 10 years old grapevines of cultivar Al-Helwani (Vitis vinifera L.) to study the effect of different treatments of fertilizing on the nutritional status of micronutrients. Three mineral fertilizer rates of (N.P.K) 75-25-50, 150-50-100, 300-100-200 Kg/ha were used, in addition to a control without fertilization. The triple super-phosphate was added by broadcast on the soil surface, and in bands on depth of 30 cm. All experiment trees were sprayed with a solution of fertilizer containing micronutrients iron sulphate 26% and zinc sulphate 24% and boric acid 17%, in a rate of 1g /L of each of the previous fertilizer compounds. Whereas the dried granulated manure was added with average 30 t/ha. The addition of organic manure led to improve the nutritional status of the grapevine throughout the increasing of the content of their petioles from the nutrients. There was a significant increase in the petioles content of the nutrients when organic manure was added comparing with other treatments, except petioles content of copper. A significant increasing in petioles content of (iron 249.61 PPM, manganese 195.56 PPM, boron 54.30 PPM, magnesium 0.430 %, and calcium 2.42 %) was observed when phosphate fertilizer was added in depth of soil comparing with broadcast treatments (iron 227.15 PPM, manganese 186.36 PPM, boron 52.51 PPM, magnesium 0.378 %, calcium 2.18 %). While there was no effect of phosphate placement on the content of petioles from copper. In opposite side, the concentration of zinc in the petioles decreased under the treatments of adding the phosphate in depth (36.27 PPM), comparing with their addition on soil surface (43.10 PPM). The third rate of fertilizer was the best of mineral fertilization in increasing the content of petioles from manganese (237.31 PPM) and boron (60.15 PPM). Whereas the first rate of mineral fertilizer was the best in increasing the content of petioles from copper (10.93PPM), zinc (49.71 PPM), magnesium (0.46 %) and calcium (2.46 %). At the same time, the second rate was the best rate in increasing the concentration of iron in the petioles (299.06 PPM), compared to the control (139.06 PPM). So it is advisable to add the organic manure in the vineyards for its positive impact in increasing the efficiency of absorption of mineral minor and major elements, and it is recommended the addition of phosphate fertilizer at a depth of 30 cm for its effect in increasing petioles content of iron and manganese, boron and magnesium.

Key words: Grapevine, Al-Helwani cultivar, Organic fertilization, Phosphate fertilizer, Microelements.

Full paper in Arabic: PDF

Effect of Partial Root-zone Drying and Ridge Height on Water Use Efficiency of Potato Solanum tuberosum L. in Maareb Province, Yemen

Hazem Hezam Ahmed Al-Ashwal*(1) and Bandar Mohsen Ahmed Almangathy(2)

(1). Soil and Water Department, Regional Research Station in North Heights, Jidr, General Organization of Agricultural Research and Extension, Sanaa, Yemen Republic.
(2). Horticulture Department, Eastern Area Research Station, Marib, Yemen Republic.

Received: 16/12/2016                           Accepted: 15/02/2016

Abstract:

An experiment was conducted at a Research Farm, Eastern Regions of Agricultural Station, located in Almanien, Marib governorate, during 2009-2010 season, to study the effect of the partial root-zone drying PRD and ridge height on water use efficiency for potatoes in dry areas. The experiment was designed as factorial experiment (split plot design) to study two factors: first, irrigation method (I) included three treatments, full irrigation (FI), alternative partial irrigation  (API), and fixed partial irrigation (FPA), and the second factor was ridge height (R) included two treatments, high ridge (LR), height of edge ranged between 35-30 cm, and small ridge (SR), height of edge ranged between 25-20 cm. Results showed that application of PRD had higher water use efficiency WUE 0.0696 and 0.0677 tons/mm. hectare for API and FPA, respectively as compared to FI 0.0461 tons/mm. hectare. WUE increased significantly by 50.98 % in API treatment without any significant effect on growth, and yield indicators. Results also showed that the PRD technique reduced evaporation, transpiration, evapotranspiration, and deep percolation rates 28.39%, 19.81%, 49.87%, and 50.71%, respectively, compared to full irrigation. Also, the ridge height and interactions did not affect significantly yield, and WUE.

Key words: Ridge height, Partial irrigation, Potato, Water use efficiency.

Full paper in Arabic: Effect of Partial Root-zone Drying and Ridge Height on Water Use Efficiency of Potato Solanum tuberosum L. in Maareb Province, Yemen

Effect of Fertilizing on the Nutritional Status of Helwani Grapevine, (Vitis vinifera L.)

Mahmoud Al-Shihadat*(1)

(1). Horticulture Administration, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR).
(*corresponding author: Dr. Mahmoud AL-Shihadat. Email: mahmod.h.sh@hotmail.com).

Received: 16/03/2016                           Accepted: 18/04/2016

Abstract

The research was carried out in Daraa Governorate during three seasons (2008-2010), using ten years old grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) Helwani cultivar to study the influence of different mineral fertilization NPK, and the way of super-phosphate addition in the presence or absence of manure application on the nutritional status of grapes. Three levels of NPK fertilization were used (75:25:50,150:50:100, and 300:100:200 Kg/ha), in addition to a control without fertilization. Super-phosphate was either broadcasted on the soil surface or added in rows at a depth of 30 cm. Fermented sheep manure was applied at one rate of 30 ton/ha. Split-split plot design with three replications was used. The results showed that addition of manure improved the nutritional status of grapevine throughout increasing nutrient content of their petioles. There was a significant increase in the petioles content of the nutrients (nitrogen 1.33%, phosphorus 0.26%, potassium 1.87%) when organic manure was added compared to control (nitrogen 1.25% and 0.23% phosphorus, potassium 1.81%). A significant increment in petioles content of phosphorus was observed when phosphate fertilizer was added in-depth of 30 cm comparing with the broadcast treatment. There was no effect of the way of addition on the content of petioles from nitrogen and potassium. The third level of NPK was the best in increasing the content of petioles of nitrogen 1.46 %, phosphorus 0.28%, and potassium 1.97%. Therefore, it is recommended to add organic manure in the vineyards for its positive effect on improving the absorption efficiency of minerals. The addition of phosphate fertilizer at a depth of 30 cm is advisable because of its effect on increasing petioles content of phosphorus, which is a good indicator of the nutritional and health status of trees, and for its role in improving production quality and quantity.

Key words: Manuring, Mineral fertilization NPK, Phosphate fertilizer, Petioles, Grapevines.

Full paper in Arabic: Effect of Fertilizing on the Nutritional Status of Helwani Grapevine, (Vitis vinifera L.)

Deficit Irrigation Scheduling in Corn and Economic Feasibility Associated with it

Inaya Sh. Kanshow*(1) Nidal Jhonny(2) Rula Ziada(3) Kowthar Hamed(4) and Hussien ALAli(5)

(1). Al Qunaietra Agricultural Research Center, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Al Qunaietra, Syria.                                                       (2). Natural Resources Administration, GCSAR, Damascus, Syria.                                 (3). Socioeconomic Administration, GCSAR, Damascus, Syria.                                       (4). Crops Administration, GCSAR, Damascus, Syria.                                                      (5). Soil Lab, Al Qunaietra Agricultural Research Center, (GCSAR), Al Qunaietra, Syria.(*Corresponding author: Dr. Inaya Kanshow. E-Mail: inayakan@gmail.com).

Received: 10/12/ 2015                           Accepted: 15/02/ 2016

Abstract

This research was conducted, at the Agricultural Research Center of Al Qunaeitra, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR)/Syria, during two growing seasons (2011/2012 and 2012/2013) using hybrid corn i.e. Basil2, in order to determine the effect of deficit irrigation on grain yield and productivity of irrigation water. Seven levels of deficit irrigation were applied during growth stages, in addition to full irrigation as control (100% of field capacity). A complete randomized block design (RCBD) was applied, with three replicates. Results showed that the control, gave the highest significant value of grain yield (12460) kg/ha, and medium significant value of irrigation water use efficiency (3.97) kg/m. Increasing water stress caused a significant reduction in grain yield, reached (11360) kg/ha as the highest significant value if one irrigation is missed (466) m 3/ha-1 in the grain filling stage, saving 15% of irrigation water, and the highest significant value of irrigation water use efficiency reached (4.23) kg/m -3, compared to the control, while the lowest significant value of grain yield reached (4713) kg//ha when the plants were exposed to water stress in vegetative, flowering and grain filling stages, saving 48% of irrigation water, associated with the lowest significant value of irrigation water use efficiency, which achieved (2.89) kg/m3.

Key words: Corn, Deficit irrigation, Grain yields, Irrigation water use efficiency.

Full paper in Arabic: Deficit Irrigation Scheduling in Corn and Economic Feasibility Associated with it

Isolation of Atmospheric Nitrogen Fixation Bacteria (Rhizobium) and its Effect on Growth and Productivity of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum)

Solaf Hallwm* (1) Ali Hyadar(1) Entesar Shabu(1) and Nahed Nassour(1)

 (1). Lattakia Scientific Agricultural Research Centre, General Commission for Scientific Agriculture Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.                                            (*Corresponding  author:  Eng. Solaf Hallwm. E-mail: solaf.hallowm1975@gmail.com).

Received: 04/11/ 2015                           Accepted: 31/01/ 2016

Abstract

The research aims to investigate the effect of atmospheric nitrogen fixation by Rhizobium and nitrogen fertilization on growth and productivity of chickpeas (Cicer arietinum) under field condition. The experiment was conducted, in completely randomized block design, in Al-Snoubar Research Station, Scientific Research Center in Lattakia/Syria, during 2015 season. Two nitrogen levels (N0%،N50%،N100%), were added based on soil analysis, in addition to control. Seeds were inoculated with two isolates (chickpea AZ1, bean AZ2, and control AZ0). Results showed that the treatment (N100, AZ1) is the best in term of productivity, dry shoot weight, plant height, and number of grains per plant. Furthermore, the treatments (N1OO%, N50%) affected negatively the weight of 100 seeds. AZ1 treatment, with all nitrogen levels, exceeded control in term of all traits.

Key words: Chickpea, Nitrogen fertilizer, Rhizobium.

Full paper in Arabic: Isolation of Atmospheric Nitrogen Fixation Bacteria (Rhizobium) and its Effect on Growth and Productivity of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum)

Determining Some Stability Adaptation Parameters for Sugar Beet Commercial Varieties in Summer Sowing

Entessar Al Jbawi*(1) Thamer Al Huniesh(1) Zuhair AL Jasem(2) Nahla Al Mahmoud(1) and Hussien Al Zubi(1)

(1). General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Damascus, Syria.                                                                                                                                      (2). Der Ezzor Agricultural Research Center, GCSAR, Der Ezzor, Syria.                     (*Corresponding author: Dr. Entesssar AL Jbawi: dr.entessara@gmail.com).

Received: 22/04/2016                           Accepted: 15/05/2016

Abstract

The research was carried out to study the adaptation of 14 commercial monogerm cultivars of sugar beet in three successive years 2009-2011 at major sugar beet producing location in summer sowing time, Deir Ezzor, in Syria, and assess genotype by environment interaction, and to estimate the stability of the varieties performance according to the yield stability statistics (Ysi) for the studied traits of these varieties. A randomized complete block design with four replications was used. Data collected  from  each  experiment  were  subjected  to  simple  analysis  of  variance  and  after homogenization of error variance, combined analysis for four traits including Sucrose content% (SC), Purity % (P ), Root yield (RY ), and Sugar yield (SY ) were carried out. Combined analysis of variance over years, exhibited a significant differences (P≤0.05) between the varieties, indicating genetic differences. Results of yield stability statistics (Ysi) revealed that three of the monogerm sugar beet varieties (Rafal, Agora,  and Sherif) were judged as stable for all of the studied traits, during the last three seasons, which is recommended to be planted in summer time in Deir Ezzor region.

Key words: Genotype-Environment Interaction (GEI), Stability analysis, Sugar beet.

Full paper in English: Determining Some Stability Adaptation Parameters for Sugar Beet Commercial Varieties in Summer Sowing